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Human-Centered Artificial Intelligence: Three Fresh Ideas

Ben Shneiderman, University of Maryland, College Park
2020 AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction  
Human-Centered AI (HCAI) is a promising direction for designing AI systems that support human self-efficacy, promote creativity, clarify responsibility, and facilitate social participation.  ...  This commentary reverses the current emphasis on algorithms and AI methods, by putting humans at the center of systems design thinking, in effect, a second Copernican Revolution.  ...  Smith, Wei Xu, and the anonymous reviewers for their supportive comments and thoughtful suggestions that greatly improved the draft versions. Thanks to Chris Carroll for thoughtful edits.  ... 
doi:10.17705/1thci.00131 fatcat:b3n45pwetrhfhdccdtvbw36d4a

Reinforcement Learning in Practice: Opportunities and Challenges [article]

Yuxi Li
2022 arXiv   pre-print
, computer systems, and science and engineering.  ...  This article is a gentle discussion about the field of reinforcement learning in practice, about opportunities and challenges, touching a broad range of topics, with perspectives and without technical  ...  CONSTRAINTS Besides predictive and optimal, it is desirable for an AI system to be safe, robust, adaptive, reliable, stable, transparent, fair, trustworthy, explainable, etc., and not to have behaviours  ... 
arXiv:2202.11296v2 fatcat:xdtsmme22rfpfn6rgfotcspnhy

AI Ethics as Applied Ethics

Jaana Hallamaa, Taina Kalliokoski
2022 Frontiers in Computer Science  
The need to design and develop artificial intelligence (AI) in a sustainable manner has motivated researchers, institutions, and organizations to formulate suggestions for AI ethics.  ...  We discuss bioethics as a point of reference for weighing the metaethical and methodological approaches adopted in AI ethics, and propose that AI ethics could be made more methodologically solid and substantively  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to thank Editage (www.editage.com) for English language editing.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fcomp.2022.776837 fatcat:k532k5cklzhnnlqsud2hbxsbfq

12 Plagues of AI in Healthcare: A Practical Guide to Current Issues With Using Machine Learning in a Medical Context

Stephane Doyen, Nicholas B. Dadario
2022 Frontiers in Digital Health  
If we continue to prospectively address and manage these concerns with reliable solutions and appropriate system processes in place, then we as a field may further optimize the clinical applicability and  ...  AI techniques, such as machine learning (ML), have proven the ability to model enormous amounts of complex data and biological phenomena in ways only imaginable with human abilities alone.  ...  A notable increase in recent efforts has been put forth by cloud providers and hardware manufactures to provide development frameworks which bridge the gap between an approach to a problem and the hardware  ... 
doi:10.3389/fdgth.2022.765406 pmid:35592460 pmcid:PMC9110785 fatcat:6v7s6fvmnjdw3ewpvim4diwiz4

Response by the Montreal AI Ethics Institute to the European Commission's Whitepaper on AI [article]

Abhishek Gupta
2020 arXiv   pre-print
between trading partners' policies and EU policies; 3) analyze the gaps in the ecosystem between theoretical frameworks and approaches to building trustworthy AI; 4) focus on coordination and policy alignment  ...  transfer and develop AI expertise through Digital Innovation Hubs; 8) add nuance to the discussion regarding the opacity of AI systems; 9) create a process for individuals to appeal an AI system's decision  ...  and deployment of AI systems . 12 One of our key recommendations is to analyze the gaps in the current ecosystem such that we can bridge the gap between theoretical frameworks and approaches to building  ... 
arXiv:2006.09428v1 fatcat:vlmeanlexrh5lebfpt2rkgvzom

Current Challenges and Future Opportunities for XAI in Machine Learning-Based Clinical Decision Support Systems: A Systematic Review

Anna Markella Antoniadi, Yuhan Du, Yasmine Guendouz, Lan Wei, Claudia Mazo, Brett A. Becker, Catherine Mooney
2021 Applied Sciences  
The need for XAI in CDSS, and the medical field in general, is amplified by the need for ethical and fair decision-making and the fact that AI trained with historical data can be a reinforcement agent  ...  and acceptability of the system and potential for its incorporation in the clinical workflow.  ...  The authors agree with the human-computer interaction community that interdisciplinary cooperation and user-centered approaches to explainability are required to close the gaps between XAI and practices  ... 
doi:10.3390/app11115088 fatcat:rtawp4nsunh7zjr66atz7x63r4

Sustainability of AI: The Case of Provision of Information to Consumers

Iakovina Kindylidi, Tiago Sérgio Cabral
2021 Sustainability  
However, the technical, ethical, and legal literature on how AI, including its design, training, implementation, and use can be sustainable, is rather limited.  ...  The potential of artificial intelligence (AI) and its manifold applications have fueled the discussion around how AI can be used to facilitate sustainable objectives.  ...  published its final version of the Ethics Guidelines for Trustworthy AI following a public consultation [21] .  ... 
doi:10.3390/su132112064 doaj:59d2113f083c465b99e9a05af3c94073 fatcat:lnajvnjjcvgq7fn57q6dcbedkm

Regulation of Artificial Intelligence in BRICS and the European Union

D. Cyman, E. Gromova, E. Juchnevicius
2021 BRICS Law Journal  
For this reason, one of the most important tasks for BRICS and the EU is to develop an adequate approach to the regulation of AI-based technologies.  ...  At the present time, an essential means of doing so is for BRICS and the EU to implement smart policy and create suitable conditions for the development of digital technologies, including AI.  ...  On 8 April 2019, the AI HLEG published its Ethics Guidelines for Trustworthy AI. 60 According to the Guidelines, trustworthy AI has three main components: 1.  ... 
doi:10.21684/2412-2343-2021-8-1-86-115 fatcat:ghchi25z6jhxraqjitymlvpafm

Legal Design Perspectives. Theoretical and Practical Insights from the Field [article]

Rossana Ducato, Alain Strowel
2021 Zenodo  
The volume brings together critical essays on the nature and methods of Legal Design and illustrations from the practice.  ...  Over the last few years, Legal Design has grown as a field of research and practice.  ...  USER RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES IN LEGAL DESIGN PROJECTS: LESSONS FROM PRACTICE Joaquin Santuber and Lina Krawietz  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.5710845 fatcat:7lylx2dv6zh4hpw2gmpjowo37q

Edge computing for cyber-physical systems: A systematic mapping study emphasizing trustworthiness [article]

José Manuel Gaspar Sánchez, Nils Jörgensen, Martin Törngren, Rafia Inam, Andrii Berezovskyi, Lei Feng, Elena Fersman, Muhammad Rusyadi Ramli, Kaige Tan
2021 arXiv   pre-print
It is further important to provide bridges and collaboration between edge computing and CPS disciplines.  ...  with the limitations and constraints of cloud and embedded systems.  ...  Next, we discuss the findings, identify research gaps and treat validity ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research has been carried out as part of the TECoSA Vinnova Competence Center for Trustworthy Edge Computing  ... 
arXiv:2112.00619v1 fatcat:vujvq4kjyfgn5mt64wlenpxvum

State of AI Ethics Report (Volume 6, February 2022) [article]

Abhishek Gupta
2022 arXiv   pre-print
The report is a comprehensive overview of what the key issues in the field of AI ethics were in 2021, what trends are emergent, what gaps exist, and a peek into what to expect from the field of AI ethics  ...  It is a resource for researchers and practitioners alike in the field to set their research and development agendas to make contributions to the field of AI ethics.  ...  Recent work on AI ethics has often been human-centered, such as on "AI for people", "AI for humanity", "human-compatible AI", and "human-centered AI".  ... 
arXiv:2202.07435v1 fatcat:wbalu3j3ynelfim7eqvxcpwu3q

The Application of the Principles of Responsible AI on Social Media Marketing for Digital Health

Rui Liu, Suraksha Gupta, Parth Patel
2021 Information Systems Frontiers  
However, arising ethical concerns related to the use of AI raised by stakeholders need scrutiny which could help organizations obtain trust, minimize privacy invasion, and eventually facilitate the responsible  ...  Simultaneously, artificial intelligence (AI) powered social media offers digital capabilities for organizations to select, screen, detect and predict problems with possible solutions through digital health  ...  According to the European Commission's 'Ethics Guidelines for Trustworthy AI,' trustworthy AI should be lawful, ethical, and robust both from a technical perspective and social environment (European Group  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10796-021-10191-z pmid:34539226 pmcid:PMC8435400 fatcat:7z56ylzmy5auhfsqf65tq4y6mq

Cybersecurity in Robotics: Challenges, Quantitative Modeling, and Practice [article]

Quanyan Zhu, Stefan Rass, Bernhard Dieber, Victor Mayoral Vilches
2021 arXiv   pre-print
We advocate quantitative methods of security management and design, covering vulnerability scoring systems tailored to robotic systems, and accounting for the highly distributed nature of robots as an  ...  This book is intended as an accessible starter for the theoretician and practitioner working in the field.  ...  Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the support that we receive from our institutions. We thank many of our friends and colleagues for their inputs and suggestions.  ... 
arXiv:2103.05789v4 fatcat:p3inkof6kbh3rds6jigvmq4doe

Tackling COVID-19 through Responsible AI Innovation: Five Steps in the Right Direction [article]

David Leslie
2020 arXiv   pre-print
These provide a practice-based path to responsible AI/ML design and discovery centered on open, accountable, equitable, and democratically governed processes and products.  ...  The need for researchers to act quickly and globally in tackling SARS-CoV-2 demands unprecedented practices of open research and responsible data sharing at a time when innovation ecosystems are hobbled  ...  As it developed into a longer and more academic article, which aimed to reach a general audience but remain pertinent for specialists, thoughtful and incisive input from four anonymous reviewers and the  ... 
arXiv:2008.06755v1 fatcat:6jpyvvytonh4rauhmkh3ndtfzy

A panoramic view and swot analysis of artificial intelligence for achieving the sustainable development goals by 2030: progress and prospects

Iván Palomares, Eugenio Martínez-Cámara, Rosana Montes, Pablo García-Moral, Manuel Chiachio, Juan Chiachio, Sergio Alonso, Francisco J. Melero, Daniel Molina, Bárbara Fernández, Cristina Moral, Rosario Marchena (+2 others)
2021 Applied intelligence (Boston)  
Finally, a closing discussion is provided about the prospects, key guidelines and lessons learnt that should be adopted for guaranteeing a positive shift of artificial intelligence developments and applications  ...  This study aims at providing a snapshot and comprehensive view of the progress made and prospects in the relationship between artificial intelligence technologies and the SDGs.  ...  Acknowledgment This work was supported by the contract OTRI-4408 between the University of Granada and the Royal Academy of Engineering of Spain financed by Ferrovial S.A.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10489-021-02264-y pmid:34764606 pmcid:PMC8192224 fatcat:pszxzjypgzg77lswhv3sj2czfe
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