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Fast Garbling of Circuits Under Standard Assumptions

Shay Gueron, Yehuda Lindell, Ariel Nof, Benny Pinkas
2017 Journal of Cryptology  
Protocols for secure computation enable mutually distrustful parties to jointly compute on their private inputs without revealing anything but the result. Over recent years, secure computation has become practical and considerable effort has been made to make it more and more efficient. A highly important tool in the design of two-party protocols is Yao's garbled circuit construction (Yao 1986), and multiple optimizations on this primitive have led to performance improvements of orders of
more » ... ude over the last years. However, many of these improvements come at the price of making very strong assumptions on the underlying cryptographic primitives being used (e.g., that AES is secure for related keys, that it is circular secure, and even that it behaves like a random permutation when keyed with a public fixed key). The justification behind making these strong assumptions has been that otherwise it is not possible to achieve fast garbling and thus fast secure computation. In this paper, we take a step back and examine whether it is really the case that such strong assumptions are needed. We provide new methods for garbling that are secure solely under the assumption that the primitive used (e.g., AES) is a pseudorandom function. Our results show that in many cases, the penalty incurred is not significant, and so a more conservative approach to the assumptions being used can be adopted.
doi:10.1007/s00145-017-9271-y fatcat:czsolipndnh2zevgpppso4safa

DEMO

Toshinori Araki, Assaf Barak, Jun Furukawa, Yehuda Lindell, Ariel Nof, Kazuma Ohara
2016 Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security - CCS'16  
Secure multi-party computation (SMPC) is a cryptographic tool that enables a set of parties to jointly compute any function of their inputs while keeping the privacy of inputs. The paper "High Throughput Semi-Honest Secure Three-Party Computation with an Honest Majority" in this ACM CCS 2016 [4] presents a new protocol which its implementation carried out over 1,300,000 AESs per second and was able to support 35,000 login queries of Kerberos authentication per second. This poster/demo presents
more » ... he design of the implementation and demonstrates the Kerberos authentication over here. The design will show how this high-throughput three-party computation can be done using simple servers. The demonstration proves that secure multiparty computation of Kerberos authentications in large organizations is now practical.
doi:10.1145/2976749.2989035 dblp:conf/ccs/ArakiBFLNO16 fatcat:wb2ga5nyv5hutldzzk6v3wydqe

Fast Large-Scale Honest-Majority MPC for Malicious Adversaries [chapter]

Koji Chida, Daniel Genkin, Koki Hamada, Dai Ikarashi, Ryo Kikuchi, Yehuda Lindell, Ariel Nof
2018 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Our protocol significantly outperforms the previous best for this setting (Lindell and Nof, CCS 2017); for a large number of parties, our implementation runs almost an order of magnitude faster than theirs  ...  Our protocol significantly outperforms the previous best for this setting (Lindell and Nof, CCS 2017) ; for a large number of parties, our implementation runs almost an order of magnitude faster than  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-96878-0_2 fatcat:55tehzjfi5h3ba5ot5ckt5fj7a

Fast Garbling of Circuits Under Standard Assumptions

Shay Gueron, Yehuda Lindell, Ariel Nof, Benny Pinkas
2015 Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security - CCS '15  
Protocols for secure computation enable mutually distrustful parties to jointly compute on their private inputs without revealing anything but the result. Over recent years, secure computation has become practical and considerable effort has been made to make it more and more efficient. A highly important tool in the design of two-party protocols is Yao's garbled circuit construction (Yao 1986), and multiple optimizations on this primitive have led to performance improvements of orders of
more » ... ude over the last years. However, many of these improvements come at the price of making very strong assumptions on the underlying cryptographic primitives being used (e.g., that AES is secure for related keys, that it is circular secure, and even that it behaves like a random permutation when keyed with a public fixed key). The justification behind making these strong assumptions has been that otherwise it is not possible to achieve fast garbling and thus fast secure computation. In this paper, we take a step back and examine whether it is really the case that such strong assumptions are needed. We provide new methods for garbling that are secure solely under the assumption that the primitive used (e.g., AES) is a pseudorandom function. Our results show that in many cases, the penalty incurred is not significant, and so a more conservative approach to the assumptions being used can be adopted.
doi:10.1145/2810103.2813619 dblp:conf/ccs/GueronLNP15 fatcat:gtxg52zo3fa3xpnflbug5aeubi

High-Throughput Secure Three-Party Computation for Malicious Adversaries and an Honest Majority [chapter]

Jun Furukawa, Yehuda Lindell, Ariel Nof, Or Weinstein
2017 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper, we describe a new protocol for secure threeparty computation of any functionality, with an honest majority and a malicious adversary. Our protocol has both an information-theoretic and computational variant, and is distinguished by extremely low communication complexity and very simple computation. We start from the recent semi-honest protocol of Araki et al. (ACM CCS 2016) in which the parties communicate only a single bit per AND gate, and modify it to be secure in the presence
more » ... of malicious adversaries. Our protocol follows the paradigm of first constructing Beaver multiplication triples and then using them to verify that circuit gates are correctly computed. As in previous work (e.g., the so-called TinyOT and SPDZ protocols), we rely on the cut-and-choose paradigm to verify that triples are correctly constructed. We are able to utilize the fact that at most one of three parties is corrupted in order to construct an extremely simple and efficient method of constructing such triples. We also present an improved combinatorial analysis for this cut-and-choose which can be used to achieve improvements in other protocols using this approach.
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-56614-6_8 fatcat:pfnbs3o27fauxdjszi7tykvh2q

The Role and Outcome of Cardiac Rehabilitation Program in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

Arwa Younis, Ella Shaviv, Eyal Nof, Ariel Israel, Anat Berkovitch, Ilan Goldenberg, Michael Glikson, Robert Klempfner, Roy Beinart
2018 Clinical Cardiology  
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with diminished cardiac function, and exercise tolerance. We sought to investigate the role of cardiac rehabilitation program (CR) in patients with AF. The study included 2165 consecutive patients that participated in our CR program between the years 2009 to 2015. All were evaluated by a standard exercise stress test (EST) at baseline, and upon completion of at least 3 months of training. Participants were dichotomized according to baseline fitness and the
more » ... degree of functional improvement. The combined primary end point was cardiac related hospitalization or all-cause mortality. A total of 292 patients had history of AF, with a mean age of 68 ± 9 years old, 76% of which were males. The median predicted baseline fitness of AF patients was significantly lower compared to non-AF patients (103% vs 122%, P < 0.001, respectively). Prominent improvement was achieved in the majority of the patients in both groups (64% among AF patients and 63% among those without AF). Median improvement in fitness between stress tests was significantly higher in patients with AF (124% vs 110%, P < 0.001, respectively). Among AF patients, high baseline fitness was associated with a lower event rates (HR 0.40; 95%CI 0.23-0.70; P = 0.001). Moreover, prominent improvement during CR showed a protective effect (HR 0.83; 95% CI 0.69-0.99; P = 0.04). In patients with AF participating in CR program, low fitness levels at baseline EST are associated with increased risk of total mortality or cardiovascular hospitalization during long-term follow-up. Improvement on follow-up EST diminishes the risk.
doi:10.1002/clc.23001 pmid:29934991 pmcid:PMC6489737 fatcat:67avm5upc5adjjjgmh6ry5o4i4

High-Throughput Semi-Honest Secure Three-Party Computation with an Honest Majority

Toshinori Araki, Jun Furukawa, Yehuda Lindell, Ariel Nof, Kazuma Ohara
2016 Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security - CCS'16  
In this paper, we describe a new information-theoretic protocol (and a computationally-secure variant) for secure threeparty computation with an honest majority. The protocol has very minimal computation and communication; for Boolean circuits, each party sends only a single bit for every AND gate (and nothing is sent for XOR gates). Our protocol is (simulation-based) secure in the presence of semi-honest adversaries, and achieves privacy in the client/server model in the presence of malicious
more » ... dversaries. On a cluster of three 20-core servers with a 10Gbps connection, the implementation of our protocol carries out over 1.3 million AES computations per second, which involves processing over 7 billion gates per second. In addition, we developed a Kerberos extension that replaces the ticketgranting-ticket encryption on the Key Distribution Center (KDC) in MIT-Kerberos with our protocol, using keys/ passwords that are shared between the servers. This enables the use of Kerberos while protecting passwords. Our implementation is able to support a login storm of over 35,000 logins per second, which suffices even for very large organizations. Our work demonstrates that high-throughput secure computation is possible on standard hardware.
doi:10.1145/2976749.2978331 dblp:conf/ccs/ArakiFLNO16 fatcat:h5tasgt7mzefrocw2zzq7jvgey

Page 347 of Alabama. Supreme Court. Reports Vol. 7, Issue [page]

1838 Alabama. Supreme Court. Reports  
Dorsey. nof been commie?  ...  Wit. itis preved— and the proof is ex- Ite nerity ariel tractel,arl t the owh. tis thus that seme of the most important or ar-fusal to take rights of tie citizen are Wrested from him, not “by due course  ... 

The effects of nicotine on cone and rod b-wave responses in larval zebrafish

MIGUEL MOYANO, ÁNGEL PORTEROS, JOHN E. DOWLING
2013 Visual Neuroscience  
Only small rod responses can be elicited with dim lights in wild-type larval zebrafish retinas but rod responses can be recorded over a range of intensities in a mutant (nof) fish that has no cone function  ...  Therefore, we turned to a mutant (nof) fish that has no cone function to better evaluate the effects of nicotine on the rod-driven b-wave. Effects of nicotine on the nof mutant.  ...  All four types of cones in nof have undetectable levels of the Tcα protein.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0952523813000187 pmid:23809941 fatcat:hk334s2ztzc4tel6vysm5bfkse

Page 148 of Journal of Applied Mechanics Vol. 20, Issue 1 [page]

1953 Journal of Applied Mechanics  
of Air in a Tube Part | Apparatus Data and Results Based on a Simple One-Dimen- sional Flow Model ' 4s 5 ee Brow) puteotur elye i boon the author vor wuny t i frieti «| 1 té erreas difference to find ariel  ...  experiment, white at lean vill b dimensional model presented, the sreapoler (hasan thee one w ; I to preds ” ' , preclably on the assumed ratio of the numerical With &, the ease is even rs i ote j rope nof  ... 

Closure to "Discussion of 'Temperature Development in a Heated Contact With Application to Sliding Contacts'" (1953, ASME J. Appl. Mech., 20, pp. 147–148)

R. Holm
1953 Journal of applied mechanics  
of Air in a Tube Part | Apparatus Data and Results Based on a Simple One-Dimen- sional Flow Model ' 4s 5 ee Brow) puteotur elye i boon the author vor wuny t i frieti «| 1 té erreas difference to find ariel  ...  experiment, white at lean vill b dimensional model presented, the sreapoler (hasan thee one w ; I to preds ” ' , preclably on the assumed ratio of the numerical With &, the ease is even rs i ote j rope nof  ... 
doi:10.1115/1.4010622 fatcat:mvikn6quhzad7fpsaoewpimuxq

Discussion: "Measurement of Recovery Factors and Friction Coefficients for Supersonic Flow of Air in a Tube: Part 1—Apparatus Data and Results Based on a Simple One-Dimensional Flow Model" (Kaye, J., Keenan, J. H., Klingensmith, K. K., Ketchum, G. M., and Toong, T. Y., 1952, ASME J. Appl. Mech., 19, pp. 77–96)

W. B. Brown
1953 Journal of applied mechanics  
of Air in a Tube Part | Apparatus Data and Results Based on a Simple One-Dimen- sional Flow Model ' 4s 5 ee Brow) puteotur elye i boon the author vor wuny t i frieti «| 1 té erreas difference to find ariel  ...  experiment, white at lean vill b dimensional model presented, the sreapoler (hasan thee one w ; I to preds ” ' , preclably on the assumed ratio of the numerical With &, the ease is even rs i ote j rope nof  ... 
doi:10.1115/1.4010623 fatcat:tpn4ftq36zgtll5imfdwmh3csi

Page 116 of Walker's Hibernian Magazine, Or, Compendium of Entertaining Knowledge Vol. , Issue [page]

1810 Walker's Hibernian Magazine, Or, Compendium of Entertaining Knowledge  
.—— vonder where my maid 1s ;— ‘own very stupid of late, cum ariel ee ONWUSSIO! more to discove idd oe ’ on - 1 on . ?  ...  ide (ictdiie tis morning, andit tot sent., Ido nof + + ad I * . . know what I should not feel inchued tC do ior YOu. If Vou would drive to ,Yy ’ aiaee 2 7 *.. 7 . 5 seteia .  ... 

Page 641 of The Gentleman's Magazine Vol. 39, Issue 12 [page]

1769 The Gentleman's Magazine  
If-he has carried"his ideas beyond the mere fitiple.act of -refcutmg ufeful dif- coveries ariel jinprovements from the’ obfeuritieS in -which they wefe-parti- ally’ pratticed,. he’ has,” neverthelefs,  ...  ‘of’ little’ or, ng.” concern to the practical farmer, cane . nof fail of’ being’ highly Tatistattory to the curious cultivator, Ai‘a Specimen ‘of the reft, take his © account of: cabbages in the north  ... 

Discussion: "Measurement of Recovery Factors and Friction Coefficients for Supersonic Flow of Air in a Tube: Part 1—Apparatus Data and Results Based on a Simple One-Dimensional Flow Model" (Kaye, J., Keenan, J. H., Klingensmith, K. K., Ketchum, G. M., and Toong, T. Y., 1952, ASME J. Appl. Mech., 19, pp. 77–96)

Carl Gazley
1953 Journal of applied mechanics  
of Air in a Tube Part | Apparatus Data and Results Based on a Simple One-Dimen- sional Flow Model ' 4s 5 ee Brow) puteotur elye i boon the author vor wuny t i frieti «| 1 té erreas difference to find ariel  ...  experiment, white at lean vill b dimensional model presented, the sreapoler (hasan thee one w ; I to preds ” ' , preclably on the assumed ratio of the numerical With &, the ease is even rs i ote j rope nof  ... 
doi:10.1115/1.4010624 fatcat:pjpd5gmgeze7dgonhh2w772wni
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