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Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction [chapter]

Ravi Jhawar, Barbara Kordy, Sjouke Mauw, Saša Radomirović, Rolando Trujillo-Rasua
2015 IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology  
The SAND attack tree formalism increases the expressivity of attack trees by introducing the sequential conjunctive operator SAND. This operator enables the modeling of ordered events.  ...  We provide the first formal foundation of SAND attack trees which are a popular extension of the well-known attack trees.  ...  Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction We extend the attack tree formalism so that a refinement of a (sub-)goal of an attacker can be a sequential conjunct (denoted by SAND) in addition to disjuncts  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-18467-8_23 fatcat:nydlgfds2fhn7faykeoun3joyu

Modelling Duqu 2.0 Malware using Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction

Peter Maynard, Kieran McLaughlin, Sakir Sezer
2016 Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Information Systems Security and Privacy  
We discuss the gaps in current formalisations and propose the use of Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction when it comes to analysing complex attacks.  ...  This paper provides a well structured model which can be used for future analysis of Duqu 2.0 and related attacks.  ...  Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction Attack trees with sequential conjunction (SAND) is an enhancement of attack trees, which were popularized by Schneier (Schneier, 1999) .  ... 
doi:10.5220/0005745704650472 dblp:conf/icissp/MaynardMS16 fatcat:6gsnggplhrdj7mq73kzvjbtyau

An Intuitionistic Linear Logical Semantics of SAND Attack Trees [article]

Harley Eades III
2018 arXiv   pre-print
One important feature of ATLL is that it supports full distributivity of sequential conjunction over choice.  ...  In this paper we introduce a new logical foundation of SAND attack trees in intuitionistic linear logic. This new foundation is based on a new logic called the Attack Tree Linear Logic (ATLL).  ...  s work on attack trees with sequential conjunction [10] can be proven as an implication in ATLL. Consider a second attack tree from Figure 2 .  ... 
arXiv:1801.06886v1 fatcat:pak2bwmfgrdvfhmbbvonapi5wy

SPTool – Equivalence Checker for $$\mathtt {SAND}$$ Attack Trees [chapter]

Barbara Kordy, Piotr Kordy, Yoann van den Boom
2017 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
SAND attack trees extend classical attack trees by including the sequential conjunctive operator (SAND) to the formalism.  ...  A SAND attack tree is a graphical model decomposing an attack scenario into basic actions to be executed by the attacker.  ...  of attack trees with sequential conjunction and compare structurally different trees.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-54876-0_8 fatcat:4wurtvwdkfguzavedxbgvuei7a

Attack Trees for Practical Security Assessment: Ranking of Attack Scenarios with ADTool 2.0 [chapter]

Olga Gadyatskaya, Ravi Jhawar, Piotr Kordy, Karim Lounis, Sjouke Mauw, Rolando Trujillo-Rasua
2016 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The tool supports ranking of attack scenarios based on quantitative attributes entered by the user; it is scriptable; and it incorporates attack trees with sequential conjunctive refinement.  ...  In this tool demonstration paper we present the ADTool2.0: an open-source software for design, manipulation and analysis of attack trees.  ...  In this paper we present the ADTool2.0 that provides advanced capabilities for design, visualization, and analysis of attack trees [9] , attack-defence trees [6] , and attack trees with sequential conjunctive  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-43425-4_10 fatcat:k34oc25elver7n6qaqfpjavg5a

Quantitative Verification and Synthesis of Attack-Defence Scenarios

Zaruhi Aslanyan, Flemming Nielson, David Parker
2016 2016 IEEE 29th Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF)  
Attack-defence trees are a powerful technique for formally evaluating attack-defence scenarios.  ...  We propose a novel framework for the formal analysis of quantitative properties of complex attack-defence scenarios, using an extension of attack-defence trees which models temporal ordering of actions  ...  on the execution of the basic actions in the tree; and Jhawar et al [10] gave a formal semantics of attack trees with sequential conjunction.  ... 
doi:10.1109/csf.2016.15 dblp:conf/csfw/AslanyanNP16 fatcat:h5kgjq7qmrfx7cnabiavevay2y

A Stochastic Framework for Quantitative Analysis of Attack-Defense Trees [chapter]

Ravi Jhawar, Karim Lounis, Sjouke Mauw
2016 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
This solution allows to perform quantitative security assessment, with an aim to predict and/or identify attacks and find the best and appropriate defenses to reduce the impact of attacks.  ...  In this paper, we propose a framework that incorporates Attack-Defense trees (ADTrees) and Continuous Time Markov Chains (CTMCs) to systematically represent attacks, defenses, and their interaction.  ...  We depict a conjunctive refinement of a node by an arc over all edges connecting the node and its refinement nodes, and the sequentially conjunctive refinement with a directed arc.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-46598-2_10 fatcat:g73usz3cyzeajgkcf7aanyks3m

Quantitative Questions on Attack-Defense Trees [article]

Barbara Kordy, Sjouke Mauw, Patrick Schweitzer
2012 arXiv   pre-print
Since any attack tree is in particular an attack-defense tree, our analysis is also an advancement of the attack tree methodology.  ...  Attack-defense trees are a novel methodology for graphical security modeling and assessment.  ...  Formally, attack trees are represented with terms involving only operators ∨ p and ∧ p .  ... 
arXiv:1210.8092v1 fatcat:r4dkal7ccvf2feksghbxp4oqz4

Quantitative Questions on Attack–Defense Trees [chapter]

Barbara Kordy, Sjouke Mauw, Patrick Schweitzer
2013 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Since any attack tree is in particular an attack-defense tree, our analysis is also an advancement of the attack tree methodology.  ...  Attack-defense trees are a novel methodology for graphical security modeling and assessment.  ...  Formally, attack trees are represented with terms involving only operators ∨ p and ∧ p .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-37682-5_5 fatcat:s5vhlgxnyfdu5oy6lgbc3w3n6u

DAG-based attack and defense modeling: Don't miss the forest for the attack trees

Barbara Kordy, Ludovic Piètre-Cambacédès, Patrick Schweitzer
2014 Computer Science Review  
In 1991, Weiss [313] introduced threat logic trees as the first graphical attack modeling technique.  ...  Keywords: graphical models for security; attack trees; Bayesian networks; attack and defense modeling; quantitative and qualitative security assessment; security measures.  ...  As in attack trees, the set of linked nodes can be connected disjunctively as well as conjunctively.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.cosrev.2014.07.001 fatcat:aie7uxdorjclnb5ctgg5nrczqi

A Proof Calculus for Attack Trees in Isabelle [chapter]

Florian Kammüller
2017 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
They provide a very good understanding of the formalism, various extensions (like attack-defense trees [12] and differentiations of the operators (like sequential conjunction (SAND) versus parallel conjunction  ...  Thus, we can in one rule express sequential and concurrent conjunctive attacks. We do not need a separate rule for SAND as in other foundations for attack trees, e.g. [5] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_1 fatcat:2fjl5y6dzzhlvoqp5iedkxfirm

DAG-Based Attack and Defense Modeling: Don't Miss the Forest for the Attack Trees [article]

Barbara Kordy, Ludovic Piètre-Cambacédès, Patrick Schweitzer
2013 arXiv   pre-print
Methods based on threat trees and Bayesian networks are two well-known approaches to security modeling.  ...  This paper presents the current state of the art on attack and defense modeling approaches that are based on directed acyclic graphs (DAGs).  ...  As in attack trees, the set of linked nodes can be connected disjunctively as well as conjunctively.  ... 
arXiv:1303.7397v1 fatcat:fiebxymrd5dcnmnufddaoaqlaa

On Validating Attack Trees with Attack Effects: An Approach from Barwise-Seligman's Channel Theory [article]

Hideaki Nishihara
2022 arXiv   pre-print
This paper enriches attack trees with effects of attacks, with a formal system focusing on refinement scenarios.  ...  However, the validities of decompositions are not established by attack trees themselves, and fallacious decisions about security may be made when the attack trees are inaccurate.  ...  Attack trees with sequential conjunction were discussed by Jhawar et al. [8] and Horne et al. [7] .  ... 
arXiv:2204.06223v1 fatcat:vokvxmdf6zawlhrakkgzz2yzjm

ATSyRa: An Integrated Environment for Synthesizing Attack Trees [chapter]

Sophie Pinchinat, Mathieu Acher, Didier Vojtisek
2016 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We illustrate how users can specify a military building, abstract and organize attacks, and eventually obtain a readable attack tree.  ...  A major barrier is that attack trees can become largely complex and thus hard to specify.  ...  Then, an algorithm (see details in [7] ) merges the syntactic trees into the attack tree, the nodes of which have type ranging over disjunction, conjunction and sequential conjunction.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-29968-6_7 fatcat:qjztm3cyp5a2vlcdtcsj3g6tzi

Time Dependent Analysis with Dynamic Counter Measure Trees [article]

Rajesh Kumar, Dennis Guck, Marielle Stoelinga
2015 arXiv   pre-print
In this presentation, we extend the Attack Countermeasure trees with a notion of time; inspired by the fact that there is a strong correlation between the amount of resources in which the attacker invests  ...  Formalisms such as Reliability block diagrams, Reliability graphs and Attack Countermeasure trees provide quantitative information about attack scenarios, but they are provably insufficient to model dependent  ...  This presentation involves Dynamic Attack Countermeasure trees (ACTs) which are dynamic attack trees enriched with countermeasures.  ... 
arXiv:1510.00050v1 fatcat:4hwavqouarc63o2tfi4uscxko4
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