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Introduction [chapter]

2021 Algorithms and Autonomy  
See Wisconsin v.  ...  Loomis, 881 N.W.2d paragraph 11. 3 The tool used is part of a suite of assessment tools developed for use at various stages in the criminal justice system with different algorithms and software packages  ...  Profile, Police, and Punish the Poor; Pasquale, The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information; Noble, Algorithms of Oppression; Rosenblat, Uberland. 26 Regarding capitalization  ... 
doi:10.1017/9781108895057.001 fatcat:7xk57onpxzhalnzufmz77zu4pm

AI in Adjudication and Administration: A Status Report on Governmental Use of Algorithmic Tools in the United States

Cary Coglianese, Lavi Ben Dor
2019 Social Science Research Network  
For federal, state, and local governments in the United States, interest in artificial intelligence has manifested in the use of a series of digital tools, including the occasional deployment of machine  ...  If artificial intelligence is managed responsibly to address such concerns, the use of algorithmic tools by governmental entities throughout the United States would appear to show much future promise.  ...  This Article is brought to you for free and open access by Penn Law: Legal Scholarship Repository.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.3501067 fatcat:7pe7gky3zngptktwbx3dk3ghpq

ALGORITHMS AND BIG DATA: CONSIDERATIONS ON ALGORITHMIC GOVERNANCE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES FOR ANTITRUST ANALYSIS

Marcela Mattiuzzo
2019 Revista de Economia Contemporânea  
This paper aims at presenting the recent rise in the use of algorithmic systems, the move by policy makers towards fighting potential harmful outcomes that may arise from the use of such tools, and the  ...  usually put forward by the literature and by policy makers to fight harm; the fourth discusses the implications of such proposals for antitrust; finally, the fifth section concludes the paper.  ...  In Europe, the High-Level Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence was created to advise the European Commission on issues regarding the challenges and opportunities of artificial intelligence (AI), and  ... 
doi:10.1590/198055272328 fatcat:o63icoudxzazlbpnurxup37jaq

Big Data for E-Governance

Seshathiri Dhanasekaran, Baskar Kasi, Vasanthraj Karunkaran, Anburaman Seetharaman
2018 2018 International Conference on Recent Trends in Advance Computing (ICRTAC)  
, and the consequences of such policy proposals for antitrust.  ...  a Master in Constitutional Law at USP and partner at VMCA Advogados. Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5641-1130.  ...  In Europe, the High-Level Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence was created to advise the European Commission on issues regarding the challenges and opportunities of artificial intelligence (AI), and  ... 
doi:10.1109/icrtac.2018.8679285 fatcat:wwzvyqdlgnfzbckvwu35t7dq24

Criminal justice, artificial intelligence systems, and human rights

Aleš Završnik
2020 ERA Forum  
It then analyses encounters between artificial intelligence systems and the law, by considering case law and by analysing some of the human rights affected.  ...  The automation brought about by big data analytics, machine learning and artificial intelligence systems challenges us to reconsider fundamental questions of criminal justice.  ...  project "Transmaking" project (no. 734855), and the Slovenian Research Agency, research project "Human Rights and Regulation of Trustworthy Artificial Intelligence" (no.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s12027-020-00602-0 fatcat:lqkixo5dfze7nglitku7yitgxy

Artificial Intelligence as the End of Criminal Law? On the Algorithmic Transformation of Society [chapter]

Christoph Burchard
2021 Artificial Intelligence in the Economic Sector: prevent and account  
Does Artificial Intelligence (AI) imply the end of criminal law and justice as we know it?  ...  For a criminal law that is mostly a governance tool in the administrative and/or welfare state, AI applications promise the culmination of the law's very objectives (like the effective inhibition and prevention  ...  Loomis: Arti cial Intelligence, Government Algorithmization, and Accountability», International Journal of Law and Information Technology, 2/27 (2019). 58 As literally stated by B , Richard; H , Jordan  ... 
doi:10.47907/livro2021_4c7 fatcat:xqtz2xsmnjgn7ehxq4ojclkxey

Algorithmic impropriety in UK policing?

Jamie Grace
2019 Journal of Information Rights Policy and Practice  
There are concerns that UK policing could soon be awash with 'algorithmic impropriety'.  ...  ' of government, and thus the confidence of the citizen in its reasonableness and fairness… Developments in algorithmic intelligibility and explainability can improve 'techniques' of government, and administrative  ...  behave themselves, opacity can lead to a feeling of unfairness." 65 Such lack of transparency has been observed in the case of Loomis v State of Wisconsin (2016) 66 .  ... 
doi:10.21039/irpandp.v3i1.57 fatcat:zm5gge6p4zaebdlf3crnugsbgm

Activated Membrane Patches Guide Chemotactic Cell Motility

Inbal Hecht, Monica L. Skoge, Pascale G. Charest, Eshel Ben-Jacob, Richard A. Firtel, William F. Loomis, Herbert Levine, Wouter-Jan Rappel, Philip E. Bourne
2011 PLoS Computational Biology  
The activated patches determine the location of membrane protrusions (and overall cell motion) that are computed in the second module, which also takes into account the cortical tension and the availability  ...  Many eukaryotic cells are able to crawl on surfaces and guide their motility based on environmental cues.  ...  Acknowledgments We thank Danny Fuller for strain construction and assistance with the microscopy. We also thank Micha Adler and Alex Groisman for construction of the microfluidic devices.  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002044 pmid:21738453 pmcid:PMC3127810 fatcat:jofjifiyqbfurdfnd2bflc65qm

Encoding Equality: The Case for Greater Regulation of Artificial Intelligence and Automated Decision Making in New Zealand

Ella Brownlie
2020 Law review  
Automated decision-making systems, developed using artificial intelligence and machine learning processes, are being used by companies, organisations and governments with increasing frequency.  ...  The purpose of this article is to outline the urgent case for regulating automated decision-making and examine the possible options for regulation.  ...  State v Loomis concerned the use of the automated tool COMPAS to inform judicial decisions on sentencing. 84 COMPAS was designed for the United States Department of Corrections by a private company, Northpointe  ... 
doi:10.26686/vuwlr.v51i1.6515 fatcat:s6k7w6dn2ngabj4rhsvp3sblya

Artificial intelligence and adjudication: some perspectives

David M. Masuhara
2019 Amicus Curiae  
Index keywords: Artificial Intelligence, AI, Judicial procedure, Courts, Information technology  ...  The author starts with a brief description of judicial decision-making and AI and then identifies and discusses the views and then offers dome comments on what an AI adjudication system might look like  ...  Loomis v Wisconsin.  ... 
doi:10.14296/ac.v2017i111.5037 fatcat:q75btcuesjan5jzovrpyqxycwm

INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW AS A FRAMEWORK FOR ALGORITHMIC ACCOUNTABILITY

Lorna McGregor, Daragh Murray, Vivian Ng
2019 International and Comparative Law Quarterly  
While generally overlooked in debates on algorithmic accountability, in this article, we suggest that international human rights law already provides this framework.  ...  AbstractExisting approaches to 'algorithmic accountability', such as transparency, provide an important baseline, but are insufficient to address the (potential) harm to human rights caused by the use  ...  Intelligence: A Rights-Based Blueprint for Business, Paper 2: Beyond the Technology Industry' (Business for Social Responsibility, August 2018). 17 See eg C van Veen and C Cath, 'Artificial Intelligence  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0020589319000046 fatcat:hc6mvifeczhfxhuarwzclu3xsu

Privatization of Law Enforcement

Anastasia Konina
2021 McGill GLSA Research Series  
Reliance on private data and technology does not absolve the police of accountability for resulting human rights violations.  ...  increasing police departments' democratic accountability.  ...  Loomis: Artificial Intelligence, Government Act, 1982, c.11 (U.K.)], s 9.  ... 
doi:10.26443/glsars.v1i1.134 fatcat:6zs3bkaehjcoznlijty4z4nwjy

Machine Bias: Artificial Intelligence and Discrimination

Can Yavuz
2019 Social Science Research Network  
This thesis makes a preliminary recommendation and invites policymakers to cautiously regulate artificial intelligence to prevent artificial intelligence discrimination.  ...  Many problems in the field stem from lack of regulation and over-reliance on artificial intelligence.  ...  Also, training data teaches an algorithm to act in a specific way. as "donation to you" or "money transfer to your bank account" and artificial intelligence can detect this pattern.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.3439702 fatcat:54zv7vvppne7dn6gcfh3phxt5e

The Role of Social Movements, Coalitions, and Workers in Resisting Harmful Artificial Intelligence and Contributing to the Development of Responsible AI [article]

Susan von Struensee
2021 arXiv   pre-print
There are biased, wrongful, and disturbing assumptions embedded in AI algorithms that could get locked in without intervention. Our best human judgment is needed to contain AI's harmful impact.  ...  ethics and values of those heavily investing in and profiting from AI are under global scrutiny.  ...  State and Local Government Task Forces Continue to Examine Artificial Intelligence Trustworthiness, COVINGTON, (May 15, 2020) https://www.insidetechmedia.com/2020/05/15/ai-update-u-s-state-and-local-government-task-forcescontinue-to-examine-artificial-intelligence-trustworthiness  ... 
arXiv:2107.14052v1 fatcat:etqo64ksjzaihmt4kr7b6auxiu

Accountability of Algorithms in the GDPR and beyond: A European Legal Framework on Automated Decision-Making

Céline Castets-Renard
2019 Social Science Research Network  
/12/25/the-welfare-state-is-committingsuicide-by-artificial-intelligence/ [https://perma.cc/K59K-NM3U].FORDHAM INTELL.  ...  First, it may not be technically useful, because the algorithms are increasingly complex, especially the artificial intelligence systems.  ...  problems of algorithmic decision-making.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.3391266 fatcat:hsueyvj3mjcupjbstawwaiunm4
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