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Microstructural anatomical differences between bilinguals and monolinguals

2017 Bilingualism: Language and Cognition  
We suggest that changes in the geometry of white matter tracts reflect regular bilingual language experience and contend that neuroplasticity in right SLF results from demands on cognitive control for  ...  bilingual speakers.  ...  According to Qi et al. (2015) lower RD reflects axonal myelination or denser axonal tracts whereas AD measures axon integrity.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s1366728917000438 fatcat:e4jiupmdmraanc4pnor3afff3i

Sleep EEG, the Clearest Window through which to View Adolescent Brain Development

Ian M. Colrain, Fiona C. Baker
2011 Sleep  
Thus children exposed to a bilingual environment from birth, have a greater facility with language, and a different organization of language areas in the brain compared to those of us drilled in a foreign  ...  language in high school. 2 Nonetheless, there is a cost to running a highly interconnected network.  ...  Thus children exposed to a bilingual environment from birth, have a greater facility with language, and a different organization of language areas in the brain compared to those of us drilled in a foreign  ... 
doi:10.5665/sleep.1260 pmid:21966058 pmcid:PMC3174829 fatcat:b5meqmglhjeedkpbyqtxlsrwmm

Neural correlates of cognitive processing in monolinguals and bilinguals

John G. Grundy, John A.E. Anderson, Ellen Bialystok
2017 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences  
We demonstrate that lifelong practice managing two languages orchestrates global changes to both the structure and function of the brain.  ...  Another approach to investigating the effect of bilingualism on brain structure is through studies of language training, and these studies also show gray matter changes at both cortical b There are three  ...  Greater integrity of white matter structures for bilinguals WM integrity is another significant contributor to efficient communication between brain regions. 29 Changes to WM structures with L2 experience  ... 
doi:10.1111/nyas.13333 pmid:28415142 pmcid:PMC5446278 fatcat:dhcbcsdmofbsnkahjc6wh2hxdm

Bilingualism for Dementia: Neurological Mechanisms Associated With Functional and Structural Changes in the Brain

Sujin Kim, Seong Gak Jeon, Yunkwon Nam, Hyeon soo Kim, Doo-Han Yoo, Minho Moon
2019 Frontiers in Neuroscience  
The purpose of this review was to bilingualism protects against cognitive decline associated with AD and other dementias.  ...  We discuss potential underlying neurological mechanisms, including: (1) stimulating adult neurogenesis, (2) enhancing synaptogenesis, (3) strengthening functional connectivity that bilingualism may delay  ...  In this review, we suggest potential neurological mechanism by which bilingualism delays dementia along with evidence of clinical and structural changes.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnins.2019.01224 pmid:31798405 pmcid:PMC6868000 fatcat:emklaavddrcmph6oytetcdzdii

DTI reveals structural differences in white matter tracts between bilingual and monolingual children

Seyede Ghazal Mohades, Esli Struys, Peter Van Schuerbeek, Katrien Mondt, Piet Van De Craen, Robert Luypaert
2012 Brain Research  
Forty children, 8-11 years old, subdivided into 3 different groups (15 simultaneous bilinguals, 15 sequential bilinguals and 10 monolinguals), were scanned.  ...  lower mean FA value in simultaneous bilingual subjects compared to monolinguals.  ...  It relates to the tissue axonal microstructure and can be used as a biomarker for white matter anisotropy and fiber organization.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2011.12.005 pmid:22197702 fatcat:mlv4s5f56fbplbhwcmjdpo5czq

Bilingualism and Cognitive and Auditory Processing: A Comprehensive Review

Mahya Sharifinik, Department of Audiology, Rehabilitation Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran., Mohsen Ahadi, Vida Rahimi, Department of Audiology, Rehabilitation Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran., Department of Audiology, School of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2021 Iranian Rehabilitation Journal  
Structural changes in the brain in bilinguals support these effects.  ...  Discussion: Learning foreign languages could provoke the autonomic sound processing capability of the auditory organ and make it highly efficient in challenging listening conditions.  ...  Structural change in bilingualism Imaging studies show that bilingualism creates structural changes in addition to functional changes.  ... 
doi:10.32598/irj.19.3.1408.1 fatcat:nurbnmacxfhv7bgymuflqv2zyq

Bilingualism as a gradient measure modulates functional connectivity of language and control networks

Simone Sulpizio, Nicola Del Maschio, Gianpaolo Del Mauro, Davide Fedeli, Jubin Abutalebi
2019 NeuroImage  
mediating the specific demands of bilingual language processing: the language network and the executive control network.  ...  Grouping heterogeneous linguistic profiles under a dichotomous condition (bilingualism versus monolingualism) may obscure critical aspects of language experience underlying neural changes, thus leading  ...  We tested whether and to what extent bilingual experience impacts the functional organization of the language network and the control network using resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC), which  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.116306 pmid:31654763 fatcat:qj2lmuox55df3ks6c6o2gvrdra

Neurolinguistics: Structure, Function, and Connectivity in the Bilingual Brain

Becky Wong, Bin Yin, Beth O'Brien
2016 BioMed Research International  
Here, we contribute to the ongoing discussion by compiling and interpreting the plethora of findings that relate to the structural, functional, and connective changes in the brain that ensue from bilingualism  ...  is different for first (dominant) versus second (nondominant) language processing; (2) the effects of bilinguals' executive functioning on the structure and function of the "universal" language neural  ...  Current neuroscience-based models can therefore point to a developed neural substrate of networks forged by nature and nurture, which instantiate soft-assembled coordinative structures [12] organized  ... 
doi:10.1155/2016/7069274 pmid:26881224 pmcid:PMC4736376 fatcat:qlqu7va4zjbehchnslhyjma5uy

The Plasticity of Brain Networks as a Basis for a Science of Nervous System Rehabilitation

Gerry Leisman Robert Melillo
2015 International Journal of Neurorehabilitation  
into multiple self-organizing simultaneously active networks.  ...  locale but rather to an organization of networks for optimized performance.  ... 
doi:10.4172/2376-0281.1000155 fatcat:u2nbh3otajerngjqycec4w7sdu

How can unity of content be obtained from the diversity of expression; from symbolism to connectionism How can unity of content be obtained from the diversity of expression; from symbolism to connectionism

José Marcelino Poersch
2008 Ilha do Desterro  
In a connectionist paradigm, reading consists of constructing, in the brain of the reader, a network of synaptic connections as answers to individual stimuli and experiences.  ...  Instead, a minimally organized knowledge system is assumed here in which structures are not prestored, but generated in the context of the task for which they are needed.  ...  The axon axon axon axon axon is the channel through which a neuron communicates with the others.  ... 
doaj:4445ffabc36e4abaa83c59881e00961f fatcat:nhzwtewbuffk7buvqlzkjbejg4

Bilingualism influences structural indices of interhemispheric organization

Adam Felton, David Vazquez, Aurora I. Ramos-Nunez, Maya R. Greene, Alessandra Macbeth, Arturo E. Hernandez, Christine Chiarello
2017 Journal of Neurolinguistics  
The findings suggest that structural indices of interhemispheric organization in a critical cognitive control region are sensitive to variations in language experience.  ...  Bilingualism represents an interesting model of possible experience-dependent alterations in brain structure.  ...  Although no existing study has investigated changes in structure across development for bilinguals, fMRI findings are consistent with developmental changes in ACC recruitment.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jneuroling.2016.10.004 pmid:28579694 pmcid:PMC5450970 fatcat:lnrh5mkyhnahfa5pifb22zyhoa

Neuroimaging of the bilingual brain: Structural brain correlates of listening and speaking in a second language

Patricia K. Kuhl, Jeff Stevenson, Neva M. Corrigan, Jasper J.F. van den Bosch, Dilara Deniz Can, Todd Richards
2016 Brain and Language  
Diffusion tensor imaging was used to compare white matter structure between American monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual adults living in the United States.  ...  In the bilingual group, relationships between white matter structure and naturalistic immersive experience in listening to and speaking English were additionally explored.  ...  Despite the lack of consensus in the direction of white matter structural changes in the literature associated with bilingualism (Table 1) , a number of specific white matter tracts have been repeatedly  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.bandl.2016.07.004 pmid:27490686 fatcat:ylzijnns2fg7ncrfdtxy2uc3ou

A Neural Assembly-Based View on Word Production: The Bilingual Test Case

Kristof Strijkers
2016 Language Learning  
hierarchical structure.  ...  When it comes to the cognitive architecture underpinning bilingual speech production, the most common practice is to adopt the traditional hierarchical structure of the psycholinguistic models of language  ...  Indeed, if the manner in which the brain organizes and processes language is sustained by a sequential hierarchical structure, then it seems justified that neuroscience research in bilingualism takes that  ... 
doi:10.1111/lang.12191 fatcat:oikktxrhhbef7mrtawfiu6itwa

Language Development across the Life Span: A Neuropsychological/Neuroimaging Perspective

Mónica Rosselli, Alfredo Ardila, Esmeralda Matute, Idaly Vélez-Uribe
2014 Neuroscience Journal  
The effects of certain specific variables, such as gender, level of education, and bilingualism are also analyzed. General conclusions are presented and directions for future research are suggested.  ...  Developmental changes in the brain lateralization of language are discussed, emphasizing that in early life there is an increase in functional brain asymmetry for language, but that this asymmetry changes  ...  The tremendous speed of language development observed by age 2 has been linked to structural changes in the neurons (such as the growth of axons and a larger number of dendrites) and upsurges in the myelination  ... 
doi:10.1155/2014/585237 pmid:26317109 pmcid:PMC4437268 fatcat:azhju6tzoffrtgaq4apnobo65u

Language Learning and Its Impact on the Brain: Connecting Language Learning with the Mind Through Content-Based Instruction

Teresa J. Kennedy
2006 Foreign language annals  
The implications of neuroscience for educational reform regarding second language (L2) learning can clearly be seen in the following categories: brain structures and the corpus callosum; neuronal development  ...  This article describes a recent study designed to address relationships between the corpus callosum and bilingual capacity, and provides recommendations to language teachers regarding brain-based learning  ...  As Diamond has explained, environmental enrichment changes our neuronal network patterns or "maps of meaning."  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1944-9720.2006.tb02900.x fatcat:xu4fxmmyjvghrgog6ee44ckmt4
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