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Avoiding the intrinsic unfairness of the trolley problem

Tobias Holstein, Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic
2018 Proceedings of the International Workshop on Software Fairness - FairWare '18  
The intrinsic unfairness of the trolley problem comes from the assumption that lives of different people have different values.  ...  In this paper, techno-social arguments are used to show the infeasibility of the trolley problem when addressing the ethics of selfdriving cars.  ...  INTRINSIC UNFAIRNESS OF THE TROLLEY PROBLEM Discussions of the trolley problem in the context of self-driving cars include the assumption that self-driving car can make a decision that will lead to a specific  ... 
doi:10.1145/3194770.3194772 dblp:conf/icse/HolsteinD18 fatcat:kqjjnzdp5jhwpie5dk6mylecwq

What About Applied Fairness? [article]

Jared Sylvester, Edward Raff
2018 arXiv   pre-print
, should be avoided.  ...  This is true even when that progress does not get us 100% of the way to the goal of "complete" fairness or perfectly align with our personal belief on which measure of fairness is used.  ...  With self-driving cars on the precipice of deployment, the trolley car problem makes intuitive sense for study.  ... 
arXiv:1806.05250v1 fatcat:6rtwcyodvbghvbq34bwqu3twr4

Moral Behavior of Automated Vehicles: The Impact on Product Perception

Anna Katharina Frison, Philipp Wintersberger, Andreas Riener, Clemens Schartmüller
2018 Mensch & Computer  
We assume that the perceived quality of a holistic driving experience is dependent on the accordance of vehicles' moral and ethical decisions with users' expectations concerning values and attitudes.  ...  Consequently, algorithms of highly automated vehicles should be programmed to behave similarly to the affect- and intuition-based reasoning of human drivers.  ...  Some researchers Nyholm & Smids, 2016) argue that the use of the "Trolley Problem" is misleading, as it is intrinsically unfair by assuming that different lives have different values.  ... 
doi:10.18420/muc2018-ws15-0475 dblp:conf/mc/FrisonWRS18 fatcat:r4k2fzt23ver7hihhk634cx374

Ethics into the (brain) company: from moral people to moral organization?

Michela Balconi, Giulia Fronda
2020 International Research Center for Cognitive Applied Neuroscience (IrcCAN)  
the "trolley dilemma".  ...  In the trolley-dilemma subjects have to decide if they are willing to sacrifice the life of one person to save five people from being run over by a trolley.  ... 
doi:10.7359/945-2020-bal7 fatcat:xmirrvhhtbguxfdikheiayacwq

How are Price Fixing Agreements Unfair?

Carlos Delvasto
2019 Social Science Research Network  
I was very fortunate to have the support of the international student office in the College of Law. To Christine Renshaw and Sally Cook thank you. v TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER  ...  I also would like to thank the support of Lina Restrepo at University Valle and John Palencia at University Javeriana Cali.  ...  His patience and willingness to listen to my ideas and debate the theoretical and empirical points made this project reach a safe port. For his wisdom and guidance, I am deeply grateful.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.3418482 fatcat:g25lgm4jxfcxpd3jnvntjcz3cm

Moral Hypocrisy on the Basis of Construal Level: To Be a Utilitarian Personal Decision Maker or to Be a Moral Advisor?

Wei Xiao, Qing Wu, Qun Yang, Liang Zhou, Yuan Jiang, Jiaxi Zhang, Danmin Miao, Jiaxi Peng, Luis M Martinez
2015 PLoS ONE  
of people saved (5 people or 15 people) by two problem situations (trolley problem vs. footbridge problem).  ...  The interaction of the problem situation and saving number (F 1, 752 = 1.01, p = .31), and social distance and saving number (F 1, 752 = 0.85, p = .36), and interaction of the three independent factors  ...  Most participants faced with the trolley dilemma made a decision consistent with utilitarianism, in that they emphasized the maximization of overall lives saved, rather than the avoidance of causing death  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117540 pmid:25689521 pmcid:PMC4331369 fatcat:7ce7ehzt4zdp3e7nijegrbxdfa

Moral Judgment and Moral Neuroscience: Intersections, Definitions, and Issues

Melanie Killen, Judith Smetana
2008 Child Development Perspectives  
The moral neurosciences are an emerging area of research that has the potential to improve our understanding of the biological basis of morality.  ...  The current article discusses how morality has been defined and assessed in several new and prominent lines of research in the moral neurosciences and in research over the past 30 years on moral judgment  ...  avoid killing five persons.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1750-8606.2008.00033.x fatcat:wq3ejzr3azfxnad7las2osakoq

Moral Decision-making as Compared to Economic and Shopping Contexts. Gender Effects and Utilitarianism

Claudio Lucchiari, Francesca Meroni, Maria Elide Vanutelli
2019 Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia  
Also, women were more inclined to refuse unfair offers, which included a higher personal benefit at the expense of the opponent, even if this meant a total loss for both parties.  ...  In the present study we aimed at exploring the presence of gender differences in different decision-making scenarios.  ...  Since women are generally reported to be more risk aversive than men, 80 we might think that women interpreted unfair offers as potential risks to avoid.  ... 
doi:10.4453/rifp.2019.0004 doaj:19281fca454d4f8697d9e656eed53271 fatcat:ftmxpil7bnfghoozza2o5filci

Moral Learning: Conceptual foundations and normative relevance

Peter Railton
2017 Cognition  
judgment-including the notorious "trolley problems."  ...  Part of the answer lies in the remarkable transformations that have taken place in learning theory over the past two decades, which have revealed how powerful experience-based learning can be in the acquisition  ...  Realistic trolley problems?  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2016.08.015 pmid:27601269 fatcat:cngssvyvhze6nkwckzviwfhiji

Dilemmas, Conspiracies, and Sophie's Choice: Vignette Themes and Ethical Judgments

Peter E. Mudrack, E. Sharon Mason
2013 Journal of Business Ethics  
In order to save these five lives, the driver is able to divert the trolley to a side track on which only one worker, who likewise is unable to avoid the trolley, is standing.  ...  Runaway Trolley Themed Vignettes In the classic "trolley problem" (e.g., Bartels and Pizarro, 2011, p. 159; Thomson, 1985) , a trolley without working brakes is bearing down on five workers on a track  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10551-012-1611-0 fatcat:q6u2ydiparbtzcvudwjheggrla

Autonomous Driving and Public Reason: a Rawlsian Approach

Claudia Brändle, Michael W. Schmidt
2021 Philosophy & Technology  
the problem of reasonable pluralism: Reasonable pluralism refers to the fact that there exists a plurality of reasonable yet incompatible comprehensive moral doctrines (religions, philosophies, worldviews  ...  The corresponding problem is that a politically acceptable solution cannot refer to only one of these comprehensive doctrines.  ...  We would also like to thank the organizers and participants of the 2021 Rabb Symposium "Embedding AI in Society" and the CEPE/IACAP Joint Conference 2021 "The Philosophy and Ethics of Artificial Intelligence  ... 
doi:10.1007/s13347-021-00468-1 fatcat:x4utxlogczdbtklzws3gybqvmq

Politics by Automatic Means? A Critique of Artificial Intelligence Ethics at Work

Matthew Cole, Callum Cant, Funda Ustek Spilda, Mark Graham
2022 Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence  
Such processes are aimed at reshaping the social impact of technology from the point of inception to set a research agenda for the future.  ...  As such, the key contribution of the paper is how to bridge from abstract ethical principles to operationalizable processes in the vast field of AI and new technology at work.  ...  There are many examples of AI reproducing and/or amplifying patterns of social discrimination, and the thinking used in the trolley problem being extended to solving these problems too.  ... 
doi:10.3389/frai.2022.869114 pmid:35910189 pmcid:PMC9334705 doaj:29c639ad50174b4e991c2c34885d2afa fatcat:mmwp5zuxpjfirdydyf5b43d4oy

Fault and the allocation of spare organs

B Smart
1994 Journal of Medical Ethics  
Imagine the aggressor has pushed his trolley to the crest of the hill and has now tied himself in it so that he cannot jump out: you are tied to the track down which the trolley is heading and fortunately  ...  To decide in this way is to include morality in the DJC: it is not addressed to rectifying any wrong, for the problem of scarcity is neither party's fault.  ... 
doi:10.1136/jme.20.1.26 pmid:8035435 pmcid:PMC1376370 fatcat:kuxsdborjrfr5lq7dj7odvhzii

Deontology, Governmental Action, and the Distributive Exemption: How the Trolley Problem Shapes the Relationship between Rights and Policy

Tim Stelzig
1998 University of Pennsylvania law review  
desired benefit in a way not true of the one in the original Trolley Problem.  ...  THE TROLLEY PROBLEM Philippa Foot founded an entire cottage industry several decades ago by introducing her Trolley Problem. 4 Thomson's presentation of the problem is particularly insightful and will  ... 
doi:10.2307/3312613 fatcat:mnktjixiyvewbj5wiuaoytku3q

The Vulcanization of the Human Brain: A Neural Perspective on Interactions Between Cognition and Emotion

Jonathan D Cohen
2005 Journal of Economic Perspectives  
if they are perceived to be unfair (Henrich et al., 2001).  ...  However, this principle cannot explain the Trolley Dilemma.  ... 
doi:10.1257/089533005775196750 fatcat:3xpt5f734bd6losu4e46lhs5lu
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