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On the Effectiveness of the Remanence Decay Side-Channel to Clone Memory-Based PUFs [chapter]

Yossef Oren, Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi, Christian Wachsmann
2013 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
remanence decay in SRAM and used as a time-keeping mechanism for low-power clock-less devices.  ...  We discuss countermeasures against our attack and propose the constructive use of remanence decay to improve the cloning-resistance of SRAM PUFs.  ...  The development and manufacturing of the PUF ASIC used in this work has been supported by the European Commission under grant agreement ICT-2007-238811 UNIQUE.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-40349-1_7 fatcat:mtf264pdc5b2la3ppusr7quz6m

Hardware Security Implications of Reliability, Remanence, and Recovery in Embedded Memory

Sergei Skorobogatov
2018 Journal of Hardware and Systems Security  
However, data remanence effect in SRAM and Flash/EEPROM makes secure erasure process more challenging.  ...  When it comes to the security of semiconductor devices, both data remanence and data retention issues could lead to possible data recovery by an attacker.  ...  Data Remanence Experiments In the first set of experiments, the chips were tested for SRAM data remanence at room temperature (+ 20°C), low temperatures down to − 30°C, and high temperatures up to + 80  ... 
doi:10.1007/s41635-018-0050-5 fatcat:id5qudgntfgj7mjwcmqartef7a

Physical and Mechatronic Security, Technologies and Future Trends for Vehicular Environment [article]

Wael Adi, Ayoub Mars
2018 arXiv   pre-print
A survey is attempting to demonstrate the techniques so far known as Physically Unclonable Functions PUFs showing their advantages and drawbacks.  ...  The automotive industry is facing a challenge to produce low-cost and highly safe and secure networked automotive systems.  ...  Mechatronic security (Physical Security) is going to play a fundamental role as a security anchor in all future vehicular systems as DNA in the very robust and reliable natural biological systems.  ... 
arXiv:1805.07570v1 fatcat:rx5s22f7tfgmvcgujqwflwgthi

An Overview of DRAM-Based Security Primitives

Nikolaos Anagnostopoulos, Stefan Katzenbeisser, John Chandy, Fatemeh Tehranipoor
2018 Cryptography  
Then, we introduce the primitives that can be implemented using DRAM, namely Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) and True Random Number Generators (TRNGs), and present the applications of each of the  ...  hardware implementations are less exposed to attackers than software ones.  ...  However, PRNGs are also very popular due to their flexible and low-cost implementations and their low generation times [51] .  ... 
doi:10.3390/cryptography2020007 fatcat:43ohhg2ctzhrzlv7msocufwg3e

A Novel SRAM PUF Stability Improvement Method Using Ionization Irradiation

Xu Zhang, Chunsheng Jiang, Ke Gu, Le Zhong, Wen Fang, Gang Dai
2020 Electronics  
Commercial SRAM chips could be used as PUF chips for low cost systems.  ...  To address this issue, this paper proposes a novel SRAM PUF stability improvement method using total ionization dose (TID) effect for commercial SRAM chips.  ...  Commercial SRAM chips could be used as PUF chips for low cost systems.  ... 
doi:10.3390/electronics9091498 fatcat:7vwmhcdopngavctvlhmpknvxsm

A 2 Bit/Cell Tilting SRAM-Based PUF with a BER of 3.1e-10 and an Energy of 21 fJ/bit in 65nm

Yizhak Shifman, Avi Miller, Yoav Weizmann, Joseph Shor
2020 IEEE Open Journal of Circuits and Systems  
The cell demonstrated a highly competitive area of 1420F 2 per bit, a bit-error-rate (BER) of 3.1E-10, and a very low energy consumption of 21fJ/bit in 65nm.  ...  An SRAM-based Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) with two independent bits/cells is presented along with a tilting preselection test designed to identify all the unstable bits.  ...  It is also more resistant to power probing attacks [7] and to low-temperature data remanence attacks [9] , as the charge in the internal nodes is reset prior to each PUF evaluation.  ... 
doi:10.1109/ojcas.2020.3034266 fatcat:3p2ybgvgineadiuojhoi2gky4a

Physical Unclonable Functions and Applications: A Tutorial

Charles Herder, Meng-Day Yu, Farinaz Koushanfar, Srinivas Devadas
2014 Proceedings of the IEEE  
| This paper describes the use of physical unclonable functions (PUFs) in low-cost authentication and key generation applications.  ...  It describes strong PUF implementations and their use for lowcost authentication. After this description, the paper covers both attacks and protocols to address errors.  ...  The data remain ''stored'' in the SRAM cell for a certain short time after the cell is powered down due to an effect called ''data remanence.' ' Oren et al.  ... 
doi:10.1109/jproc.2014.2320516 fatcat:5vlcesm54fhxjparjkhhu5dn6a

Lightweight hardware fingerprinting solution using inherent memory in off-the-shelf commodity devices

Mohd Syafiq Mispan, Aiman Zakwan Jidin, Muhammad Raihaan Kamarudin, Haslinah Mohd Nasir
2022 Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science  
Therefore, we concluded that the available SRAM in off-the-shelf commodity hardware has good quality to be used as PUF.  ...  Non-volatile memory (NVM) architecture like SRAM is available in off-the-shelf microcontroller devices. Exploiting the inherent SRAM as PUF could wide-spread the adoption of PUF.  ...  remanence in SRAM cells [23] .  ... 
doi:10.11591/ijeecs.v25.i1.pp105-112 fatcat:y34cept7ebd4zjhm353ctacjby

Reliable Physical Unclonable Functions Using Data Retention Voltage of SRAM Cells

Xiaolin Xu, Amir Rahmati, Daniel E. Holcomb, Kevin Fu, Wayne Burleson
2015 IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems  
To evaluate the security and performance of the DRV PUF, we use DRV measurements from commercially available SRAM chips, and use data from a novel DRV prediction algorithm.  ...  However, DRV is highly sensitive to temperature, and until now this makes it unreliable and unsuitable for use in a PUF.  ...  An experimental evaluation of low-temperature data remanence on a variety of SRAMs is provided by Skorobogatov [14] , and SRAM remanence in radio-frequency identification (RFID) has been studied by Saxena  ... 
doi:10.1109/tcad.2015.2418288 fatcat:3zttfyfrzbesrnfhlwd6tv2dyy

Towards Implementation of Robust and Low-Cost Security Primitives for Resource-Constrained IoT Devices [article]

Fatemeh Tehranipoor
2018 arXiv   pre-print
(TRNG) to produce random sequences with a very low overhead; a DRAM TRNG model using its startup value behavior for creating random bit streams; an efficient power supply noise based TRNG model for generating  ...  Furthermore, the Internet of Things (IoT) adopts a large number of these hardware-based security and prevention solutions in order to securely exchange data in resource efficient manner.  ...  attacks.  ... 
arXiv:1806.05332v1 fatcat:z3umfrzzebchtg6kgsspfs6rty

Device aging: A reliability and security concern

Daniel Kraak, Mottaqiallah Taouil, Said Hamdioui, Pieter Weckx, Francky Catthoor, Abhijit Chatterjee, Adit Singh, Hans-Joachim Wunderlich, Naghmeh Karimi
2018 2018 IEEE 23rd European Test Symposium (ETS)  
According, this paper targets a high performance SRAM memory realized in 14nm FinFET technology and depicts how aging degrades the individual components of this memory as well as the interaction between  ...  Thus the digital fingerprint can be made extremely robust by using a very small fraction of the strongest cells in a large SRAM.  ...  BTI stress can also be used to increase the robustness of the strong SRAM cells used in the identifier bits that form the unique digital fingerprint. (Such cells can also be used as SRAM PUFs.)  ... 
doi:10.1109/ets.2018.8400702 dblp:conf/ets/KraakTHWCCSWK18 fatcat:5twnv5eofzahdpsxtlydipwfiq

Data remanence effects on memory-based entropy collection for RFID systems

Nitesh Saxena, Jonathan Voris
2011 International Journal of Information Security  
Second, RAM is subject to data remanence; there is a period after losing power during which stored data remains intact in memory.  ...  A recent proposal, Fingerprint Extraction and Random Number Generation in SRAM (FERNS), uses onboard RAM as a randomness source.  ...  Other Issues In addition to data remanence, SRAM is subject to a less well known effect called "burn-in."  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10207-011-0139-0 fatcat:jbqmoobr7bb4pps4m3ci6lpku4

DRAMNet: Authentication based on Physical Unique Features of DRAM Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks [article]

Nima Karimian, Fatemeh Tehranipoor, Nikolaos Anagnostopoulos, Wei Yan
2019 arXiv   pre-print
To evaluate our proposed approach, we utilize data from three Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) DRAMs taken under various environmental and other conditions (high/low temperature, high/low supply voltage  ...  However, there are two types of attack challenges that can affect AVs and are yet to be resolved, i.e., sensor attacks and vehicle access attacks.  ...  To evaluate our approach, we utilized data from three COTS DRAM modules taken under various environmental and other conditions, such as high/low temperature, high/low supply voltage and aging effects.  ... 
arXiv:1902.09094v1 fatcat:siyriw47wjfcbeefbfejzkebke

Emerging Physical Unclonable Functions With Nanotechnology

Yansong Gao, Damith C. Ranasinghe, Said F. Al-Sarawi, Omid Kavehei, Derek Abbott
2016 IEEE Access  
Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) are increasingly used for authentication and identification applications as well as cryptographic key generation.  ...  In this paper, we review emerging nanotechnology-based PUFs.  ...  For example, the SRAM PUF has been broken in a non-invasive way through a fault injection attack based on remanence decay in volatile memory [95] , and semi-invasive and fully invasive attack methods  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2015.2503432 fatcat:3x4sayz2draqxbbd6aubrnn4uy

Intrinsic Run-Time Row Hammer PUFs: Leveraging the Row Hammer Effect for Run-Time Cryptography and Improved Security †

Nikolaos Anagnostopoulos, Tolga Arul, Yufan Fan, Christian Hatzfeld, André Schaller, Wenjie Xiong, Manishkumar Jain, Muhammad Saleem, Jan Lotichius, Sebastian Gabmeyer, Jakub Szefer, Stefan Katzenbeisser
2018 Cryptography  
Additionally, we also provide a more thorough investigation of the effects of temperature variations on the Row Hammer PUF and briefly discuss potential statistical relationships between the cells used  ...  As our results prove, the Row Hammer PUF could potentially provide an adequate level of security for Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) devices, if its dependency on temperature is mitigated, and, may therefore  ...  , also data remanence effects can start to affect its operation [56] .  ... 
doi:10.3390/cryptography2030013 fatcat:ec6iyndbpfdkreqa27aj53ewna
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