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Elements of logic, rhetoric and eristic for expert witnesses giving oral opinions at court hearings
Elementy logiki, retoryki i erystyki dla biegłych wydających ustną opinię na rozprawie

Wojciech Kosmowski
2017 Psychiatria Polska  
It sometimes happens that a wellprepared expert opinion (psychiatric and psychological) is discredited for nonsubstantive reasons due to some eristic and rhetorical tricks.  ...  To help avoid such situations, this work presents the most important definitions of logic, rhetoric and eristic.  ...  Logic, rhetoric and eristic are not included in the curriculum for medical doctors.  ... 
doi:10.12740/pp/onlinefirst/68768 fatcat:g6yjrt7w3fdkxmb26xig3y7yaq

Application of Scientific Evidence as to the Main Argument in Determining the Causality of Doctors' Actions

Iman Santoso Soraya Jasmin Haque
2022 Zenodo  
By thinking critically, the medico-legal opinion given is guaranteed more logical, both clinical cases in the medical field and juridical cases in the field of law, it is necessary to develop arguments  ...  that are full of causal related requires the explanation of forensic medicine experts as the main argument(central argument).  ...  When associated with evidence-based arguments according to the level of complexity of medical cases, then the evidence is reliable and creates legal liability.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.6296612 fatcat:v3x7mixvcvhghnbdcpmbw6rio4

SkILL - A Stochastic Inductive Logic Learner

Joana Corte-Real, Theofrastos Mantadelis, Ines Dutra, Ricardo Roha, Elizabeth Burnside
2015 2015 IEEE 14th International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications (ICMLA)  
SkILL can then use probabilistic data to extract non-trivial knowledge from databases, and also address efficiency issues by introducing an efficient search strategy for finding hypotheses in PILP environments  ...  Data in several domains such as medicine and bioinformatics have an inherent degree of uncertainty, and because SkILL can handle this type of data, the models produced for these areas are closer to reality  ...  This work is financed by the FCT Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) within project UID/EEA/50014/2013, and by NIH NLM grant R01-LM010921.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icmla.2015.159 dblp:conf/icmla/Corte-RealMDRB15 fatcat:dct33zdz2vcwhhanxn6bbxsfzq

The Role of Argumentation in Hypothetico-Deductive Reasoning During Problem-Based Learning in Medical Education: A Conceptual Framework

Hyunjung Ju, Ikseon Choi
2017 Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning  
This paper suggests four instructional strategies-understanding argument structures, questioning, elaborating on structural knowledge, and assessing argumentation-for promoting medical students' argumentation  ...  This framework explains the structure of argumentation (a claim, data, and a warrant) contextualized in each phase of HDR during PBL.  ...  Acknowledgments Part of this research was supported by the Graduate School and the Department of Career and Information Studies at the University of Georgia.  ... 
doi:10.7771/1541-5015.1638 fatcat:aahz4tzvhbdhxgdti5gekpx7ei

Abduction: Between Conceptual Richness and Computational Complexity [chapter]

Stathis Psillos
2000 Applied Logic Series  
draft; to Bob Kowalski for many hours of discussions about the role of abduction in Artificial Intelligence; and to Francesca Toni for her patient defence of the Logic Programming approach to abduction  ...  Research for this chapter was conducted under a British Academy Postdoctoral Fellowship. I am grateful to the Academy for all the help. Many ideas of this chapter have been  ...  The search for (types of) explanatory hypotheses should be preferential. The search should aim to create, as Peirce nicely put it (Peirce, 1957, p.254) , "good hypotheses".  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-94-017-0606-3_4 fatcat:y7bsytccf5f6do56uj6marovza

Harmonization of conflicting medical opinions using argumentation protocols and textual entailment - a case study on Parkinson disease [article]

Adrian Groza, Madalina Mand Nagy
2016 arXiv   pre-print
Medications are available for the management of its symptoms, but the exact cause of the disease is unknown and there is currently no cure on the market.  ...  To better understand the relations between new findings and current medical knowledge, we need tools able to analyse published medical papers based on natural language processing and tools capable to identify  ...  A multi-agent environment was considered for this purpose and fuzzy logic was used for the quantification of opinions and relation between them.  ... 
arXiv:1607.08075v1 fatcat:pbvibvway5bvdfzwu3yph6zutu

A CONSTRUCTIVIST METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF NETWORKED COGNITIVE COMMUNICATION AND THE ASSESSMENT OF COLLABORATIVE LEARNING AND KNOWLEDGE-BUILDING

Milton Campos
2019 Online Learning  
The sentence (understood as judgment) is chosen as the unit of analysis, and the application of the method is further explained.  ...  The method is grounded on genetic epistemology and integrates constructivist and socioconstructivist theoretical concepts.  ...  either for the patient or for the medical personnel responsible for him/her.  ... 
doi:10.24059/olj.v8i2.1825 fatcat:dpdndd6levfrtfycglh35byg5i

SkILL - a Stochastic Inductive Logic Learner [article]

Joana Côrte-Real and Theofrastos Mantadelis and Inês Dutra and Ricardo Rocha
2015 arXiv   pre-print
This work introduces SkILL, a Stochastic Inductive Logic Learner, which takes probabilistic annotated data and produces First Order Logic theories.  ...  (iii) a real world medical dataset in the breast cancer domain.  ...  While researchers have spent their efforts on creating logic languages to represent probabilities and runtime environments that can deal with them [23, 22, 2, 6, 4, 18] , few works have been dedicated  ... 
arXiv:1506.00893v1 fatcat:2xrnjyq55radtk7ukfxqt6o5o4

Assessment Of Critical Thinking In Ph.D. Candidates Of Persian Medicine

Fateme Ashrafzade And Mohammad Al-Attar
2018 Zenodo  
Thinking and decision making abilities are one of the most important skills for clinicians in general or special practice; but many studies result showed a gap between the ideal and the real, which lead  ...  Since traditional, alternative or complementary medical schools are still in the beginning road with various deficiencies in scientific structure or evidence-based instructions for clinicians, critical  ...  Sohrab Dehghan for assistance with English edit that greatly improved the manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.1476937 fatcat:t6cvc4xubbcdbf7c5fkv26w43q

"Theoric Transformations" and a New Classification of Abductive Inferences

Hoffmann
2010 Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society  
Based on a definition of -abductive insight‖ and a critical discussion of G.  ...  described it with the notion of a -theoric transformation.‖ To understand the significance of theoric transformations-especially in mathematics-it is necessary to analyze in some detail Peirce's main example for  ...  At first glance, these axioms do not -explain‖ anything, but they are nevertheless created as newly formed hypotheses that are instrumental for the theorem in question (p. 72).  ... 
doi:10.2979/trancharpeirsoc.2010.46.4.570 fatcat:2jbkxuikpbadjnxwzaqefvwnrm

Annotating Patterns of Reasoning about Medical Theories of Causation in Vaccine Cases: Toward a Type System for Arguments

Vern Walker, Karina Vazirova, Cass Sanford
2014 Proceedings of the First Workshop on Argumentation Mining  
Moreover, there must be a reliable and accurate method for classifying the arguments found in natural language legal documents.  ...  The pattern types and examples presented here demonstrate the difficulty of developing a type or annotation system for characterizing the logically important patterns of reasoning.  ...  We conclude by discussing our working hypotheses for developing a type system for arguments, as well as discussing prior related work.  ... 
doi:10.3115/v1/w14-2101 dblp:conf/acl/WalkerVS14 fatcat:etpi7vkxerglfb5iy3nz3eqxae

The Harmful, Nontherapeutic Use of Animals in Research Is Morally Wrong

Nathan Nobis
2011 American Journal of the Medical Sciences  
I explain my Methods, which will involve presenting some basic logic and moral argument analysis skills.  ...  METHODS First, I will present and explain some standard methods of analytic moral philosophers. They involve analyzing moral arguments using a set of logical tools.  ... 
doi:10.1097/maj.0b013e3182299421 pmid:21952174 fatcat:xyqtqpu4k5gp7ldozzjto43z7q

Probability Arguments in Criminal Law - Illustrated by the Case of Lucia de Berk

Herman Philipse
2015 Utrecht Law Review  
: God wanted to punish him for his atheism, and, being omnipotent and able to cause a miracle, God did so by creating the virus out of nothing in the atheist while he was travelling on subway line E.  ...  In this section and the next one, I shall consider two logical reconstructions of the Coincidence Argument, and assess what can (and cannot) be shown by the argument on either of these two reconstructions  ...  to care for patients who are seriously ill; (h 6 ) someone hates Lucia and tries to discredit her. 28 n his discussion of the Argument from Coincidence, Derksen adds two other hypothetical explanations  ... 
doi:10.18352/ulr.310 fatcat:it6y5vsscfeexcsadsfj7kg2nu

Why I teach the controversy: using creationism to teach critical thinking

P. Lynne Honey
2015 Frontiers in Psychology  
I began to explain creationism in my classes, and to model the scientific thought process that leads to a rejection of creationism.  ...  Creationism and intelligent design are terms used to describe supernatural explanations for the origin of life, and the diversity of species on this planet.  ...  At the same time, I explain several of the common logical fallacies that are evident in creationist arguments. I encourage students to ask questions, and force me to defend my statements.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00793 pmid:26136700 pmcid:PMC4469816 fatcat:ytma7ypvuzhkjpuzpxenudrwvu

The ethics of alpha: reflections on statistics, evidence and values in medicine

R E Upshur
2001 Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics  
The essay concludes with recommendations to acknowledge the value permeation of outcome measures and suggests that attention to reasoning and argument analysis can augment traditional evidence-based approaches  ...  in providing a robust critical approach to medical knowledge.  ...  The author would like to extend warm thanks to Shari Gruman for assistance in the preparation of the manuscript as well as the anonymous peer reviewers for their perceptive comments.  ... 
pmid:11939426 fatcat:whqzwt7qrff3pgwep22igr23au
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