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Asymptotic utilitarianism in scoring rules

Marcus Pivato
2016 Social Choice and Welfare  
a very high probability of selecting the social alternative which maximizes the utilitarian social welfare function.  ...  Given a large enough population of voters whose utility functions satisfy certain statistical regularities, we show that voting rules such as the Borda rule, approval voting, and evaluative voting have  ...  I also thank Gustaf Arrhenius, Miguel Ballester, Marc Fleurbaey, Annick Laruelle, and the other participants of the June 2014 "Workshop on Power" at the Collège d'Études Mondiales in Paris.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00355-016-0971-2 fatcat:y2a2mbswjvdonfsgdc4brgq7ue

Price of Fairness in Budget Division and Probabilistic Social Choice

Marcin Michorzewski, Dominik Peters, Piotr Skowron
2020 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTIETH AAAI CONFERENCE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND THE TWENTY-EIGHTH INNOVATIVE APPLICATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONFERENCE  
We show that no division rule satisfying IFS can guarantee to achieve more than an O(1/√m) fraction of maximum utilitarian welfare, in the worst case.  ...  The same guarantee is attained by the rule under which the spending on a project is proportional to its approval score.  ...  Marcin Michorzewski and Piotr Skowron were supported by the Foundation for Polish Science within the Homing programme (Project title: "Normative Comparison of Multiwinner Election Rules).  ... 
doi:10.1609/aaai.v34i02.5594 fatcat:wq2lxcyqqvg2vo4n2c6yvk2qta

Worst-Case Voting When the Stakes Are High

Anson Kahng, Gregory Kehne
2022 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTIETH AAAI CONFERENCE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND THE TWENTY-EIGHTH INNOVATIVE APPLICATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONFERENCE  
We define a randomized analog of positional scoring rules, and present a rule which is asymptotically optimal within this class as the number of alternatives increases.  ...  We study the additive distortion of social choice functions in the implicit utilitarian model, and argue that it is a more appropriate metric than multiplicative distortion when an alternative that confers  ...  In Section 5, we evaluate the performance of our asymptotically optimal positional scoring rule against other scoring rules commonly used in practice, optimal randomized and deterministic algorithms for  ... 
doi:10.1609/aaai.v36i5.20443 fatcat:c4mrerzccjce7nz4gut6hw6llm

Statistical Utilitarianism [chapter]

Marcus Pivato
2016 The Political Economy of Social Choices  
In particular, we show that it is often possible to identify an optimal or close-to-optimal utilitarian social choice using voting rules such as the Borda rule, approval voting, relative utilitarianism  ...  We show that, in a sufficiently large population satisfying certain statistical regularities, it is often possible to accurately estimate the utilitarian social welfare function, even if we only have very  ...  Based on these simulations, they conjectured that, in the large population limit, the Borda rule is the optimal scoring rule with respect to the utilitarian SWF.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-40118-8_8 fatcat:lf5udt53nfapvhhx5ab4ooyrde

A Quantitative Analysis of Multi-Winner Rules [article]

Martin Lackner, Piotr Skowron
2020 arXiv   pre-print
via the Approval Chamberlin--Courant rule and a utilitarian criterion defined via Multi-winner Approval Voting.  ...  Our results provide fundamental information about the nature of multi-winner rules, and in particular about the necessary tradeoffs when choosing such a rule.  ...  These rules, however, severely lack in achieving utilitarian welfare.  ... 
arXiv:1801.01527v3 fatcat:iyqdpqlic5fd3ck4naxxmd2k4a

On the Justice of Decision Rules

J. Apesteguia, M. A. Ballester, R. Ferrer
2011 The Review of Economic Studies  
First, we show that the set of optimal decision rules is well-defined, particularly simple, and well-known: the class of scoring rules.  ...  Which decision rules are the most efficient? Which are the best in terms of maximin, or maximax?  ...  He shows that, asymptotically, Borda is the best scoring rule in this case. This, again, is consistent with our results.  ... 
doi:10.1093/restud/rdq023 fatcat:3ydfe5skkbhxfeadg4ildkcgpe

On the Justice of Decision Rules

Jose Apesteguia, Miguel A. Ballester, Rosa Ferrer
2009 Social Science Research Network  
First, we show that the set of optimal decision rules is well-defined, particularly simple, and well-known: the class of scoring rules.  ...  Which decision rules are the most efficient? Which are the best in terms of maximin, or maximax?  ...  He shows that, asymptotically, Borda is the best scoring rule in this case. This, again, is consistent with our results.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.1002562 fatcat:htsrhgiml5gvlhwhq7tsaampci

Proportionality Degree of Multiwinner Rules [article]

Piotr Skowron
2019 arXiv   pre-print
This allows us to arrange the rules in a clear hierarchy.  ...  Finally, we measure the tradeoff between proportionality and utilitarian efficiency for a broad subclass of committee election rules.  ...  Our results show, in particular, a spectrum of rules that implement various tradeoffs between proportionality and utilitarian efficiency.  ... 
arXiv:1810.08799v2 fatcat:ehfz5mtjqzeiddfoncy3rudn24

Subset Selection Via Implicit Utilitarian Voting

Ioannis Caragiannis, Swaprava Nath, Ariel D. Procaccia, Nisarg Shah
2017 The Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research  
We derive analytical bounds on the performance of optimal (deterministic as well as randomized) rules in terms of two measures, distortion and regret.  ...  maximize utilitarian social welfare.  ...  Acknowledgments This work was supported in part by NSF grants CCF-1215883, CCF-1525932, and IIS-1350598; and by a Sloan Research Fellowship.  ... 
doi:10.1613/jair.5282 fatcat:hjctggqyn5ce3a3hkgu5wbntye

Use of a Rasch model to predict response times to utilitarian moral dilemmas

Jonathan Baron, Burcu Gürçay, Adam B. Moore, Katrin Starcke
2012 Synthese  
judgments must be overridden by reflection in order to yield utilitarian (consequence-based) responses.  ...  By this model, moral dilemmas differ in the "difficulty" of giving a utilitarian response and subjects differ in the "ability" (tendency) to give such responses.  ...  less than 1 or lower asymptotes greater than 0.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11229-012-0121-z fatcat:hyigiqr53rbyhlwqbnu5wwon4e

Price of Fairness in Budget Division for Egalitarian Social Welfare [article]

Zhongzheng Tang, Chenhao Wang, Mengqi Zhang
2020 arXiv   pre-print
We are also interested in the performance of several aggregation rules. Asymptotically tight bounds are provided both for the price of fairness and the efficiency guarantee of aggregation rules.  ...  We are interested in assessing the quality of fair solutions, i.e., in measuring the system efficiency loss under a fair allocation compared to the one that maximizes (egalitarian) social welfare.  ...  Utilitarian (UTIL) rule selects a distribution maximizing the utilitarian social welfare, which focus only on efficiency.  ... 
arXiv:2010.09637v2 fatcat:hbz7dpdzubakjouzmdajyg66ia

Reduced empathic concern leads to utilitarian moral judgments in trait alexithymia

Indrajeet Patil, Giorgia Silani
2014 Frontiers in Psychology  
This model posits two different paths via which people can endorse utilitarian solution that requires personally harming someone in order to achieve the greater good (e.g., killing one to save five people  ...  As per this prediction, we found that trait alexithymia, which is well-known to have deficits in empathy, was indeed associated with increased utilitarian tendencies on emotionally aversive personal moral  ...  Higher appropriateness scores denoted more utilitarian inclination.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00501 pmid:24904510 pmcid:PMC4033264 fatcat:nvfzvdlraja5xovsydrythl6qi

When the killing has been done: Exploring associations of personality with third-party judgment and punishment of homicides in moral dilemma scenarios

Alexander Behnke, Anja Strobel, Diana Armbruster, Valerio Capraro
2020 PLoS ONE  
Trait psychopathy was associated with harsher punishments in all scenarios but also with less concern about killing in general, an increased moral appreciation of utilitarian motives for killing, and a  ...  Killing people is universally considered reprehensible and evokes in observers a need to punish perpetrators.  ...  research question on utilitarian rule transgressions [103] .  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0235253 pmid:32603338 fatcat:avb5bwi4hrax3btbfqufkqb7ea

Welfare vs. Representation in Participatory Budgeting [article]

Roy Fairstein, Reshef Meir, Dan Vilenchik, Kobi Gal
2022 arXiv   pre-print
We show that variants of the recently suggested voting rule Rule-X (which satisfies proportionality) do very well in practice both with respect to social welfare and representation.  ...  But there is little understanding of this trade-off in the more general PB setting.  ...  In addition, we propose two variants of Rule X [16] , whose asymptotic guarantees of welfare and fairness are worse than PAV's, but in practice do just as well on average, while also guaranteeing a proportional  ... 
arXiv:2201.07546v3 fatcat:wb76y6odqbbytm2pes47ockl3m

Productive play time: the effect of practice on consumer demand for hedonic experiences

Kyle B. Murray, Steven Bellman
2010 Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science  
In addition, we argue that the nature of the effect of practice is distinctly different in hedonic consumption, compared to utilitarian consumption.  ...  Specifically, for hedonic experiences, practice allows consumers to extract greater value within a given period of time, rather than reduce the amount of time spent on a (utilitarian) task.  ...  In addition, we measured prior knowledge, but not ability to play videogames, and it is very likely that individual players varied widely in their potential asymptotic performance.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11747-010-0205-6 fatcat:oe2k3cu6nvh3bnftbmzl3r6k5i
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