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Automated Invariant Generation for the Verification of Real-Time Systems

Bahareh Badban, Stefan Leue, Jan-Georg Smaus
<span class="release-stage">unpublished</span>
We present an approach to automatically generating invariants for timed automata models.  ...  The CIPM algorithm that we propose first computes new invariants for timed automata control locations taking their originally defined invariants as well as the constrains on clock variables imposed by  ...  The purpose of our work is to provide support for an automated predicate abstraction technique for dense real-time models according to the timed automaton model of [1] by generating a more useful set  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.29007/npn7">doi:10.29007/npn7</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/6lp7yatqvvgv7gxqqauz2wtlgy">fatcat:6lp7yatqvvgv7gxqqauz2wtlgy</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180721164730/https://easychair.org/publications/download/Z" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/f5/f3/f5f3522c22213b1438a51baf1e3904a41be4d5e2.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.29007/npn7"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

STeP: Deductive-algorithmic verification of reactive and real-time systems [chapter]

Nikolaj Bjørner, Anca Browne, Eddie Chang, Michael Colón, Arjun Kapur, Zohar Manna, Henny B. Sipma, Tomás E. Uribe
<span title="">1996</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
STeP implements a variety of techniques for automatic invariant generation.  ...  System Description: The Stanford Temporal Prover, STEP, supports the computer-aided formal verification of reactive, real-time (and, in particular, concurrent) systems based on temporal specifications.  ...  In either case, the system is responsible for generating and proving all of the required verification conditions.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-61474-5_92">doi:10.1007/3-540-61474-5_92</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/4bak2upg5ncz7eb3iratmwbsom">fatcat:4bak2upg5ncz7eb3iratmwbsom</a> </span>
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No Crash, No Exploit: Automated Verification of Embedded Kernels [article]

Olivier Nicole, Matthieu Lemerre, Sébastien Bardin, Xavier Rival
<span title="2020-11-30">2020</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
We demonstrate our method on two different use cases: we use our tool to help the development of a new embedded real-time kernel, and we verify an existing industrial real-time kernel executable with no  ...  The kernel is the most safety- and security-critical component of many computer systems, as the most severe bugs lead to complete system crash or exploit.  ...  Xavier Rival received funding from the French ANR, as part of the Veriamos grant. Matthieu Lemerre and Sébastien Bardin also received funding from the ANR as part of the TAVA grant.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.15065v1">arXiv:2011.15065v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/7qprfoncxjfs3eavcy4xzjwhwa">fatcat:7qprfoncxjfs3eavcy4xzjwhwa</a> </span>
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Automatic Verification of Real-Time Systems with Rich Data: An Overview [chapter]

Ernst-Rüdiger Olderog
<span title="">2012</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
, which advances the automatic verification of high-level specifications of systems exhibiting the three dimensions of process behavior, complex infinite data, and continuous real-time-beyond the capabilities  ...  We present an overview of the results of the project "Beyond Timed Automata" of the Collaborative Research Center AVACS (Automatic Verification and Analysis of Complex Systems) during the period 2008-2011  ...  This paper is a report of the work done in the project  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-29952-0_14">doi:10.1007/978-3-642-29952-0_14</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/tplffbonpngj7hsyxyhan5rm6m">fatcat:tplffbonpngj7hsyxyhan5rm6m</a> </span>
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Bellerophon: Tactical Theorem Proving for Hybrid Systems [chapter]

Nathan Fulton, Stefan Mitsch, Brandon Bohrer, André Platzer
<span title="">2017</span> <i title="Springer International Publishing"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
Among the automation that emerges are tactics for decomposing hybrid systems, discovering and establishing invariants of nonlinear continuous systems, arithmetic simplifications to maximize the benefit  ...  We demonstrate that in focusing on the important domain of hybrid systems verification, Bellerophon emerges with unique automation that provides a productive proving experience for hybrid systems from  ...  SpaceEx [11] , provide automated hybrid systems verification for linear hybrid systems, but at the expense of a large trusted codebase and limited ways of helping when automation fails, which is inevitable  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-66107-0_14">doi:10.1007/978-3-319-66107-0_14</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/okhqcrimebhxfmk5374hjwgwsq">fatcat:okhqcrimebhxfmk5374hjwgwsq</a> </span>
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Industrial-Strength Verification of Solid State Interlocking Programs [article]

Alexei Iliasov, Dominic Taylor, Linas Laibinis, Alexander Romanovsky
<span title="2022-01-14">2022</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
It ensures fully-automated verification of safety properties using the state of the art techniques (automated theorem provers and solvers), and provides diagnostics in terms of the notations used by engineers  ...  The increasing complexity of modern interlocking poses a major challenge to ensuring railway safety. This calls for application of formal methods forassurance and verification of their safety.  ...  projects for automated railway signalling verification.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2108.10091v2">arXiv:2108.10091v2</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/66aejovznbfjpachl4m54fasza">fatcat:66aejovznbfjpachl4m54fasza</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20220118152957/https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/2108/2108.10091.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/b2/dd/b2dd962fd14949c8d1678e127f9c5e938fa221d1.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2108.10091v2" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>

From Refutation to Verification [chapter]

John Rushby
<span title="">2000</span> <i title="Springer US"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/kss7mrolvja63k4rmix3iynkzi" style="color: black;">IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology</a> </i> &nbsp;
An approach built around automated abstractions could integrate theorem proving with model checking in an acceptable way and provide a bridge between refutation and verification.  ...  Theorem proving and formal verification are less popular.  ...  to distinguish whether a bug is real or not: we simply transform the scenario that manifests the bug in the model into a scenario for the real system (or for a simulator, or for a more accurate mathematical  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-35533-7_23">doi:10.1007/978-0-387-35533-7_23</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/n57bh6n4ufdhjhnym3qwxvgnr4">fatcat:n57bh6n4ufdhjhnym3qwxvgnr4</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180729011556/https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2F978-0-387-35533-7_23.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/24/69/24692f48325a5ec03bef84f67e93f2ccf5748cbd.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-35533-7_23"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Automated Verification and Synthesis of Embedded Systems using Machine Learning [article]

Lucas Cordeiro
<span title="2017-02-28">2017</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
Reliability issues, in the development of micro-grids and cyber-physical systems, are then considered, as a prominent verification and synthesis application.  ...  In particular, machine learning techniques emerge as one of the main approaches to learn reliable implementations of embedded software for achieving a correct-by-construction design.  ...  VERIFICATION AND SYNTHESIS CHALLENGES FOR EMBEDDED SYSTEMS State-of-the-art verification methodologies for embedded systems generate test vectors (with constraints) and use assertion-based verification  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1702.07847v2">arXiv:1702.07847v2</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/icus3c6bovbqvineb5n26ydcva">fatcat:icus3c6bovbqvineb5n26ydcva</a> </span>
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Cooperative reasoning for automatic software verification

Andrew Ireland
<span title="">2007</span> <i title="ACM Press"> Proceedings of the second workshop on Automated formal methods - AFM &#39;07 </i> &nbsp;
One of its key selling points is its support for automating so called exception freedom proofs, i.e. proving that a system is free from common run-time errors such as buffer overflows.  ...  Program properties considered by the system included properties associated with heap data and with resource consumption. Much of the work was concerned with automatically generating loop invariants.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/1345169.1345175">doi:10.1145/1345169.1345175</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/2c5i67mz4fguzogyeoflfoe2li">fatcat:2c5i67mz4fguzogyeoflfoe2li</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170705102405/http://www.macs.hw.ac.uk/~air/core/core-seplogic-proposal.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/56/a5/56a5fb7ee19a55f6ed397ce00fe87a99c8b0599e.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/1345169.1345175"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> acm.org </button> </a>

Distributed Mils (D-Mils) Specification, Analysis, Deployment, And Assurance Of Distributed Critical Systems

Harald Rueß, Stefano Tonetta
<span title="2015-01-20">2015</span> <i title="Zenodo"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2vqdbwpljnbcfm7funvunf2kam" style="color: black;">International Conference on High Performance Embedded Architectures and Compilers</a> </i> &nbsp;
Presentation on D-MILS project overview and verification framework  ...   Combined with IC3IA for verification of infinite-state systems K-liveness for timed/hybrid models n Problem for parametric and real-time/hybrid systems t The number of visits of can depend on parameters  ...  at most times for increasing value of t Reduced to invariant checking t Very efficient for finite-state systems t Integrated with IC3 for an incremental check of different n Implemented in nuXmv t  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.47985">doi:10.5281/zenodo.47985</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/hipeac/RuessT15.html">dblp:conf/hipeac/RuessT15</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ovbvzpwbarh5dmeckjxa3ru2e4">fatcat:ovbvzpwbarh5dmeckjxa3ru2e4</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200320200907/https://zenodo.org/record/47985/files/09-D-MILS-Overview-MILS-Workshop.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/be/f8/bef8e8edfc2f589581daf048841573775463ae74.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.47985"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> zenodo.org </button> </a>

Formal Verification of Signalling Programs with SafeCap [chapter]

Alexei Iliasov, Dominic Taylor, Linas Laibinis, Alexander Romanovsky
<span title="">2018</span> <i title="Springer International Publishing"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
This paper discusses the use of SafeCap for formal analysis and fully-automated scalable safety verification of solid state interlocking (SSI) programs -a technology at the heart of many railway signalling  ...  of the state of the art verification techniques (in particular, automated theorem provers and solvers), and (iii) providing diagnostics in terms of the notations used by the engineers.  ...  It appears to deliver the optimal combination of a terse, efficient notation for expressing conjectures and safety invariants, while, at the same time, also enabling effective symbolic automated proofs  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99130-6_7">doi:10.1007/978-3-319-99130-6_7</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/osutfqwnzjgdpee5wpkghcmkwu">fatcat:osutfqwnzjgdpee5wpkghcmkwu</a> </span>
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Verifying Safety and Persistence Properties of Hybrid Systems Using Flowpipes and Continuous Invariants [chapter]

Andrew Sogokon, Paul B. Jackson, Taylor T. Johnson
<span title="">2017</span> <i title="Springer International Publishing"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
We propose a method for verifying persistence of nonlinear hybrid systems.  ...  The approach combines flow-pipe computation with deductive reasoning about invariants and is more general than each technique alone.  ...  Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank the anonymous reviewers for their careful reading and valuable suggestions for improving this paper.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57288-8_14">doi:10.1007/978-3-319-57288-8_14</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/czwmyzclabgspnmq2pcdipdhfi">fatcat:czwmyzclabgspnmq2pcdipdhfi</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190220165238/http://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2b21/388052e7aac414610014cbd8517f348085c7.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/2b/21/2b21388052e7aac414610014cbd8517f348085c7.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57288-8_14"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Automatically Proving Microkernels Free from Privilege Escalation from their Executable [article]

Olivier Nicole, Matthieu Lemerre, Sébastien Bardin, Xavier Rival
<span title="2020-03-19">2020</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
Operating system kernels are the security keystone of most computer systems, as they provide the core protection mechanisms.  ...  We demonstrate that proving such absence of privilege escalation is a pre-requisite for any definitive security proof of the kernel.  ...  1 , a leading tool provider for safety-critical real-time systems, with presence in the aerospace, automative, and industrial automation markets. typically corresponds to having a hardware flag set (supervisor  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2003.08915v1">arXiv:2003.08915v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/wggfoncabbcibn4m7fg5zpjr7i">fatcat:wggfoncabbcibn4m7fg5zpjr7i</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200322231228/https://arxiv.org/pdf/2003.08915v1.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2003.08915v1" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>

Automated verification and refinement for physical-layer protocols

Geoffrey M. Brown, Lee Pike
<span title="2010-03-10">2010</span> <i title="Springer Nature"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/oeimezgcfbas7drzmyhogjmlb4" style="color: black;">Formal Aspects of Computing</a> </i> &nbsp;
The approach combines the ease of finite-state verification with the fidelity of an infinite-state real-time model.  ...  We develop a finite-state specification for 8N1, apply this specification to a system design incorporating transmitter and receiver shift-registers, and verify the refinement between real-time implementation  ...  The authors wish to thank John Rushby and Bruno Dutertre for comments and suggestions on this research.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s00165-010-0149-0">doi:10.1007/s00165-010-0149-0</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/gei7d663orgofd7kftuipkcp7m">fatcat:gei7d663orgofd7kftuipkcp7m</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170921225901/https://www.cs.indiana.edu/~lepike/pubs/saljrnl.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/ea/92/ea9227ac9d990d9a6e852c042b39471cde03b6fa.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s00165-010-0149-0"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Formal verification of hybrid systems

Rajeev Alur
<span title="">2011</span> <i title="ACM Press"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2n36vommjbafnkaccvl2qvetye" style="color: black;">Proceedings of the ninth ACM international conference on Embedded software - EMSOFT &#39;11</a> </i> &nbsp;
In this article, we briefly review selected existing approaches to formal verification of hybrid systems, along with directions for future research.  ...  In formal verification, a designer first constructs a model, with mathematically precise semantics, of the system under design, and performs extensive analysis with respect to correctness requirements.  ...  We thank Oded Maler and André Platzer for their feedback on this article.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/2038642.2038685">doi:10.1145/2038642.2038685</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/emsoft/Alur11.html">dblp:conf/emsoft/Alur11</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/wtxbmn6karefzhpzsuhugqnzsq">fatcat:wtxbmn6karefzhpzsuhugqnzsq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20120124161016/http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~alur/EmsoftSurvey11.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/2b/d2/2bd2d2bb9740d2376ee6a3f7b25d72993e53aae8.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/2038642.2038685"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> acm.org </button> </a>
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