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Multiprocessor Real-Time Locking Protocols: A Systematic Review [article]

Björn B. Brandenburg
2019 arXiv   pre-print
preemption problem, spin-lock protocols, binary semaphore protocols, independence-preserving (or fully preemptive) locking protocols, reader-writer and k-exclusion synchronization, support for nested  ...  We systematically survey the literature on analytically sound multiprocessor real-time locking protocols from 1988 until 2018, covering the following topics: progress mechanisms that prevent the lock-holder  ...  Examples where a need for KX synchronization arises in real-time systems include multi-GPU systems (where any task may use any GPU, but each GPU must be used by at most one task at a time) [81] , systems  ... 
arXiv:1909.09600v1 fatcat:tmqcpiuxfbbd5jrcecgvoeanpm

Blocking Optimality in Distributed Real-Time Locking Protocols

Björn Bernhard Brandenburg
2013 Leibniz Transactions on Embedded Systems  
Lower and upper bounds on the maximum priority inversion blocking (pi-blocking) that is generally unavoidable in distributed multiprocessor real-time locking protocols (where resources may be accessed  ...  for some tasks under any locking protocol under both suspension-aware and suspension-oblivious schedulability analysis, where Φ denotes the ratio of the maximum response time to the shortest period.  ...  This question has long been answered for uniprocessor systems [2, 44, 48] , where it has been shown that the real-time mutual exclusion problem can be solved with O(1) maximum blocking: the priority ceiling  ... 
doi:10.4230/lites-v001-i002-a001 dblp:journals/lites/Brandenburg14 fatcat:mha3y2sqnjgphdzfvhhnyadbte

A Deadline-Floor Inheritance Protocol for EDF Scheduled Embedded Real-Time Systems with Resource Sharing

Alan Burns, Marina Gutierrez, Mario Aldea Rivas, Michael Gonzalez Harbour
2015 IEEE transactions on computers  
Earliest Deadline First (EDF) is the most widely studied optimal dynamic scheduling algorithm for uniprocessor real-time systems.  ...  On exit the original deadline for the task is restored. We show that the worst-case behaviour of the new protocol (termed DFP -Deadline Floor inheritance Protocol) is the same as SRP.  ...  The author would like to thank Sanjoy Baruah for a number of very useful discussions on the topic of this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tc.2014.2322619 fatcat:udxnto66rnbtppvxkpwfjutnei

Resource-Oriented Partitioning for Multiprocessor Systems with Shared Resources

Maolin Yang, Wen-Hung Huang, Jian-Jia Chen
2018 IEEE transactions on computers  
For uniprocessor systems, the Priority Ceiling Protocol (PCP) has been widely accepted and supported in real-time operating systems.  ...  Further, real-time locking protocols are required to avoid un-controlled priority inversions.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to thank Zewei Chen for conducting the experiments on SET-MARTS, and we appreciate the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions, which significantly  ... 
doi:10.1109/tc.2018.2889985 fatcat:wnj5syppibckbnw5lokwge5oy4

Generalized rate-monotonic scheduling theory: a framework for developing real-time systems

Lui Sha, R. Rajkumar, S.S. Sathaye
1994 Proceedings of the IEEE  
Invited Paper Real-time computing systems are used to control telecommunication systems, defense systems, avionics, and modern factories.  ...  Generalized rate-monotonic scheduling theory is a recent development that has had large impact on the development of real-time systems and open standards.  ...  The focus of this paper is to demonstrate the use of GRMS in the design and analysis of practical real-time systems.  ... 
doi:10.1109/5.259427 fatcat:vm7ad37pjvbhbeipfoahw5mfaq

The OMLP family of optimal multiprocessor real-time locking protocols

Björn B. Brandenburg, James H. Anderson
2012 Design automation for embedded systems  
To formalize a notion of "optimal blocking," precise definitions of what constitutes "blocking" in a multiprocessor real-time system are given and a simple complexity metric for real-time locking protocols  ...  In this study, the OMLP was found to perform better than two variants of the classic (but non-optimal) multiprocessor priority-ceiling protocol (MPCP).  ...  Acknowledgements We thank Tomas Kalibera for suggesting the use of bootstrapping in schedulability experiments.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10617-012-9090-1 fatcat:fvli2uh6pbfcrpr7eyz3mpapa4

A Comparison of the M-PCP, D-PCP, and FMLP on LITMUSRT [chapter]

Björn B. Brandenburg, James H. Anderson
2008 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
This paper presents a performance comparison of three multiprocessor real-time locking protocols: the multiprocessor priority ceiling protocol (M-PCP), the distributed priority ceiling protocol (D-PCP)  ...  These results call into question the practical viability of the M-PCP and D-PCP, which have been the de-facto standard for real-time multiprocessor locking for the last 20 years. 1 Because the D-PCP assigns  ...  This work resulted in two now-classic locking protocols: the multiprocessor priority ceiling protocol (M-PCP) and the distributed priority ceiling protocol (D-PCP) [22] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-92221-6_9 fatcat:3fl57ztamzh6tmbz5vtrnq5wra

A Blocking Bound for Nested FIFO Spin Locks

Alessandro Biondi, Bjorn B. Brandenburg, Alexander Wieder
2016 2016 IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS)  
Bounding worst-case blocking delays due to lock contention is a fundamental problem in the analysis of multiprocessor real-time systems.  ...  This paper overcomes this fundamental limitation and presents the first fine-grained blocking bound for nested non-preemptive FIFO spin locks under partitioned fixed-priority scheduling.  ...  ., the OSEK priority ceiling protocol), support for non-preemptive sections, and spin locks, the MSRP is readily available in current automotive systems (as well as many other embedded systems) and thus  ... 
doi:10.1109/rtss.2016.036 dblp:conf/rtss/BiondiBW16 fatcat:z5yeiu5rxzfxnbrdynpjl2qjja

Scheduling and Priority Mapping for Static Real-Time Middleware [chapter]

Lisa Cingiser Dipippo, Victor Fay Wolfe, Levon Esibov, Gregory Cooper, Ramachandra Bethmangalkar, Russell Johnston, Bhavani Thuraisingham, John Mauer
2001 Challenges in Design and Implementation of Middlewares for Real-Time Systems  
real-time operating systems.  ...  The technique uses global deadline monotonic priority assignment to clients and the Distributed Priority Ceiling protocol to provide concurrency control and priorities for server execution.  ...  It assumes the existence of preemptive priority-based scheduling in the real-time operating systems on the nodes in the system.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-1695-8_3 fatcat:sga7wjrdbbenpc6guszeuptlsy

Real-time CORBA

B. Thuraisingham, P. Kortmann, R. Johnson, G. Cooper, L.C. DiPippo, V. Fay-Wolfe
2000 IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems  
This paper presents a survey of results in developing Real-Time CORBA, a standard for real-time management of distributed objects.  ...  The paper includes background on two areas that have been combined to realize Real-Time CORBA: the CORBA standards that have been produced by the international Object Management Group; and techniques for  ...  Many people have contributed indirectly to this paper due to their ground-breaking work in developing Real-Time CORBA; we mention some of them here.  ... 
doi:10.1109/71.888646 fatcat:zfom5vtvl5d65ccr5ubsoi533u

Exact speedup factors and sub-optimality for non-preemptive scheduling

Robert I. Davis, Abhilash Thekkilakattil, Oliver Gettings, Radu Dobrin, Sasikumar Punnekkat, Jian-Jia Chen
2017 Real-time systems  
Fixed priority scheduling is used in many real-time systems; however, both preemptive and non-preemptive variants (FP-P and FP-NP) are known to be sub-optimal when compared to an optimal uniprocessor scheduling  ...  The main extension is the proof of the exact speedup factor required to guarantee the FP-P feasibility of any FP-NP feasible constrained-deadline task set. 123 Real-Time Syst schedulability assuming an  ...  Real-time scheduling algorithms for single processor systems may be classified into two main types: fixed priority and dynamic priority.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11241-017-9294-3 fatcat:mfxcx3rju5gsraiqu6nxsqdfs4

Guide for the use of the Ada Ravenscar Profile in high integrity systems

Alan Burns, Brian Dobbing, Tullio Vardanega
2004 ACM SIGAda Ada Letters  
the contributions of Peter Amey, Rod Chapman, Stephen Michell, Juan Antonio de la Puente, Phil Thornley and David Tombs and the permission by Aonix Inc. to use sections of their crossdevelopment guide for  ...  Priority-based preemptive scheduling is usually used with a Priority Ceiling Protocol (PCP) to avoid unbounded priority inversion and deadlocks.  ...  PCP (Priority Ceiling Protocol) A set of techniques that bound the blocking time for contention for shared resources. One such protocol, implemented in Ada, is IPCP.  ... 
doi:10.1145/997119.997120 fatcat:lhlzdh2q3rfjvf55omksia2hpa

Formal verification of multitasking applications based on timed automata model

Libor Waszniowski, Zdeněk Hanzálek
2007 Real-time systems  
The application under consideration consists of several non-preemptive tasks and interrupt service routines that can be synchronized by events.  ...  The aim of this paper is to show, how a multitasking application running under a real-time operating system compliant with an OSEK/VDX standard can be modeled by timed automata.  ...  Acknowledgements We would like to thank Gerd Behrmann from the Department of Computer Science at Aalborg University, Denmark for his advice related to reducing the complexity of the ready queue model.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11241-007-9036-z fatcat:z6eik34ehjbztl3ylxqm3er2yq

Putting Preemptive Time Petri Nets to Work in a V-Model SW Life Cycle

Laura Carnevali, Lorenzo Ridi, Enrico Vicario
2011 IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering  
Preemptive Time Petri Nets (pTPNs) support modeling and analysis of concurrent timed SW components running under fixed priority preemptive scheduling.  ...  Model Driven Development (MDD) framework, we complement the theory of state space analysis with methods and techniques supporting semiformal specification and automated compilation into pTPN models and real-time  ...  They also thank Giacomo Bucci for advise and Irene Bicchierai and Dario D'Amico for help in the experimentation stage.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tse.2011.4 fatcat:sh5nv2ayr5etxm24wembf4zwdu

Casting Preemptive Time Petri Nets in the Development Life Cycle of Real-Time Software

Laura Carnevali, Luigi Sassoli, Enrico Vicario
2007 Real-Time Systems (ECRTS), Proceedings of the Euromicro Workshop on  
The spec-@cation model drives the implementation stage enabling a disciplined coding of the process architecture on top of conventional primitives of a real-time operating system.  ...  We describe a methodology for the construction of realtime tasking sets, which smoothly integrates a f o m l approach in both development and veriJication processes of the software life cycle.  ...  Note that, since a priority ceiling emulation protocol is assumed, in the translation from the timeline schema to the pTPN, the priority of P3 is modified at the acquisition of each semaphore.  ... 
doi:10.1109/ecrts.2007.86 dblp:conf/ecrts/CarnevaliSV07 fatcat:l6ygtajoyzgbnm6nzjais7tdf4
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