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Open Source Information's Blind Spot

Yvonne McDermott, Alexa Koenig, Daragh Murray
2021 Journal of International Criminal Justice  
It also helps to overcome some of the physical access barriers that are commonplace in international criminal investigations.  ...  At the information-gathering stage, there are particular crimes, regions and groups of people whose experiences are more likely to be overlooked or hidden in digital open source investigations.  ...  Zuiderveen Borgesius, Discrimination, Artificial Intelligence, and Algorithmic Decision Making (Council of Europe, 2018). Ibid.  ... 
doi:10.1093/jicj/mqab006 fatcat:vnpr3sbgirfwrltokzmxg7luvu

Investigating Algorithmic Risk and Race

Melissa Hamilton
2021 UCLA Criminal Justice Law Review  
Risk assessment algorithms lie at the heart of criminal justice reform to tackle mass incarceration.  ...  To date, little is known about the racial fairness of these algorithms as they are used in the field.  ...  Part I reviews the advancement of algorithmic risk practices in criminal justice, with a focus on their importance in pretrial decisions.  ... 
doi:10.5070/cj85154807 fatcat:5zapm75nhvawvg23zukai42awa

Injustice in the Justice System: Reforming Inequities for True "Justice for All"

Femina P. Varghese, Tania Israel, Guy Seymour, Rachel Becker Herbst, Lauren G. Suarez, Candice Hargons
2019 Counseling Psychologist  
In this paper, we focus on three major aspects of the justice system: laws and the courts, law enforcement, and detention and corrections, and we further describe injustice in these three areas.  ...  True justice is equitable. Counseling psychologists, through their skills, knowledge, and values, can be a powerful force in reforming a system that oppresses marginalized groups to one that is just.  ...  , which focuses on how decisions are made about justice and who participates in decision-making about what is just.  ... 
doi:10.1177/0011000019892329 fatcat:ytloyltmvzaodagxsc7gy5hdyq

Quantifying Criminal Procedure: How to Unlock the Potential of Big Data in Our Criminal Justice System

Ric Simmons
2016 Social Science Research Network  
First, we need to ensure that neither the algorithms nor the data that they use are basing their decisions on improper factors, such as the race of the suspect.  ...  Big data's predictive algorithms have the potential to revolutionize the criminal justice system.  ...  biases in prosecutorial charging decisions, jury verdicts, and sentencing.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.2816006 fatcat:gf374m7ekvcutpl2l7ju7na33u

Improving Fairness in Criminal Justice Algorithmic Risk Assessments Using Optimal Transport and Conformal Prediction Sets [article]

Richard A. Berk, Arun Kumar Kuchibhotla, Eric Tchetgen Tchetgen
2021 arXiv   pre-print
In the United States and elsewhere, risk assessment algorithms are being used to help inform criminal justice decision-makers. A common intent is to forecast an offender's "future dangerousness."  ...  Our data are a random sample of 300,000 offenders at their arraignments for a large metropolitan area in the United States during which decisions to release or detain are made.  ...  The algorithm is necessarily blind to any racial differences.  ... 
arXiv:2111.09211v1 fatcat:6k3nf5e7cjarhnemy4vpdjceci

The blind watchmaker

Michael Ruse
1987 Trends in Ecology & Evolution  
Arms races sometimes culminate in extinction, and then a new arms race may begin back at square one.  ...  Natural selection is the blind watchmaker, blind because it does not see ahead, does not plan consequences, has no purpose in view.  ...  I'm surprised you don't postulate mutant cows with genetically determined space-suits and oxygen masks. Good point!  ... 
doi:10.1016/0169-5347(87)90158-3 fatcat:5duofvw5m5byrebxuea2kmewey

Reducing Error in the Criminal Justice System

Keith A. Findley
2018 Social Science Research Network  
Simply counting repeat offenses, even repeat violent offenses, masks wide variations in conduct and harm.  ...  It also underscores Professor Zalman's observation that "[a] startling omission in the anti-Blackstonians' analyses is race.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.3175448 fatcat:b626hsw7y5awfkykqac4wul6kq

Randomization in Criminal Justice: A Criminal Law Conversation

Bernard E. Harcourt, Alon Harel, Ken Levy, Michael M. O'Hear, Alice Ristroph
2009 Social Science Research Network  
Harcourt does not differentiate adequately among a diverse range of criminal justice decisions.  ...  justice.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.1428464 fatcat:ag2j67jfkbfabc7kpkguiy674u

Probabilistic Genotyping: A Possible New Legal Avenue to Prevent and Redress Miscarriages of Justice [chapter]

Geert-Jan Alexander Knoops
2021 Forensic Analysis [Working Title]  
In particular, this forensic value is demonstrated in light of the reversal of several wrongful convictions in the USA and Europe.  ...  As a result, this chapter emphasizes the relevance of probabilistic genotyping for both defense lawyers and prosecutors in criminal cases.  ...  have serious problems with identifying persons of another race [4] .  ... 
doi:10.5772/intechopen.98247 fatcat:sslnzwptijhankzusybtmxtfae

Chapter 10. Bending the Arc of Writing Assessment Toward Social Justice: Enacting Culturally Responsive Professional Development at Standing Rock [chapter]

Kelly J. Sassi
2018 Writing Assessment, Social Justice, and the Advancement of Opportunity  
The Perspectives on Writing series addresses writing studies in a broad sense.  ...  , teaching writing, administering writing programs, and studying writing in its various forms.  ...  Laughlin, who worked with me in the first year of the study.  ... 
doi:10.37514/per-b.2018.0155.2.10 fatcat:jmq4zc355zbwhl5ibrocxkvhhq

The New Dread, Part I: The Judicial Overthrow of the Reasonableness Standard in Police Shooting Cases

Kindaka J. Sanders
2022 UCLA Criminal Justice Law Review  
In its place, the Court has erected a standard that reflects modern conservative political ideology, including race conservatism, law-and-order, increased police discretion, and the deconstruction of the  ...  This "law and order" slogan was the primary social weapon for Nixon's "southern strategy," an appeal to race-prejudiced whites in the South disgusted with the civil rights gains for Blacks and to paranoid  ...  Blind to himself, he is blind to justice; immune from correction, he is oft to repeat it. Yet, he is (or, at least, was) the legally reasonable person.  ... 
doi:10.5070/cj86157742 fatcat:yt266km7yfhadmj7zcc5vsrgiq

Good AI for the Present of Humanity [article]

Nicholas Kluge Corrêa, Mariana Dalblon
2020 arXiv   pre-print
In this study, I would like to present two aspects omitted or barely mentioned in the current debate on AI ethics.  ...  The current humanitarian costs of our new industrial automatize revolution and the lack of diversity in this whole modernization process.  ...  At worst, it masks fundamental, principled disagreement and drives AI Ethics towards moral relativism.  ... 
arXiv:2007.04477v9 fatcat:na3kn6wonjaq7lledvb7qvpjvi

From Global Justice to Occupy and Podemos: Mapping Three Stages of Contemporary Activism

Todd Wolfson, Emiliano Treré, Paolo Gerbaudo, Peter N. Funke
2017 tripleC: Communication, Capitalism & Critique  
reversed alphabetical order, not in order of importance.  ...  Communication, Capitalism & Critique (http://www.triple-c.at) Edited by Todd Wolfson, Emiliano Treré, Paolo Gerbaudo, Peter FunketripleC 15 (2), 2017, pp. 390-542 Please note that the editors appear in  ...  the aid of complex algorithms.  ... 
doi:10.31269/triplec.v15i2.897 fatcat:f36wg6d5vvh3vkno7djt5n2uqi

Equal Protection Under Algorithms: A New Statistical and Legal Framework

Crystal Yang, Will Dobbie
2020 Michigan law review  
, in stark contrast to commonly used algorithms that unfairly disadvantage minorities despite the exclusion of race.  ...  The use of race and nonrace correlates in predictive algorithms generates direct and proxy effects of race, respectively, that can lead to racial disparities that many view as unwarranted and discriminatory  ...  treatment that requires predictive algorithms to be blinded to race through exclusion.  ... 
doi:10.36644/mlr.119.2.equal fatcat:b6ojzvorkfei7f3u7iyrrnxizm

Artificial Intelligence in Malaysian Courts: PP v Denis P Modili

Dennis W K Khong, Chiung Ching Ho
2022 Asian Journal of Law and Policy  
Two types of machine learning algorithms, namely linear regression and logistic regression, are introduced.  ...  This case commentary examines a seminal judgment on the application of artificial intelligence in criminal sentencing in Malaysia: PP v Denis P Modili.  ...  should be colour-blind and that the race of the accused is irrelevant to the sentence.  ... 
doi:10.33093/ajlp.2022.9 fatcat:cc4rq5exxvf2dg4ibjac6iepem
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