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Beyond loop bounds: comparing annotation languages for worst-case execution time analysis

Raimund Kirner, Jens Knoop, Adrian Prantl, Markus Schordan, Albrecht Kadlec
2010 Journal of Software and Systems Modeling  
Worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis is concerned with computing a precise-as-possible bound for the maximum time the execution of a program can take.  ...  This information is indispensable for developing safety-critical real-time systems, e. g., in the avionics and automotive fields.  ...  Especially, we would like to thank Niklas Holsti and Henrik Theiling for their many and very detailed comments, which helped to clarify and improve the presentation of this article.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10270-010-0161-0 fatcat:gzexuwk7l5hv7n7g3psastxvla

Computing Exact Loop Bounds for Bounded Program Verification [chapter]

Tianhai Liu, Shmuel Tyszberowicz, Bernhard Beckert, Mana Taghdiri
2017 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We present a new approach for automatically calculating exact loop bounds, i.e., the greatest lower bound and the least upper bound, based on the number of objects.  ...  Bounded program verification techniques verify functional properties of programs by analyzing the program for user-provided bounds on the number of objects and loop iterations.  ...  We will also study the application of our approach to other areas, e.g., worst-case execution time and dynamic heap consumption program analysis. Fig. 1 : 1 A simple program for youth hostel checkin.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-69483-2_9 fatcat:tka5i6odhrbujisxgsrmmq3bba

Computing maximum blocking times with explicit path analysis under non-local flow bounds

Jan C. Kleinsorge, Peter Marwedel
2014 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Embedded Software - EMSOFT '14  
Worst-case time (WCET) analyses for single tasks are well established and their results ultimately serve the purpose of providing execution time parameters for schedulability analyses.  ...  Besides WCET analysis, an important problem is maximum blocking time (MBT) analysis which is essential in deferred preemption schedules for the selection of preemption points.  ...  For hard real-time systems, static worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis can provide safe upper time bounds for the uninterrupted execution of separate tasks.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2656045.2656051 dblp:conf/emsoft/KleinsorgeM14 fatcat:odh2nh4zp5ebpibizalxpnda5a

The reachability-bound problem

Sumit Gulwani, Florian Zuleger
2010 Proceedings of the 2010 ACM SIGPLAN conference on Programming language design and implementation - PLDI '10  
We define the reachability-bound problem to be the problem of finding a symbolic worst-case bound on the number of times a given control location inside a procedure is visited in terms of the inputs to  ...  Our solution to the reachability-bound problem allows us to compute precise symbolic complexity bounds for several loops in .Net base-class libraries for which earlier techniques fail.  ...  In real-time systems, it is important to bound the worst-case execution-time of the program.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1806596.1806630 dblp:conf/pldi/GulwaniZ10 fatcat:pv5xsxjgxjc6vaxq3gs5jcubea

Tight Worst-Case Bounds for Polynomial Loop Programs [chapter]

Amir M. Ben-Amram, Geoff W. Hamilton
2019 Green Chemistry and Sustainable Technology  
In 2008, Ben-Amram, Jones and Kristiansen showed that for a simple programming language-representing non-deterministic imperative programs with bounded loops, and arithmetics limited to addition and multiplication-it  ...  This paper shows how to obtain asymptoticallytight multivariate polynomial bounds for this class of programs. This is a complete solution: whenever a polynomial bound exists it will be found.  ...  ., the amount of resources (such as time, memory and energy) required for their execution.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-17127-8_5 dblp:conf/fossacs/Ben-AmramH19 fatcat:zf2kgwcnsnhsjdbqwy2fr574pa

Inferring Energy Bounds via Static Program Analysis and Evolutionary Modeling of Basic Blocks [article]

Umer Liqat, Zorana Bankovic, Pedro Lopez-Garcia, Manuel V. Hermenegildo
2017 arXiv   pre-print
In this work we address this challenge from the software point of view and propose a novel parametric approach to estimating tight bounds on the energy consumed by program executions that are practical  ...  Then it combines the obtained values according to the program control flow, using static analysis, to infer functions that give both upper and lower bounds on the energy consumption of the whole program  ...  We also thank Henk Muller, Principal Technologist, XMOS, for his help with the measurement boards, evaluation platform, benchmarks, and overall support.  ... 
arXiv:1601.02800v2 fatcat:islryqjzineetk2vdjiq4rms2u

Analysing memory resource bounds for low-level programs

Wei-Ngan Chin, Huu Hai Nguyen, Corneliu Popeea, Shengchao Qin
2008 Proceedings of the 7th international symposium on Memory management - ISMM '08  
Our current proposal relies on a Presburger solver to capture memory requirements symbolically, and to perform fixpoint analysis for loops and recursion.  ...  In this paper, we show how memory resource bounds can be inferred for assembly-level programs.  ...  Previous work in this area (amongst the real-time and embedded systems community) have mostly focused on real-time aspects, with major inroads made in WCET (worst-case execution time) domain.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1375634.1375656 dblp:conf/iwmm/ChinNPQ08 fatcat:76rqrztdcja4jbp2dvqx5ysk6i

Bounded Expectations: Resource Analysis for Probabilistic Programs [article]

Van Chan Ngo, Quentin Carbonneaux, Jan Hoffmann
2017 arXiv   pre-print
This paper presents a new static analysis for deriving upper bounds on the expected resource consumption of probabilistic programs.  ...  The new technique combines manual state-of-the-art reasoning techniques for probabilistic programs with an effective method for automatic resource-bound analysis of deterministic programs.  ...  Beyond AARA there exists many other approaches to automatic worst-case resource bound analysis for deterministic programs. Figure 8 .  ... 
arXiv:1711.08847v1 fatcat:5nsfvkqe5jhkrhntrzsbjqqcsa

A Dataflow Analysis to Improve SAT-Based Bounded Program Verification [chapter]

Bruno Cuervo Parrino, Juan Pablo Galeotti, Diego Garbervetsky, Marcelo F. Frias
2011 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
SAT-based bounded verification of programs consists of the translation of the code and its annotations into a propositional formula.  ...  The formula is then analyzed for specification violations using a SATsolver. This technique is capable of proving the absence of errors up to a given scope.  ...  We analyzed mainly correct implementations since we are interested in measuring the worst case scenario for bounded-verification (i.e., search space exhaustion).  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-24690-6_11 fatcat:eqw4wmpo4bb5vbui3xsypz7elu

Bounded Termination of Monotonicity-Constraint Transition Systems [article]

Amir M. Ben-Amram, Michael Vainer
2014 arXiv   pre-print
The conclusion maybe a polynomial time bound, or in other cases polynomial space or exponential time.  ...  We argue that the monotonicity-constraint abstraction promises to be useful for practical complexity analysis of programs.  ...  In program analysis, one can distinguish works that concentrate on the realtime dimension (often going by the keyword WCET-worst-case execution time analysis), and works that concentrate on more robust  ... 
arXiv:1202.4281v2 fatcat:qgyprosmubax3g6jzeqol2xcg4

Handling index-out-of-bounds in safety-critical embedded C code using model-based development

Gunter Blache
2018 Journal of Software and Systems Modeling  
The C language does not specify the behaviour in such cases, which clearly violates the requirements for safe code.  ...  Embedded C code for safety critical systems faces some substantial challenges: like every other embedded SW code it must be efficient in terms of code size, data size and execution time, but it must also  ...  Other kinds of interferences are not addressed by the modelling language and need to be taken care of using other methods (e.g. schedulability analysis using worst-case execution times [8, 19] or safe  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10270-018-0697-y fatcat:surdghyjtfectpoajs7alfgtwa

Inferring Energy Bounds via Static Program Analysis and Evolutionary Modeling of Basic Blocks [chapter]

Umer Liqat, Zorana Banković, Pedro Lopez-Garcia, Manuel V. Hermenegildo
2018 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this work we address this challenge from the software point of view and propose a novel approach to estimating accurate parametric bounds on the energy consumed by program executions that are practical  ...  Then it combines the obtained values according to the program control flow, using a safe static analysis, to infer functions that give both upper and lower bounds on the energy consumption of the whole  ...  We also thank Henk Muller, Principal Technologist, XMOS, for his help with the measurement boards, evaluation platform, benchmarks, and overall support.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-94460-9_4 fatcat:xk772uh3r5dppfig3lp56f3qim

Parallel bounded analysis in code with rich invariants by refinement of field bounds

Nicolás Rosner, Juan Galeotti, Santiago Bermúdez, Guido Marucci Blas, Santiago Perez De Rosso, Lucas Pizzagalli, Luciano Zemín, Marcelo F. Frias
2013 Proceedings of the 2013 International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis - ISSTA 2013  
In this article we present a novel technique for automated parallel bug-finding based on the sequential analysis tool TACO.  ...  The bounds computed by TACO generally include a substantial amount of nondeterminism; its reduction allows us to split the original analysis into disjoint subproblems.  ...  Since the worst-case time complexity of the SAT problem is exponential in the number of variables, this reduction is beneficial [12] .  ... 
doi:10.1145/2483760.2483770 dblp:conf/issta/RosnerGBBRPZF13 fatcat:u5trj4i3jbbzljpclfvy6ldr7m

Run-time Complexity Bounds Using Squeezers [chapter]

Oren Ish-Shalom, Shachar Itzhaky, Noam Rinetzky, Sharon Shoham
2021 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Automated techniques for cost analysis excel at bounding the resource complexity of programs that use integer values and linear arithmetic.  ...  Unfortunately, they fall short when execution traces become more involved, esp. when data dependencies may affect the termination conditions of loops.  ...  Ranks let us abstract away data inside the initial execution states which does not affect the worst-case bound on the trace length.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-72019-3_12 fatcat:mofgash6ozgjhgt5v37nfv5nuy

Understanding Programming Bugs in ANSI-C Software Using Bounded Model Checking Counter-Examples [chapter]

Herbert Rocha, Raimundo Barreto, Lucas Cordeiro, Arilo Dias Neto
2012 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The proposed method may be seen as a complementary technique for the verification performed by state-ofthe-art BMC tools.  ...  In the context of software verification, bounded model checkers (BMCs) have already been applied to discover subtle errors in real projects.  ...  analysis and DSP (Digital Signal Processing) algorithms; (iii) WCET 9 which, in the same way as SNU, contains programs used for worst-case execution time analysis; (iv) NEC 10 which contains C programs  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-30729-4_10 fatcat:n7vo47vj2rejhosqkj6gatfpe4
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