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One step back before moving forward: Regulation of transcription elongation by arrest and backtracking

Fernando Gómez-Herreros, Lola de Miguel-Jiménez, Gonzalo Millán-Zambrano, Xenia Peñate, Lidia Delgado-Ramos, Mari Cruz Muñoz-Centeno, Sebastián Chávez
2012 FEBS Letters  
RNA polymerase II backtracking is a well-known phenomenon, but its involvement in gene regulation is yet to be addressed.  ...  Structural studies into the backtracked complex, new reactivation mechanisms and genome-wide approaches are shedding some light on this interesting aspect of gene transcription.  ...  Backtracking in the chromatin context The mechanism explaining this differential tendency of RNA polymerase II to backtrack is unknown.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2012.07.030 pmid:22819814 fatcat:rmyyoyncsbhy3l2fbr3jlcwg7m

UC Merced Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society Title Back on track: Backtracking in counterfactual reasoning Publication Date Back on track: Backtracking in counterfactual reasoning

Tobias Gerstenberg, Christos Bechlivanidis, David Lagnado, Tobias Gerstenberg, David Lagnado
2013 Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society   unpublished
However, when directly asked about the effects of a counterfactual state, most people don't backtrack.  ...  The results show that participants are more likely to backtrack when explicitly asked to consider a counterfactual's causes.  ...  Hannes Kürmann, the protagonist in Max Frisch's play Biography: A Game, gets the unique chance to go back in time and play the game of life for a second time.  ... 
fatcat:64jko43a2zfs7ebl6odyps4yo4

Trail Saving on Backtrack [chapter]

Randy Hickey, Fahiem Bacchus
2020 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
A CDCL SAT solver can backtrack a large distance when it learns a new clause, e.g, when the new learnt clause is a unit clause the solver has to backtrack to level zero.  ...  Our new trail saving technique offers different tradeoffs in comparison with chronological backtracking and often yields superior performance.  ...  From the 1-UIP clause it learns, C 1-UIP , it now has to backtrack to L back . This is accomplished by calling backtrack(L back ), shown in Fig. 1 , which saves the backtracked portion of the trail.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-51825-7_4 fatcat:cpma3tlplngqrd7n6zuk4zjvdq

Handling backtracking in Web applications

B. Biel, M. Book, V. Gruhn, D. Peters, C. Schafer
2004 Proceedings. 30th Euromicro Conference, 2004.  
A common challenge in the development of web applications today lies in the handling of unforeseen navigation steps initiated by the user through the browser's Back, Forward and Reload buttons.  ...  We therefore present an approach to handling Back and Forward navigation that realizes undo/redo semantics and illustrate its implementation using the example of a web-based conference management system  ...  A i == 0 B (i == 1) C D b1 c d Back 1 (i++) b2 A (i == 0) B (i == 1) C b1 c 1 (i++) b2 B (i == 2) D d 1 (i++) b2 Back b 1 Backtracking in Cache Backtracking on Server [2] , using solid arrows for  ... 
doi:10.1109/eurmic.2004.1333394 dblp:conf/euromicro/BielBGPS04 fatcat:sq3buxum55cmbagkijkd74oy2a

Induced copy-back RNA synthesis as a novel therapeutic mechanism against RNA viruses [article]

Richard Janissen, Andrew Woodman, Kuo-Ming Lee, Ibrahim Moustafa, Fiona Fitzgerald, Peng-Nien Huang, Louis Kuijpers, Angela L Perkins, Daniel A Harki, Jamie J Arnold, Belen Solano, Shin-Ru Shih (+2 others)
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
The use of a magnetic-tweezers platform to monitor RdRp elongation dynamics permitted direct observation of copy-back synthesis and illuminated properties of the RdRp that promote copy-back synthesis,  ...  Here, we provide evidence for the single-stranded RNA product of backtracking serving as an intermediate in RdRp-catalyzed, template-switching reactions.  ...  The increased pausing did not translate to an equal increase in backtracks or copy-back synthesis (Figs. 3E, 4E ).  ... 
doi:10.1101/2020.02.12.946558 fatcat:56fgbusnuja5xee7w2lth3jo5u

A longitudinal study of programmers' backtracking

Young Seok Yoon, Brad A. Myers
2014 2014 IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing (VL/HCC)  
Using this method, we detected a total of 15,095 backtracking instances, which gives an average backtracking rate of 10.3/hour.  ...  Programming often involves reverting source code to an earlier state, which we call backtracking.  ...  disappeared and was put back in.  ... 
doi:10.1109/vlhcc.2014.6883030 dblp:conf/vl/YoonM14 fatcat:4or7praddjctncdkolzs3bfh7a

Derivatives of Parsing Expression Grammars

Aaron Moss
2017 Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science  
This work also introduces asymptotic analysis based on inputs with a constant bound on both grammar nesting depth and number of backtracking choices; derivative and recursive descent parsing are shown  ...  More formally, the functions back and match produce sets of backtracking generations from parsing expressions; back(ϕ) is the set of backtracking generations currently being parsed by ϕ while match(ϕ)  ...  (ϕ) = (0 ∈ back(α) ?  ... 
doi:10.4204/eptcs.252.18 fatcat:rta36b7mifd47pkofvd45a5vnq

Principles of plasma pattern and alternative structure compilation

Jean-Paul Arcangeli, Christian Pomian
1990 Theoretical Computer Science  
In a first step, patterns are translated in a pror Am in which backtracking is performed by simple jumps. Then, at run time, only message parsing is done.  ...  Efficient backtracking for 3 or !: T must be performed by a jump to back-to-X and not by a jump to back-to-Y.  ...  (A is a constant) . . . if M = [ ] goto back-to-? if car(M) # A goto back-to-? M := cdr( M). . . 4. 2 . 2 Code for [...:A...] Cf;rst occurrence of :A) =.. if M = [ ] goto back-to-?  ... 
doi:10.1016/0304-3975(90)90196-o fatcat:26srvyixbvgbbbm4w7pwlemu7e

Going back in Hypertext

Gene Golovchinsky
2002 Proceedings of the thirteenth ACM conference on Hypertext and hypermedia - HYPERTEXT '02  
Navigation can be exploratory, or it may involve backtracking to some previously-visited node.  ...  While backtracking interfaces are common, they may not reflect differences in readers' purposes and mental models.  ...  Back button We introduced the "back" button to reduce the cognitive effort associated with backtracking.  ... 
doi:10.1145/513338.513363 dblp:conf/ht/Golovchinsky02 fatcat:vhyhfciy3nbt7jsrbylf2tdk5m

Going back in Hypertext

Gene Golovchinsky
2002 Proceedings of the thirteenth ACM conference on Hypertext and hypermedia - HYPERTEXT '02  
Navigation can be exploratory, or it may involve backtracking to some previously-visited node.  ...  While backtracking interfaces are common, they may not reflect differences in readers' purposes and mental models.  ...  Back button We introduced the "back" button to reduce the cognitive effort associated with backtracking.  ... 
doi:10.1145/513357.513363 fatcat:ztohoh2sy5aibkpjawtvwis62q

Going back in hypertext

Gene Golovchinsky
2000 ACM SIGWEB Newsletter  
Navigation can be exploratory, or it may involve backtracking to some previously-visited node.  ...  While backtracking interfaces are common, they may not reflect differences in readers' purposes and mental models.  ...  Back button We introduced the "back" button to reduce the cognitive effort associated with backtracking.  ... 
doi:10.1145/763988.763991 fatcat:5k5ky4n6argyzcax2dd6z4gua4

Experimental evaluation of preprocessing algorithms for constraint satisfaction problems

Rina Dechter, Itay Meiri
1994 Artificial Intelligence  
In the first series of experiments, we evaluated the effect of each of the local consistency techniques on backtracking and backjumping.  ...  Directional arc consistency (followed by either backjumping or backtracking) and backjumping (without any preprocessing) outperformed all other techniques: moreover, the former dominated the latter in  ...  Backtracking and backjumping A backtracking algorithm for finding one solution is given in Fig. 2 Backjumping improves the go-back phase of backtracking.  ... 
doi:10.1016/0004-3702(94)90068-x fatcat:i6nfjubz6fat3owqezqmjzt7j4

Enhancing a Search Algorithm to Perform Intelligent Backtracking [article]

Maurice Bruynooghe
2003 arXiv   pre-print
Keywords: intelligent backtracking, dependency-directed backtracking, backjumping, conflict-directed backjumping, nogood sets, look-back.  ...  This paper illustrates how a Prolog program, using chronological backtracking to find a solution in some search space, can be enhanced to perform intelligent backtracking.  ...  This is not the case for look-back methods. Intelligent backtracking has been explored as a way of improving the backtracking behavior of logic programs (Bruynooghe and Pereira 1984) .  ... 
arXiv:cs/0311003v1 fatcat:fo3qnoqcpzcsjmiqks4gbv23xe

Robust and Fast Pattern Matching for Intrusion Detection

Kedar Namjoshi, Girija Narlikar
2010 2010 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM  
Easy to adapt to back-references Back-References  A new input byte is read from the packet  Backtracking does less work because the traces are "bad" traces (i.e., they match the specification)  ...  matching uses backtracking  Problem: a specification with back-references mixed up with bad regular expressions > potentially exponential matching complexity > IDS open to a low-frequency DOS attack  ... 
doi:10.1109/infcom.2010.5462149 dblp:conf/infocom/NamjoshiN10 fatcat:j4woz2v3tzajffk2edwmu7ykji

Building a backtracking facility in smalltalk without kernel support

Wilf R. LaLonde, Mark Van Gulik
1988 Conference proceedings on Object-oriented programming systems, languages and applications - OOPSLA '88  
Retrofitting a backtracking facility in a language that wasn't designed for it has never been achieved. We report on an experiment to retrofit Smalltalk with a backtracking facility.  ...  Languages like Snobol, Prolog, and Icon were designed with backtracking facilities from the outset and these facilities are deeply intertwined with the implementation.  ...  is possible (we will come back to the notifier later).  ... 
doi:10.1145/62083.62094 dblp:conf/oopsla/LaLondeG88 fatcat:pzcm7rc6cngsjgo4xnwfhhd37q
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