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Distinct brain loci in deductive versus probabilistic reasoning

Daniel Osherson, Daniela Perani, Stefano Cappa, Tatiana Schnur, Franco Grassi, Ferruccio Fazio
1998 Neuropsychologia  
To clarify the matter, positron emission tomography was applied during deductive versus probabilistic reasoning tasks, using identical stimuli.  ...  The results suggest that reasoning about syllogisms engages distinct brain mechanisms, depending on the intention to evaluate them deductively versus probabilistically.  ...  Acknowledqements--We thank two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments. This study was supported by CNR and HFSPO grants.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0028-3932(97)00099-7 pmid:9665648 fatcat:bzfblvbytrdgrmg4amz7sozox4

The resolution and recovery of filler-gap dependencies in aphasia: Evidence from on-line anomaly detection

Michael Walsh Dickey, Cynthia K Thompson
2004 Brain and Language  
Importantly, however, there was evidence of a treatment effect for the aphasic patients: those who received treatment showed better performance than those who had not.  ...  Treated patients were more successful than the untreated patients in detecting the anomaly in filler-gap conditions, rejecting the anomalous filler-gap sentences reliably more often than the non-anomalous  ...  Fig. 5 . 5 Mean response times for rejecting anomalous sentences. Aphasic participants, treatment group, by condition. Fig. 6 . 6 Mean response times for rejecting anomalous sentences.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0093-934x(03)00283-9 pmid:14698736 fatcat:eft6s25akfcv5ft5cyiy6g3mjq

Progestogens and the Foetus

G. R. Venning
1961 BMJ (Clinical Research Edition)  
Although we went to considerable lengths to explain to the relatives what we considered were the indications for surgery, the responsibility for this dec,ision is, ours.  ...  It is, to say the least, anomalous to find these anonymous pictures featured blatantly alongside photographs of the patients' organs displayed at utterly unjustifiable abdominal operations.  ... 
doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5267.1644-a fatcat:nzsbfdluebcn5njz73wwg6d3mq

Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis

Omar Khan, Massimo Filippi, Mark S. Freedman, Frederik Barkhof, Paula Dore-Duffy, Hans Lassmann, Bruce Trapp, Amit Bar-Or, Imad Zak, Marilyn J. Siegel, Robert Lisak
2010 Annals of Neurology  
, they found 288 normal and 257 anomalous TCCS-ECD parameters in MS patients.  ...  A potential shift in the treatment paradigm of MS involving endovascular balloon angioplasty or venous stent placement has been proposed as well as conducted in small patient series.  ...  , they found 288 normal and 257 anomalous TCCS-ECD parameters in MS patients.  ... 
doi:10.1002/ana.22001 pmid:20373339 fatcat:x3abmbjxnrbyhenlpgoohpmjta

Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis

Adam E. Handel, Matthew R. Lincoln, Sreeram V. Ramagopalan
2010 Annals of Neurology  
A potential shift in the treatment paradigm of MS involving endovascular balloon angioplasty or venous stent placement has been proposed as well as conducted in small patient series.  ...  The need for conducting carefully designed and rigorously controlled studies to investigate CCVSI has been recognized by the scientific bodies engaged in MS research.  ...  Acknowledgement The authors wish to thank Drs Kumar Rajamani, John Kamholz and Scott Millis  ... 
doi:10.1002/ana.22067 pmid:20695021 fatcat:2euwai7vjbgg5kufrmpk5gqukq

A clash at the petri dish: transferring embryos with known genetic anomalies

Judith Daar
2018 Journal of Law and the Biosciences  
Finally, special thanks to Rosalie Robles for her careful edit of a prior draft.  ...  I also want to acknowledge the incredible contributions that shaped this article by my colleagues on the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Ethics Committee.  ...  The arguments for declining patient requests for transfer of genetically anomalous embryos are set out in Part III. Here, four possible avenues for argumentation can be rationally configured.  ... 
doi:10.1093/jlb/lsy015 pmid:30191065 pmcid:PMC6121061 fatcat:k42gcitzf5euvhr6nwnj5izfa4

The Capgras delusion: an integrated approach

Neralie Wise
2015 Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences  
His second argument, that the response to significance occurs later in the condition, is also based on the presence of an anomalous experience.  ...  In doing so, I argue, it becomes easier to account for the anomalous skin conductance responses (SCR) exhibited by Capgras patients, the tendency of the delusion to spread over time, and for Capgras delusions  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11097-014-9410-y fatcat:fmjp6yzgp5djrlacvajmaqb55u

Normativity and Rationality in Delusional Psychiatric Disorders

Jose L. Bermudez
2001 Mind & Language  
anatomical systems responsible for particular information-processing tasks in normal subjects.  ...  These conceptions are required not simply as goals for eventual therapy and treatment, but also for the purposes of classification.  ...  that are partly responsible for them.  ... 
doi:10.1111/1468-0017.00179 fatcat:ok2wi36lsjcuhowmmgplo4lbki

Defeasible Reasoning and Argument-Based Systems in Medical Fields: An Informal Overview

Luca Longo, Pierpaolo Dondio
2014 2014 IEEE 27th International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems  
It then describes argumentation theory, a paradigm for implementing defeasible reasoning in practice as well as the common multilayer schema upon which argument-based models are usually built.  ...  The first aim of this article is to provide readers informally with the basic notions of defeasible and non-monotonic reasoning, logics borrowed from artificial intelligence.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to thank prof. Pietro Baroni for his feedback.  ... 
doi:10.1109/cbms.2014.126 dblp:conf/cbms/LongoD14 fatcat:5zv7pkwyunfvzassja4yn5n4ra

Во канцеларијата на доктор Хаус: лекции по абдуктивно расудување

Ана Димишковска
2018 Годишен зборник на Филозофскиот факултет/The Annual of the Faculty of Philosophy in Skopje  
Abduction, often defined as inference to the best explanation, is a type of reasoning that is employed in situations where there is some kind of puzzling evidence, which is to be explained by the best  ...  In this paper, an attempt is made to elaborate on the logical and epistemological aspects of the diagnostic application of abductive reasoning.  ...  evaluating plausible hypotheses for explaining the observed facts; the presence of deductive elements in the drawing of logical consequences from different hypotheses; the taxonomy of abductive arguments  ... 
doi:10.37510/godzbo1871023d fatcat:ygmp72oqtral7ggufnx4vuvk54

Argumentation schemes for clinical decision support

Isabel Sassoon, Nadin Kökciyan, Sanjay Modgil, Simon Parsons
2021 Argument & Computation  
treatments to offer.  ...  The work builds on the use of computational argumentation, a rigorous approach to reasoning with complex data that places strong emphasis on being able to justify and explain the decisions that are recommended  ...  The authors are grateful for the help and advice from Dr Mark Ashworth, who provided invaluable input on the clinical aspects of this work.  ... 
doi:10.3233/aac-200550 fatcat:43yy5mjd3jhivbyuurji4pa5s4


2011 Bioethics  
A utilitarian analysis of the utilities and disutilities leads to the conclusion that homeopathy is ethically unacceptable and ought to be actively rejected by healthcare professionals.  ...  seek effective healthcare, wastage of resources, promulgation of false beliefs and a weakening of commitment to scientific medicine.  ...  Acknowledgement The author would like to thank Wallace Sampson, MD (Professor Emeritus, Stanford University, California) and two anonymous referees for valuable comments and criticism.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1467-8519.2010.01876.x pmid:21320146 fatcat:rsend5usmjbq7emaa4j4hbfsjy

Seeking an Equal Place at the Therapy Research Table: An Introduction to a Series on the Pragmatic Case Study Method

Daniel B. Fishman
2007 Pragmatic Case Studies in Psychotherapy  
journal, a model that the late Kenneth Howard called "patient-focused research."  ...  As a group, these articles provide a persuasive rationale for the value of properly conducted case studies as a complement to group studies in improving the effectiveness of psychotherapy.  ...  The late Ken Howard, one of the co-founders of SPR, introduced the very useful distinction between treatment-focused and patient-focused psychotherapy research (e.g., see Howard, Moras, Brill, Martinovich  ... 
doi:10.14713/pcsp.v3i1.891 fatcat:aemeiqg4xrhnfcsad3qg5pw52i

The structure of the cognitive revolution: An examination from the philosophy of science

William O'Donohue, Kyle E. Ferguson, Amy E. Naugle
2003 The Behavior Analyst  
Specifically, we will draw from the philosophical positions of Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos, Laudan, and Gross for the purpose of discussion.  ...  We conclude that no substantive revolution took place according to these accounts.  ...  Were possible iatrogenic effects (complications caused by diagnosis or treatment) measured and found to be insignificant? Did patients find the treatment to be acceptable?  ... 
doi:10.1007/bf03392069 pmid:22478396 pmcid:PMC2731437 fatcat:pb4y4gv3nbby3gyrblsgwrtl2e

Technic and Practice of Psychoanalysis

1959 Psychosomatic Medicine  
he should use this type of book in which to present his arguments.  ...  In general, the author emphasizes mainly in his theoretical thinking categories referring to ) drives, id content, reactions of patients to par- ents and siblings, specific emotional responses and libidinal  ... 
doi:10.1097/00006842-195903000-00016 fatcat:5o5nga5munfzvor2br2zmqvkem
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