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Changes in White-Matter Connectivity in Late Second Language Learners: Evidence from Diffusion Tensor Imaging

Eleonora Rossi, Hu Cheng, Judith F. Kroll, Michele T. Diaz, Sharlene D. Newman
2017 Frontiers in Psychology  
The goal of this study is to provide novel evidence for the effect of bilingualism on white matter structure in relatively proficient but late L2 learners who acquired the second language after early childhood  ...  Overall, the results demonstrate a significant effect on white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) as a function of L2 learning.  ...  This research and writing of this manuscript was supported by NIH grant HD053146 and NSF grants OISE-0968369 and OISE-1545900 to JK, NIH AG034138 to MD, and from the Social, Life, and Engineering Sciences  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02040 pmid:29209263 pmcid:PMC5702476 fatcat:mdybvktrgbbupj6bpd4tyn5tua

Neurolinguistics: Structure, Function, and Connectivity in the Bilingual Brain

Becky Wong, Bin Yin, Beth O'Brien
2016 BioMed Research International  
Here, we contribute to the ongoing discussion by compiling and interpreting the plethora of findings that relate to the structural, functional, and connective changes in the brain that ensue from bilingualism  ...  network is different for first (dominant) versus second (nondominant) language processing; (2) the effects of bilinguals' executive functioning on the structure and function of the "universal" language  ...  Conflict of Interests The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1155/2016/7069274 pmid:26881224 pmcid:PMC4736376 fatcat:qlqu7va4zjbehchnslhyjma5uy

Understanding structural plasticity in the bilingual brain: The Dynamic Restructuring Model

Christos Pliatsikas
2019 Bilingualism: Language and Cognition  
Although it cannot be disputed that learning and using additional languages restructures grey (cortical, subcortical and cerebellar) and white matter in the brain, both increases and reductions in regional  ...  AbstractResearch on the effects of bi- and multi-lingualism on brain structure has so far yielded variable patterns.  ...  increases and decreases is grey matter volume and white matter integrity, which seem to be closely related to the quantity of the bilingual experience.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s1366728919000130 fatcat:rqnb6d63rngn5pleeylxhtk2f4

Clear Theories are Needed to Interpret Differences: Perspectives on the Bilingual Advantage Debate

Angela de Bruin, Anthony Steven Dick, Manuel Carreiras
2021 Neurobiology of Language  
Next, we discuss the development of looking at bilingual experiences and the need to better understand language control.  ...  The heated debate regarding bilingual cognitive advantages remains ongoing.  ...  The last author received funding from the Basque Government (2018-2021 BERC), the Agencia Estatal de Investigacion: The Severo Ochoa Programme for Centres/ Units of Excellence (SEV-2015-490) and grant  ... 
doi:10.1162/nol_a_00038 fatcat:uui3uclvxzf3vdj5ltwyyrfbmu

Linguistic immersion and structural effects on the bilingual brain: a longitudinal study

VINCENT DELUCA, JASON ROTHMAN, CHRISTOS PLIATSIKAS
2018 Bilingualism: Language and Cognition  
In this longitudinal study we test the effects of bilingual immersion on brain structure of adult sequential bilinguals not undergoing any language training, who were scanned twice, three years apart.  ...  We observed significant increases in grey matter volume in the lower left cerebellum, mean white matter diffusivity in the frontal cortex, and reshaping of the left caudate nucleus and amygdala and bilateral  ...  Finally, we might have expected to see modulation in white matter integrity in pathways connecting the cerebellum to the basal ganglia and frontal regions.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s1366728918000883 fatcat:pd366bkqw5e5njw7dlu44neho4

White-matter structure in the right hemisphere predicts Mandarin Chinese learning success

Zhenghan Qi, Michelle Han, Keri Garel, Ee San Chen, John D.E. Gabrieli
2015 Journal of Neurolinguistics  
The relation between white-matter structure in the right hemisphere of native English speakers and successful initial language learning may reflect the tonal and visuo-spatial properties, respectively,  ...  We examined whether inter-subject variability in the microstructure of white matter pathways, as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), would predict native English speakers' outcomes in learning  ...  We thank the staff of the Athinoula A. Martinos Imaging Center at McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology for their technical support.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jneuroling.2014.08.004 fatcat:szmqewladjextm54q55zg4jkwa

Lifelong bilingualism and neural reserve against Alzheimer's disease: A review of findings and potential mechanisms

Brian T. Gold
2015 Behavioural Brain Research  
In contrast, a growing body of evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism may delay the onset of clinical AD symptoms by several years.  ...  The purpose of the present review is to summarize evidence for bilingualism as a reserve variable against AD and discuss potential underlying neurocognitive mechanisms.  ...  The content is solely the responsibility of the author and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2014.12.006 pmid:25496781 pmcid:PMC4305453 fatcat:mnggpj5pxrgnjhabzbyayfj7iu

Consequences of multilingualism for neural architecture

Sayuri Hayakawa, Viorica Marian
2019 Behavioral and Brain Functions  
We begin with a brief discussion of how bilinguals activate language, and of the brain regions implicated in resolving language conflict.  ...  We then review evidence for the pervasive impact of bilingual experience on the function and structure of neural networks that support linguistic and non-linguistic cognitive control, speech processing  ...  Acknowledgements We thank Bennett Nicholas Magliato for assistance with preparing the tables and the members of the Bilingualism and Psycholinguistics Research Group for their helpful comments.  ... 
doi:10.1186/s12993-019-0157-z pmid:30909931 pmcid:PMC6432751 fatcat:eho6vlsfczbovkn7k35bwmro7m

Neural basis of bilingual language control

Marco Calabria, Albert Costa, David W. Green, Jubin Abutalebi
2018 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences  
Acquiring and speaking a second language (L2) increases demand on the processes of language control for bilingual as compared to monolingual speakers.  ...  It is now well established that the architecture of this complex system of language control encompasses brain networks involving cortical and subcortical structures, each responsible for different cognitive  ...  Acknowledgment The research was supported by grants from the Spanish government (PSI2014-52181-P, and PSI2017-87784-R), the Catalan government (  ... 
doi:10.1111/nyas.13879 pmid:29917244 fatcat:w2ic3ezrhbb6tfchwd63chk5xe

Bilingualism and Language Education to Improve the Cognitive Health of Older Persons

Cécil J. W. Meulenberg
2021 AS: Andragoška Spoznanja  
the role of Third Age Universities, the implementation of crucial aspects in such courses, and the proper assessment of the effectiveness of language proficiency and cognition.  ...  A structural review of recent psychoneurolinguistic studies shows that older bilinguals display several years of delay in dementia symptoms as compared to monolinguals, as well as that positive effects  ...  Brain areas are generally composed of white and grey matter.  ... 
doi:10.4312/as/9577 fatcat:tthlgcytyrajjovmpdr7upw34e

Bilingualism for Dementia: Neurological Mechanisms Associated With Functional and Structural Changes in the Brain

Sujin Kim, Seong Gak Jeon, Yunkwon Nam, Hyeon soo Kim, Doo-Han Yoo, Minho Moon
2019 Frontiers in Neuroscience  
clinical AD symptoms, (4) protecting white matter integrity, and (5) preserving gray matter density.  ...  Cognitive stimulating activities protect against the negative effects of cognitive decline caused by age-related neurogenerative diseases.  ...  Bilinguals, accompanied with changes in brain structure, including white matter integrity and gray matter density, delay the onset of dementia. as delaying factors for AD onset through bilingualism-induced  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnins.2019.01224 pmid:31798405 pmcid:PMC6868000 fatcat:emklaavddrcmph6oytetcdzdii

Early childhood bilingualism: effects on brain structure and function

Sezgi Goksan, Froso Argyri, Jonathan D. Clayden, Frederique Liegeois, Li Wei
2020 F1000Research  
How do bilingualism-related factors, such as age of exposure to two languages, language usage and proficiency, modulate brain connectivity?  ...  We will collect structural and functional MRI, and quantitative measures of EC and language skills from two groups of English-Greek bilingual children - 20 simultaneous bilinguals (exposure to both languages  ...  All research at Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and the UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health is made possible by the NIHR Great Ormond Street Hospital Biomedical Research  ... 
doi:10.12688/f1000research.23216.1 pmid:32528666 pmcid:PMC7262573 fatcat:qpmojgpoxrd6fgwxo72k2w2ir4

A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study on the White Matter Structures Related to the Phonology in Cantonese–Mandarin Bilinguals

Xiaoyu Xu, Yuying Jin, Ning Pan, Muqing Cao, Jin Jing, Jingwen Ma, Xiaoxuan Fan, Si Tan, Xiaojing Song, Xiuhong Li
2022 Frontiers in Human Neuroscience  
It is unclear whether the long-term experience of Cantonese–Mandarin bilingualism will shape different brain white matter structures related to phonological processing.  ...  Compared to the monolinguals, the bilinguals' white matter showed higher diffusivity, especially in the axonal direction. These changes were related to bilinguals' phonological processing.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank all the participants for their participation in the study and the Brain Imaging Center of Institute for Brain Research and Rehabilitation in South China Normal University for their  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnhum.2022.851669 fatcat:qlmvocgndzh4zh777w5lytuop4

Early childhood bilingualism: effects on brain structure and function

Sezgi Goksan, Froso Argyri, Jonathan D. Clayden, Frederique Liegeois, Li Wei
2020 F1000Research  
How do bilingualism-related factors, such as age of exposure to two languages, language usage and proficiency, modulate brain connectivity?  ...  We will collect structural and functional MRI, and quantitative measures of EC and language skills from two groups of English-Greek bilingual children - 20 simultaneous bilinguals (exposure to both languages  ...  All research at Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and the UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health is made possible by the NIHR Great Ormond Street Hospital Biomedical Research  ... 
doi:10.12688/f1000research.23216.2 fatcat:wc6ucsmn2zfxlgni5vyjxepqua

Uncovering the Mechanisms Responsible for Why Language Learning May Promote Healthy Cognitive Aging

Mark Antoniou, Sarah M. Wright
2017 Frontiers in Psychology  
Here, we will outline potential future lines of research that may uncover the mechanism responsible for the emergence of language learning related brain advantages, such as language typology, bi-vs. multi-lingualism  ...  Second, there is evidence that lifelong bilingualism acts as a safeguard in preserving healthy brain function, possibly delaying the incidence of dementia by several years.  ...  AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02217 pmid:29326636 pmcid:PMC5736569 fatcat:g6lr7ygatnfi7fayivrsk4rk3e
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