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Invisible genomes: the genomics revolution and patenting practice

Adam Bostanci, Jane Calvert
2008 Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences  
This research was part of the program of Egenis, the ESRC Centre for Genomics in Society at the University of Exeter.  ...  Adam Bostanci acknowledges a scholarship for doctoral studies from the University of Exeter.  ...  Whereas previously it had been possible to determine the DNA sequences of particular genes or the genome sequence of simple viruses, automated DNA sequencing machines along with the data-processing powers  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.shpsc.2007.12.010 pmid:18331958 fatcat:xkdwvjajhfei7hjkkwfnw2sglq

Biodiversity Research and Innovation in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean [article]

Paul D Oldham, Jasmine Kindness
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
and payment for ecosystem services that would bring the Antarctic, and the Antarctic Treaty System, into the wider fold of work on the economics of biodiversity.  ...  The paper argues that biodiversity is not a free good but must be paid for.  ...  661 that, as Jefferson et. al. 2013 have ably demonstrated, sequences may appear in patent data 662 either because they are comparative reference sequences, or because they are claimed 663 [159] .  ... 
doi:10.1101/2020.05.03.074849 fatcat:s4tlsbtbfzf5vg2sgay5nss6ve

The Learning Needs of the Patent System: Implications from Institutionalism for Emerging Technologies Like Synthetic Biology

Sivaramjani Thambisetty
2013 Social Science Research Network  
This paper transposes dominant normative critiques with an institutionalist view of patent law by analysing how the multi-institutional setup of the patent system may determine the quality and coherence  ...  The institutional environment of the patent system makes it opaque, sticky and complex. These significant features are examined for the first time in this paper.  ...  The argument that the absence of any reference to the prior destruction of human embryos in the patent application would mean that products of such embryos are patentable was explicitly addressed by the  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.2272980 fatcat:g425fgz6ujafrp3krsrxckkyva

The State of Art of New Transgenic Techniques in Plant Breeding: A Review

S Mahesh
2016 Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology  
Table 15 summarises the claims of the patents in terms of plants and traits.  ...  It is a very general patent since no specific plant species is claimed. The patent claims that silencing can be directed towards harmful genes for the plant or unwanted traits like over-ripeness.  ...  As a service of the European Commission, the Joint Research Centre functions as a reference centre of science and technology for the Union.  ... 
doi:10.9734/jabb/2016/27846 fatcat:4oa5ne5edrexvfisvmcdbgod3m

SIENNA D2.4: Ethical Analysis of Human Genetics and Genomics

Alexandra Soulier, Emilia Niemiec, Heidi Carmen Howard
2019 Zenodo  
In particular, we focus on the ethical issues pertaining to two areas of human genomics: 1) the study of the genome as currently performed through high throughput sequencing (e.g. with tools such as next  ...  Secondly, we provide an extensive ethical analysis of human genomics .  ...  We also would like to thank, for their contributions to this report, experts of genomics and/or ELSI of genomics who accepted interviews and took part in our survey and workshops.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.4068015 fatcat:c2xwv5h6jje4piilvj6rv6uajm

The ReceptIVFity cohort study protocol to validate the urogenital microbiome as predictor for IVF or IVF/ICSI outcome

Rivka Koedooder, Martin Singer, Sam Schoenmakers, Paul Hendrik Maria Savelkoul, Servaas Antonie Morré, Jonathan Dennis de Jonge, Linda Poort, Willem-Jan Simon Stephanus Cuypers, Andries Edward Budding, Joop Stephanus Elisabeth Laven
2018 Reproductive Health  
The composition of the urinary and vaginal microbiome will be analysed with both Next Generation Sequencing and the IS-pro technique.  ...  Studies have shown that the presence of certain microbiota during assisted reproductive technology (ART) has a positive impact on the outcome.  ...  The collection of microorganisms that live on or in the human body is known as our microbiota and its complete genetic profile as the microbiome.  ... 
doi:10.1186/s12978-018-0653-x fatcat:7djjtnhws5dx3ngjjhia2c4fmm

Patents as Credence Goods

S. Thambisetty
2007 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies  
This paper argues that in newly arising or immature technologies, patents are subject to intrinsic and extrinsic uncertainty that make them very opaque representations of the underlying inventions.  ...  Patents in immature technologies do not solve Arrow's information paradox of non-rivalrous goods because they do not represent the sharp exclusive right that is central to his thesis.  ...  may be categorised. 59 Breadth of a patent usually also correlates to the number of claims.  ... 
doi:10.1093/ojls/gqm021 fatcat:2423rycmhnfixfq6m2xroyugua

GLUE: a flexible software system for virus sequence data

Joshua B. Singer, Emma C. Thomson, John McLauchlan, Joseph Hughes, Robert J. Gifford
2018 BMC Bioinformatics  
HCV sequence data from GenBank is categorised and stored in a large-scale sequence alignment which is accessible via web-based queries.  ...  Virus genome sequences, generated in ever-higher volumes, can provide new scientific insights and inform our responses to epidemics and outbreaks.  ...  of HCV-GLUE, to Ru Xu of the Guangzhou Blood Center who contributed some metadata improvements for Genotype 6 sequences and to David Robertson and Massimo Palmarini who provided valuable feedback on the  ... 
doi:10.1186/s12859-018-2459-9 pmid:30563445 pmcid:PMC6299651 fatcat:bzbl2tx3gbelljsfeh5lnqhpcy

"Commercial revolution" of science: the complex reality and experience of genetic and genomic scientists

Isabelle Ganache
2006 Genomics, Society and Policy  
First, scientists insist on the existence of different types of university-industry relationships. Second, they urge that the multiple realities of genetic and genomic research be acknowledged.  ...  humanity as a whole.  ...  and a grant from Genome Quebec.  ... 
doi:10.1186/1746-5354-2-3-96 fatcat:6fapu5otura4hh6qrr6gqjn2wq

A new automated method for isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis from urine eliminates inhibition and increases robustness for NAAT systems

Marc Anglès d'Auriac, Unn Hilde Refseth, Mari Espelund, Harald Moi, Gunnar Størvold, Stig Jeansson
2007 Journal of Microbiological Methods  
Acknowledgements The bulk of the work presented in this thesis was carried out at the Department of Molecular Biosciences, Division of Molecular Biology, University of Oslo between January 1998 and August  ...  Harmful agents found in water can be categorised as being either chemical or microbial in nature. The latter is reported as causing the most human health disorders and morbidity.  ...  comprises the whole genome.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.mimet.2007.05.017 pmid:17610971 fatcat:47oyrrjbxzhbthumv73lpigtji

AI-Generated Inventions and IPR Policy During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Chhavi Sharma, Reeta Sony
2020 Legal Issues in the Digital Age  
The pandemic is a test of governments' medical capacity and their political will; it also raises several philosophical questions. It is a test of humans as a unit. A test of humanity as a whole.  ...  The paper attempts to strike a balance between the needs of health care, life-threatening emergencies and IP rights by applying a utilitarian theory of IP law that denotes the «utility» of all people,  ...  Sometimes, authors stated the significance of noting that every time a utilitarian solution to a dilemma is implemented, there will be greater wellbeing or happiness in the world.  ... 
doi:10.17323/2713-2749.2020.2.63.91 fatcat:cuemqbxsgbbbxfbubnsyctemhm

14. The Neurochemical Self and Its Anomalies [chapter]

Nikolas Rose, Aaron Doyle, Diana Ericson
2003 Risk and Morality  
The Neurochemical Self and Its Anomalies: 41 12 Quoted from the NIH News Release of 20.5.98, http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/press/1998/cogal-text.htm.  ...  But the draft sequence of the human genome published on 11 th February does not produce a single 'normal' sequence.  ...  From Risk to Susceptibility In the early days of human genome project, when the term 'geneticisation' came into fashion amongst critics, it was often thought that the sequencing of the human genome would  ... 
doi:10.3138/9781442679382-019 fatcat:p3wiozr56bg63bcwk4ygivb3uu

TA in Biomedicine and Healthcare - from clinical evaluation to policy consulting

L. Hennen
2001 TATuP - Journal for Technology Assessment in Theory and Practice  
In the light of the heavy media coverage of the race for sequencing the entire human genome in the last year and the expectations and promises of a break through in medical treatment and diagnosis connected  ...  Cloning (OPECST) Prenatal Diagnostic, medical assisted fertilisation (OPECST) Research on human embryos (STOA) Bio-informatics (STOA) Sequencing the Human genome (STOA, POST, TAB) Reproductive Technologies  ... 
doi:10.14512/tatup.10.1.13 fatcat:7onanh5ohvgsvhqdenukp4f4ze

Computer Architecture-Aware Optimisation of DNA Analysis Systems [article]

Hasindu Gamaarachchi
2021 arXiv   pre-print
The cost of sequencing a human genome also has reduced from billions of dollars to hundreds of dollars.  ...  DNA sequencers, the machines which perform DNA sequencing, have evolved from the size of a fridge to that of a mobile phone over the last two decades.  ...  With various improvements to this method, automated DNA sequencers were produced that were capable of sequencing complex genomes.  ... 
arXiv:2101.05012v1 fatcat:wcujdqliwzgrxd2zc2wcudbqpu

The Regulations [chapter]

2010 International Governance of Biotechnology  
concern, and signifi cant applications and impacts of biotechnology.  ...  Chapter 4 identifi ed seven issue areas in which there are both a high degree of international interdependence, where separate action by individual states will be insuffi cient to address matters of common  ...  for any damage sustained as a direct and determining result of an intervention' affecting their genome (Article 8). • Research on the human genome must respect human dignity, human rights and fundamental  ... 
doi:10.5040/9781849661812.ch-006 fatcat:25w7ei7bsvdc7naqvkbhx3n5xa
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