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In recent years, metal nanowiring for circuitry and electronic interconnection has attracted much attention due to the growing requirements of highly integrated microcircuits, and is of benefit to the miniaturization of device features.  Generally, ultraviolet photolithography, which was considered a typical processing route for metal wiring, has already greatly contributed to integrated circuits.  However, the lithographic route shows strong demands on the surface flatness of each layerdoi:10.1002/smll.201000511 pmid:20665756 fatcat:am36a5343fauvgqp4gdbmrvoka
more »... n the multilevel chip architectures. To meet the processing nature of lithography, a global planarization of interlayer metals by chemical-mechanical polishing is therefore needed to reduce the interval between the metal layer and the photomask, and to guarantee exposure resolution when wires reach the sub-300 nm scale. Two-photon absorption (TPA) has also been tried for the fabrication of metal microstructures by using suitable salt solutions as the metal source and photosensitive molecules as the photoinitiator.    However, these studies aimed at refined planar periodic gratings or dot arrays  for plasmonic wave coupling or three-dimensional (3D) mold making, which more or less ignore the conductivity of these precise metal structures. For example, by using surfactants as particle-growth inhibitor, delicate 3D structures with a smooth surface were achieved,  whereas the conductivity of these metal microstructures was significantly debased due to the residual organic components. To the best of our knowledge, both the photolithography and TPA micro/nanoprocessing conducted so far have focused on fabrication on flat substrates.    These methods cannot meet the increasing demands of circuitry and electronic connections on nonplanar substrates in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS),  lab on a chip (LoC),  and other intelligent microsystems. Taking LoC as an example, if an appropriate microheater could be embedded on the immediate base inside a microfluidic channel instead of sitting several hundreds of micrometers apart on the rear of the substrate, as is usually done with Peltier thermoelectric elements,  integrated resistive heaters,      and Joule heating of ionic liquids,  then local temperature regulation of fluids with higher precision, quicker response, and smarter switching at the exact point of care may be realized due to the effectively reduced thermal inertia. Such a capability is particularly desired for temperature regulation of miniaturized LoC systems that involve repeated thermal cycling, such as DNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which comprises three sequential steps of denaturation (95 8C), annealing (55 8C), and extension (72 8C).  Nevertheless, convenient introduction of a local heating circuit inside a ready channel is almost inaccessible for lithography and other currently available micro/nanofabrication methods. Therefore, there is an urgent need for flexible micro/nanoprocessing technologies for metal nanowiring on nonplanar substrates or existing device structures. Herein, we demonstrate the flexible nanowiring of metal on nonplanar substrates by femtosecond-laser-induced electroless plating. The fundamental concept consists of immersing the surface where the metal circuitry or electronic interconnection is to be made into a metal-salt solution, and then tightly focusing a near-infrared femtosecond-laser beam [19, 20] onto the site to form a wire. Because of the negligible linear absorption of the solution at the laser wavelength and the fractional reflection at the air/liquid interface, the beam penetrates deeply into the solution with very small power loss, while it triggers photoreductive reactions of the metal ion via multiphoton absorption (MPA) at the focal spot. By scanning the laser focus along a preprogrammed trace following the top surfaces, either flat or nonplanar, the desired metal nanowiring is achieved. communications [ Ã ] Prof.
We report remote manipulation of micronanomachines containing magnetic nanoparticles. Surface-modified Fe 3 O 4 nanocrystals were synthesized as doping agents of the photopolymerizable resin, which was pinpoint written by femtosecond laser-induced two-photon photopolymerization to create microsprings. Owing to the nature of superparamagnetism of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles, force exerted to the microsprings relies sensitively on the field gradient of the external ferromagnet, and various motionsdoi:10.1364/ol.34.000581 pmid:19252558 fatcat:nxubmbvpu5cqhky2lnhl7u47k4
more »... elongation, bending, and swing are achieved in a well-controllable remote manner. As a noncontact, sensitive, easy, and environmentally friendly approach, the magnetic driving of micronanomachines may play an important role for nano and biological applications.
Chest computed tomography (CT) results were reviewed by two physicians (Shu-fen Zhu, Pei-lin Duan) and a radiologist (Jin-kuang Li). Leukopenia was defined as a white blood cell count < 4 × 10 9 /L. ... Copyright © 2021 Zhu, Sun, Li, Cai, Li, Hong, Li, Xu, Li, Xue, Gu, Wu, Zhou, Suo, Duan, Wu and Li. ...doi:10.3389/fmed.2021.620727 pmid:34026776 pmcid:PMC8131547 fatcat:x7sczuqxurfivisq67udiisfd4
energies Article Improved Blade Design for Tidal Current Turbines Hongwei Liu, Yajing Gu * , Yong-Gang Lin, Yang-Jian Li, Wei Li and Hongbin Zhou State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power and Mechatronic ... Gu, Y.; Liu, H.; Li, W.; Lin, Y.; Li, Y. Integrated design and implementation of 120-kW horizontal-axis tidal current energy conversion system. Ocean Eng. 2018, 158, 338–349. [CrossRef] 20. ...doi:10.3390/en13102642 fatcat:4d5d6jlvwrcwbjtt2l3hviip5e
Parasites & Vectors
Trichinella nematodes are globally distributed food-borne pathogens, in which Trichinella spiralis is the most common species in China. Microsatellites are a powerful tool in population genetics and phylogeographic analysis. However, only a few microsatellite markers were reported in T. spiralis. Thus, there is a need to develop and validate genome-wide microsatellite markers for T. spiralis. Microsatellites were selected from shotgun genomic sequences using MIcroSAtellite identification tooldoi:10.1186/s13071-020-3929-2 pmid:32046770 pmcid:PMC7014596 fatcat:ly7etkg72jdlbpjktb66cv4kra
more »... ISA). The identified markers were validated in 12 isolates of T. spiralis in China. A total of 93,140 microsatellites were identified by MISA from 9267 contigs in T. spiralis genome sequences, in which 16 polymorphic loci were selected for validation by PCR with single larvae from 12 isolates of T. spiralis in China. There were 7-19 alleles per locus (average 11.25 alleles per locus). The observed heterozygosity (HO) and expected heterozygosity (HE) ranged from 0.325 to 0.750 and 0.737 to 0.918, respectively. The polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.719 to 0.978 (average 0.826). Among the 16 loci, markers for 10 loci could be amplified from all 12 international standard strains of Trichinella spp. Sixteen highly polymorphic markers were selected and validated for T. spiralis. Primary phylogenetic analysis showed that these markers might serve as a useful tool for genetic studies of Trichinella parasites.
High-order harmonic generation of O 2 molecules with different nuclear axis orientationsdoi:10.7498/aps.66.244209 fatcat:5eunp2uwkzdv5l73f45gkeojci
As an endogenous inhibitor of the calpain system activated by Ca 2+ , calpastatin (CAST) plays a regulatory role in muscle proteolysis. The present study, Based on the bovine mRNA sequences, part of cDNA fragments of sheep CAST transcript 2 and 4 were obtained by RT-PCR. Bioinformatic analysis showed that sheep CAST transcript 2 was 4 358 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) 2 361 bp long and encoded 786 amino acids, while sheep CAST transcript 4 was 1 467 bp in length with 1 317 bpdoi:10.3724/sp.j.1005.2009.01107 pmid:19933091 fatcat:bdi27tnazrgh3d6ezlep65nicq
more »... encoding 438 amino acids. It was predicted that CAST type II contained four conserved domains and CAST type IV contained three conserved domains, and their secondary structures were rich in both hydrophobic regions and helical regions, with certain conserved phosphorylation sites and phosphorylation sites of protein kinase C (PKC). RT-PCR was conducted to analyze the expression patterns of CAST transcript 2 and transcript 4. CAST transcript 2 was expressed in ten tissues detected while CAST transcript 4 only in testis.
A suite measurements of the electrical, thermal, and vibrational properties are conducted on palladium sulfide (PdS) in order to investigate its thermoelectric performance. The tetragonal structure with the space group P42/m for PdS is determined from X-ray diffraction measurement. The unique temperature dependence of mobility suggests that acoustic phonons and ion impurity scattering are two dominant scattering mechanisms within the compound. The obtained power factor of 27 μWcm^-1K^-2 at 800arXiv:1802.02761v1 fatcat:7ryflumikbgqvnowsjrva63ape
more »... is the largest value in the remaining transition-metal sulfides studied so far. The maximum value of the dimensionless figure of merit is 0.33 at 800 K. The observed phonon softening with temperature indicates that the reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity is mainly controlled by the enhanced lattice anharmonicity. These results indicate that the binary bulk PdS has promising potential to have good thermoelectrical performance.
In this paper, we have given the symmetrical and antisymmetrical spin and space wave functions of three-electron, and further given the full total entanglement states for the three-electron, which are related to their space and spin wave function. When we study particles entanglement we not only consider their spin entanglement and also consider their space entanglement. Otherwise, we find that electrons entanglement are restricted to the teeny range, when electrons exceed the space range,arXiv:1401.6874v1 fatcat:5khbvf6fjrez7gh2ug3lmazul4
more »... entanglement should be broken down even disappearance, which is accordance with the experiments results.
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a prolific and high-mortality disease with few effective treatments. Although the detection and surgical techniques for NSCLC continue to advance, the survival rate for the patients with NSCLC remains poor. Enhanced predictive biomarkers such as microRNAs (miRNAs) are needed at the time of diagnosis to better tailor therapies for patients. This study focused on the expression of miR-1280 in NSCLC tissues and distal normal tissues in order to explore thedoi:10.4103/0366-6999.151672 pmid:25698202 pmcid:PMC4834781 fatcat:rlp7opwrsrctbndnrd2ntuwuti
more »... ciation between miR-1280 expression and NSCLC. Methods: A total of 72 newly diagnosed primary NSCLC patients were enrolled in this study. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to identify the expression level of miR-1280 in the NSCLC tissues and distal normal tissues of these patients. Results: The miR-1280 expression was significantly higher in the NSCLC tissues (0.084 ± 0.099) than distal normal tissues (0.014 ± 0.015, P = 0.009). In 54 patients (75%), the miR-1280 expression in the NSCLC tissues was upregulated (2 −∆∆ct > 2), and no case showed a downregulation of miR-1280 expression. Conclusions: The expression level of miR-1280 could be regarded as a biomarker for NSCLC. Abstract Access this article online Quick Response Code: Website: www.cmj.org
We thank Yongfei Hu, Chunxia Yang, Chunlei Wang, Shoushan Qu, Fang Li, Shanshan Wang, Jiuxin QU, Zhengjia Liu, and Peng Wang for their assistance. We have no transparency declarations to make. ... supported by Beijing Natural Science Fund Project-Beijing City Board of Education Science and Technology Key Project (KZ201210025025) and National Natural Science Foundation of China(81070005/H0104) for Bin ...doi:10.1128/aac.02523-14 pmid:24982067 pmcid:PMC4135864 fatcat:dqvdqlakxbf2nnnts6pkbwlere
In order to understand the distribution of gene functions on the macro level, we also used WEGO software (http://wego.genomics.org.cn/cgi-bin/wego/index. pl) to classify the GO functions. ...doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0181835 pmid:28759610 pmcid:PMC5536306 fatcat:qbs5ysfksfdljpvshgrjqywuxe
Although our previous study revealed lumbar punctured resveratrol could remarkably prolong the survival of rats bearing orthotopic glioblastomas, it also suggested the administration did not completely suppress rapid tumour growth. These evidences led us to consider that the prognosis of tumour-bearing rats may be further improved if this treatment is used in combination with neurosurgery. Therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of the combined treatment on rat orthotopic glioblastomas.doi:10.1186/s12885-018-4771-1 pmid:30176837 pmcid:PMC6122735 fatcat:q4nvc7xs7fcb3pnmci43lgbiia
more »... hods: Rat RG2 glioblastoma cells were inoculated into the brains of 36 rats. The rats were subjected to partial tumour removal after they showed symptoms of intracranial hypertension. There were 28 rats that survived the surgery, and these animals were randomly and equally divided into the control group without postoperative treatment and the LP group treated with 100 μl of 300 μM resveratrol via the LP route. Resveratrol was administered 24 h after tumour resection in 3-day intervals, and the animals received 7 treatments. The intracranial tumour sizes, average life span, cell apoptosis and STAT3 signalling were evaluated by multiple experimental approaches in the tumour tissues harvested from both groups. Results: The results showed that 5 of the 14 (35.7%) rats in the LP group remained alive over 60 days without any sign of recurrence. The remaining nine animals had a longer mean postoperative survival time (11.0 ± 2.9 days) than that of the (7.3 + 1.3 days; p < 0.05) control group. The resveratrol-treated tumour tissues showed less Ki67 labelling, widely distributed apoptotic regions, upregulated PIAS3 expression and reduced p-STAT3 nuclear translocation. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that postoperative resveratrol administration efficiently improves the prognosis of rat advanced orthotopic glioblastoma via inhibition of growth, induction of apoptosis and inactivation of STAT3 signalling. Therefore, this therapeutic approach could be of potential practical value in the management of glioblastomas.
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