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Costing the Earth

James K. Hammitt, Atul K. Jain, Donald J. Wuebbles, John L. Adams
1996 Nature  
James K. Hammitt Does your automated DNA sequencer leave you guessing? If so, chances are it's primarily designed for high throughput sequencing.  ... 
doi:10.1038/383571a0 fatcat:zcmmgepxdrhmrdc6ldtm3y6evq

Curve Reconstruction of Digitized Surface Using K-means Algorithm

Atul Kumar, P.K. Jain, P.M. Pathak
2014 Procedia Engineering  
The K-means algorithm has good ability to handle the large number of scanned data.  ...  Further Application of K-means algorithm can also be applied to other type of reconstruction work with approximate k neighbors points set.  ...  In this paper, the K-means algorithm is used, which takes a point cloud dataset as an input and computes the K-means neighbors for each point in data set to generate spur gear tooth profile.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2014.03.024 fatcat:i336xd273rhinb52j6imwhzfta

Cationic bovine serum albumin (CBA) conjugated poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles for extended delivery of methotrexate into brain tumors

Prashant Kesharwani, Ashay Jain, Atul Jain, Amit K. Jain, Neeraj Kumar Garg, Rakesh Kumar Tekade, Thakur Raghu Raj Singh, Arun K. Iyer
2016 RSC Advances  
Current strategies for the treatment of brain tumors have been hindered primarily by the presence of the highly lipophilic, insurmountable blood–brain barrier (BBB).
doi:10.1039/c6ra17290c fatcat:nyuwvcgsxbe25aumnv4rdta2k4

Spatial modeling of agricultural land use change at global scale

Prasanth Meiyappan, Michael Dalton, Brian C. O'Neill, Atul K. Jain
2014 Ecological Modelling  
Jain). land use change models is evident from the wide range of existing modeling approaches and applications (see reviews by NRC, .  ...  Y t 1g = N k=1 « 2g−1,2k−1 1 1 + e 0 +X 2k−1,0 1 1 + eˇ0 +X 2k−1,t+ N k=1˝2 g−1,2k−1 Y¯t 1k + ε t 1g (19) Y t 2g = N k=1 « 2g,2k 1 1 + e 0 +X 2k−1,0 eˇ0 +X 2k−1,t1 + eˇ0 +X 2k−1,t+ N k=1˝2 g,2k Y¯t 2k  ...  Non-linear regression equations associated with Eq. (15) are Y t 1g = N k=1 « 2g−1,2k−1 d 2k−1 1 1 + eˇ0 +X 2k−1,t+ N k=1˝2 g−1,2k−1 Y¯t 1k + ε t 1g (16) Y t 2g = N k=1 « 2g,2k d 2k−1 eˇ0 +X 2k−1,t1 +  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2014.07.027 fatcat:a5skpvlq4rh3jiejadq4hyuyba

Formulation and in vitro, in vivo evaluation of extended- release matrix tablet of Zidovudine: Influence of combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic matrix formers

Atul Kuksal, Ashok K. Tiwary, Narendra K. Jain, Subheet Jain
2006 AAPS PharmSciTech  
The value of "n" and log k was found to vary with type and concentration of polymers.  ...  Value of release exponent "n" determined from the various matrices ranged from 0.7113 to 0.8375, and the log k values ranged from 2.5929 to 3.4533 (Table 3 ).  ... 
doi:10.1208/pt070101 pmid:16584139 pmcid:PMC2750708 fatcat:t6dyyevuuvcvxkq3dn6htl7epa


Rubal Jain, Rajendra Kumar Nigam, Reeni Malik, Pramila Jain, Trichal V K, Atul Shrivastava
2016 Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences  
BACKGROUND Specimens from cervix constitute a major contributor of gynaecological tissue received for histomorphological evaluation. Benign lesions presents with varied clinical presentations and age distribution. Lesions such as dysplasia and Cervical Intraepithelial Lesions are a precursor to malignancies which have a high mortality and morbidity among Indian women. AIMS To study pattern of non-neoplastic and pre-neoplastic lesions of cervix and their correlation with age, symptoms, gravida,
more » ... ocioeconomic parameters and personal habits. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Program epi info and SSPS were used to evaluate data. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS 195 cases were evaluated with peak cases presenting in 4th decade. Chronic nonspecific cervicitis (175 cases) was the most common histomorphological diagnosis and only 5 cases of Cervical Intraepithelial Lesions were reported, though 180 cases of cervical cancers were reported during the same time period highlighting the need to bridge the gap with early diagnosis and treatment of pre-malignant lesions.
doi:10.14260/jemds/2016/1116 fatcat:xhmqaljsjneajgr57flewt4yf4

Global estimation of CO emissions using three sets of satellite data for burned area

Atul K. Jain
2007 Atmospheric Environment  
., 2004; Jain et al., 2006) .  ...  Building on our previous work (Jain et al., 2006) where we implemented algorithms for open fire biomass burning into our terrestrial ecosystem model (Jain and Yang, 2005) , the objective of this study  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.10.021 fatcat:o2hrixpys5hgvaiap2x62ri2yu

Concerns about climate change and the role of fossil fuel use

Donald J. Wuebbles, Atul K. Jain
2001 Fuel processing technology  
The greenhouse effect, the ability of certain gases like carbon dioxide and water vapor to effectively trap some of the reemission of solar energy by the planet, is a necessary component to life on Earth; without the greenhouse effect, the planet would be too cold to support life. However, human activities are increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide and several other greenhouse gases, resulting in concerns about warming of the earth by 1-58C over the next century. Recent increases in
more » ... al averaged temperature over the last decade already appear to be outside the normal variability of temperature changes for the last thousand years. A number of different analyses strongly suggest that this temperature increase is resulting from the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, thus lending credence to the concerns about much larger changes in climate being predicted for the coming decades. It is this evidence that led the international scientific community through the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Ž . Ž . IPCC to conclude after a discussion of the remaining uncertainties ANonetheless, the balance of the evidence suggests a human influence on global climateB. More recent findings have further strengthened this conclusion. Computer-based models of the complex processes affecting the carbon cycle have implicated the burning of fossil fuels as a major factor in the past increase in concentrations of carbon dioxide. These models also suggest that, without major policy or technology changes, future concentrations of CO will continue to increase largely as a result of 2 fossil fuel burning. This paper reviews the current understanding of the concerns about climate change and the role being played by fossil fuel use. q
doi:10.1016/s0378-3820(01)00139-4 fatcat:jcbcqvuulzdg7hoe2b4iv6tknu

Projecting future climate change: Implications of carbon cycle model intercomparisons

Haroon S. Kheshgi, Atul K. Jain
2003 Global Biogeochemical Cycles  
., 1999; Kheshgi and Jain, 2000] .  ...  in the terrestrial biosphere, and the ocean column and mixed layer [Jain et al., 1994 [Jain et al., , 1995 Kheshgi et al., , 1999 .  ... 
doi:10.1029/2001gb001842 fatcat:7df6af7ppzd6bbdt7uwtjysgtu

Dynamics and drivers of land use and land cover changes in Bangladesh

Xiaoming Xu, Suravi Shrestha, Hammad Gilani, Murali K. Gumma, Baktiar N. Siddiqui, Atul K. Jain
2020 Regional Environmental Change  
LULCC) is the key topic in global change studies since they can alter regional and global climate through changing biophysical, biogeochemical, and biogeographical characteristics of the Earth system (Jain  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10113-020-01650-5 fatcat:kob65cqk2fbuflii47voxjmxwi

Impact of environmental changes and land management practices on wheat production in India

Shilpa Gahlot, Tzu-Shun Lin, Atul K. Jain, Somnath Baidya Roy, Vinay K. Sehgal, Rajkumar Dhakar
2020 Earth System Dynamics  
Abstract. Spring wheat is a major food crop that is a staple for a large number of people in India and the world. To address the issue of food security, it is essential to understand how the productivity of spring wheat varies with changes in environmental conditions and agricultural management practices. The goal of this study is to quantify the role of different environmental factors and management practices on wheat production in India in recent years (1980 to 2016). Elevated atmospheric CO2
more » ... concentration ([CO2]) and climate change are identified as two major factors that represent changes in the environment. The addition of nitrogen fertilizers and irrigation practices are the two land management factors considered in this study. To study the effects of these factors on wheat growth and production, we developed crop growth processes for spring wheat in India and implemented them in the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM), a state-of-the-art land model. The model is able to simulate the observed leaf area index (LAI) at the site scale and observed production at the country scale. Numerical experiments are conducted with the model to quantify the effect of each factor on wheat production on a country scale for India. Our results show that elevated [CO2] levels, water availability through irrigation, and nitrogen fertilizers have led to an increase in annual wheat production at 0.67, 0.25, and 0.26 Mt yr−1, respectively, averaged over the time period 1980–2016. However, elevated temperatures have reduced the total wheat production at a rate of 0.39 Mt yr−1 during the study period. Overall, the [CO2], irrigation, fertilizers, and temperature forcings have led to 22 Mt (30 %), 8.47 Mt (12 %), 10.63 Mt (15 %), and −13 Mt (−18 %) changes in countrywide production, respectively. The magnitudes of these factors spatially vary across the country thereby affecting production at regional scales. Results show that favourable growing season temperatures, moderate to high fertilizer application, high availability of irrigation facilities, and moderate water demand make the Indo-Gangetic Plain the most productive region, while the arid north-western region is the least productive due to high temperatures and lack of irrigation facilities to meet the high water demand.
doi:10.5194/esd-11-641-2020 fatcat:pfj4viqq6baudhef52pjvycnqm

Carbon Management Response Curves: Estimates of Temporal Soil Carbon Dynamics

Tristram O. West, Gregg Marland, Anthony W. King, Wilfred M. Post, Atul K. Jain, Kenneth Andrasko
2003 Environmental Management  
Measurement of the change in soil carbon that accompanies a change in land use (e.g., forest to agriculture) or management (e.g., conventional tillage to no-till) can be complex and expensive, may require reference plots, and is subject to the variability of statistical sampling and short-term variability in weather. In this paper, we develop Carbon Management Response (CMR) curves that could be used as an alternative to in situ measurements. The CMR curves developed here are based on
more » ... ve reviews of existing global analyses and field observations of changes in soil carbon. The curves show mean annual rates of soil carbon change, estimated time to maximum rates of change, and estimated time to a new soil carbon steady state following the initial change in management. We illustrate how CMR curves could be used in a carbon accounting framework while effectively addressing a number of potential policy issues commonly associated with carbon accounting. We find that CMR curves provide a transparent means to account for changes in soil carbon accumulation and loss rates over time, and also provide empirical relationships that might be used in the development or validation of ecological or Earth systems models.
doi:10.1007/s00267-003-9108-3 pmid:15453404 fatcat:4znvnaduenbeljbrach6llcwyy

Effects of carbon dioxide and climate change on ocean acidification and carbonate mineral saturation

Long Cao, Ken Caldeira, Atul K. Jain
2007 Geophysical Research Letters  
Here, we show only the saturation state of aragonite, which is defined as W aragonite = [Ca 2+ ] [CO 3 2À ]/k* sp , where k* sp is the stoichiometric solubility product of aragonite determined based on  ...  Here, we show only the saturation state of aragonite, which is defined asW aragonite = [Ca 2+ ] [CO 3 2À ]/k* sp ,where k* sp is the stoichiometric solubility product of aragonite determined based on the  ... 
doi:10.1029/2006gl028605 fatcat:qapkn3h6f5hn7fknabcx2pmoiu

Estimates of Biomass Yield for Perennial Bioenergy Grasses in the USA

Yang Song, Atul K. Jain, William Landuyt, Haroon S. Kheshgi, Madhu Khanna
2014 Bioenergy Research  
mean photoperiod during the vegetative stage ( Figure S2b, h, k) .  ...  A5 -, 315, 318 [K] [35] T base_g The base temperature for switchgrass seed germination in Eq. A5 -, 288, 288 [K] [8] θ H Hydro-condition variable for switchgrass seed germination in Eq.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s12155-014-9546-1 fatcat:2acxkqcanjfpvfexnefvmodrha

Assessing the effectiveness of direct injection for ocean carbon sequestration under the influence of climate change

Atul K. Jain
2005 Geophysical Research Letters  
Citation: Jain, A. K., and L. Cao (2005), Assessing the effectiveness of direct injection for ocean carbon sequestration under the influence of climate change, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L09609,  ...  The model is described in detail in [Cao and Jain, 2005] . [6] ISAM-2.5D couples the carbon cycle module to radiative forcing, and climate modules to estimate the climate warming and its effect on the  ...  1994] , an energy and moisture balance atmosphere module and a land surface module [Weaver et al., 2001] , a thermodynamic and dynamic sea ice module [Semtner, 1976] , a radiative transfer module [Jain  ... 
doi:10.1029/2005gl022818 fatcat:d2nwn6nu7bfblfcr6tv3jkcna4
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