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Are refactorings less error-prone than other changes?

Peter Weißgerber, Stephan Diehl
2006 Proceedings of the 2006 international workshop on Mining software repositories - MSR '06  
Consequently, we expect that during phases when there are mostly refactorings in the change history of a system, only few new bugs are introduced.  ...  The remainder of this paper is organized as follows: In Section 2 we describe how we reconstruct refactorings and other changes from version archives.  ...  As we focus in this paper on the question of whether refactorings are less error-prone than other changes, we have to compute the ratio of refactorings to other changes.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1137983.1138011 dblp:conf/msr/WeissgerberD06 fatcat:i2jrexazwvgnfduigf6rkqdxim

Manual refactoring changes with automated refactoring validation

Xi Ge, Emerson Murphy-Hill
2014 Proceedings of the 36th International Conference on Software Engineering - ICSE 2014  
However, even when developers have these tools, they still perform about 90% of refactorings manually, which is error-prone.  ...  Refactoring, the practice of applying behavior-preserving changes to existing code, can enhance the quality of software systems.  ...  had less experience in C# than in Java.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2568225.2568280 dblp:conf/icse/GeM14 fatcat:jsfbf6e56jazzbpfuapw3v25ny

Agile Programming: Design to Accommodate Change

D. Thomas
2005 IEEE Software  
In a large IT or engineering production system, this can be time consuming and error prone. Agile programming is design for change, without refactoring and rebuilding.  ...  This eliminates the potentially expensive and error-prone step of translating from business requirement to implementation.  ... 
doi:10.1109/ms.2005.54 fatcat:xdwq2vys6zfpvkzkcrgptfmh4i

Identifying Refactorings from Source-Code Changes

Peter Weissgerber, Stephan Diehl
2006 21st IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering (ASE'06)  
Moreover, as we found in our case studies, programmers tend not to document these changes as refactorings, or even worse label changes as refactorings, although they are not.  ...  In this paper we present a technique to detect changes that are likely to be refactorings and rank them according to the likelihood.  ...  Johanna Vomfei helped with the manual inspection of the documented refactorings.  ... 
doi:10.1109/ase.2006.41 dblp:conf/kbse/WeissgerberD06 fatcat:chlktre4xjbz3k4kfmhjp2ye2a

Change-Proneness of Software Components

Ankita Urvashi, Anamika Chhabra
2014 IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering  
in continuous change and measuring change in the software process is critical for the software to remain in use as well as for its relevant, hence ,In this paper we have found the trend on which the change-proneness  ...  Previous work have assumed that all trends relationship are linear in nature, while dataset collected for shows it is highly nonlinear.  ...  Even design patterns that are actually used to develop software designs that are less prone to lot of changes.  ... 
doi:10.9790/0661-16284548 fatcat:vbsev5txibcqtl26zbqxs4viqq

An Exploratory Study on the Relationship between Changes and Refactoring

Fabio Palomba, Andy Zaidman, Rocco Oliveto, Andrea De Lucia
2017 2017 IEEE/ACM 25th International Conference on Program Comprehension (ICPC)  
Instead, when new features are implemented, more complex refactoring operations are performed to improve code cohesion.  ...  in the requirements rather than driven by software quality.  ...  The purpose is understanding whether different types of changes provide indications on which code components are more/less likely of being refactored.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icpc.2017.38 dblp:conf/iwpc/PalombaZOL17 fatcat:zp5m5on5u5bb5busbh5j5e7zxu

A study of refactorings during software change tasks

Anna M. Eilertsen, Gail C. Murphy
2021 Journal of Software: Evolution and Process  
As has been reported by others, all too often, these refactoring steps are instead performed manually by developers.  ...  Common refactorings like rename, extract, and move 8 occur both during software changes that are purely quality-improving and-more commonlyduring changes to software functionality. 5,9,10 1 Refactorings  ...  These numbers are aligned with previous findings in which developers self-report to use tools less than half of the time. 5, 13, 32, 48 These studies investigate various granularity of changes: our cases  ... 
doi:10.1002/smr.2378 fatcat:gxoif6krivco5pfoboy3mdh334

Mining framework usage changes from instantiation code

Thorsten Schäfer, Jan Jonas, Mira Mezini
2008 Proceedings of the 13th international conference on Software engineering - ICSE '08  
However, other kinds of changes exist, which are relevant for the migration.  ...  This is a tedious and error-prone process that benefits from automation. Existing approaches compare two versions of the framework code in order to find changes caused by refactorings.  ...  This is a tedious and error-prone process that benefits from automation.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1368088.1368153 dblp:conf/icse/SchaferJM08 fatcat:2xftuyq4jjcolhwaacj5t6d5bq

How do software engineers understand code changes?

Yida Tao, Yingnong Dang, Tao Xie, Dongmei Zhang, Sunghun Kim
2012 Proceedings of the ACM SIGSOFT 20th International Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering - FSE '12  
In addition, for understanding a composite change, it is valuable to decompose it into sub-changes that are aligned with individual development issues; however, currently such decomposition lacks tool  ...  For example, it is difficult to acquire important information needs such as a change's completeness, consistency, and especially the risk imposed by it on other software components.  ...  bug is difficult and error-prone."  ... 
doi:10.1145/2393596.2393656 dblp:conf/sigsoft/TaoDXZK12 fatcat:ia2yitj3wrh53e4iodcemtkabq

The Impact of Ensemble Techniques on Software Maintenance Change Prediction: An Empirical Study

Hadeel Alsolai, Marc Roper
2022 Applied Sciences  
Various prediction models have been proposed by researchers to predict the change-proneness of classes based on source code metrics.  ...  This study aims to empirically evaluate the effectiveness of the ensemble models, feature selection, and sampling techniques on predicting change-proneness using different metrics.  ...  Additionally, it has the ability to handle complex nonlinear decision boundaries and is less prone to overfitting than other models.  ... 
doi:10.3390/app12105234 fatcat:htr7zaf4abckpmm7tf4l56bdbe

Identifying change patterns of API misuses from code changes

Wenjian Liu, Bihuan Chen, Xin Peng, Qinghao Sun, Wenyun Zhao
2021 Science China Information Sciences  
However, they fail to mine patterns about an API call itself (e.g., whether the arguments of the API call are correctly set and whether the API is suitably chosen over other similar APIs).  ...  Library or framework APIs are difficult to learn and use, leading to unexpected software behaviors or bugs.  ...  (i.e., the successor of FindBugs [54] ), Google's Error Prone (E.P.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11432-019-2745-5 fatcat:lqo5a2u7mjfwjfclotddbef4vq

Classification of Changes in API Evolution

Rediana Koci, Xavier Franch, Petar Jovanovic, Alberto Abello
2019 2019 IEEE 23rd International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference (EDOC)  
Even though API consumers expect APIs to be steady and well established, APIs are prone to continuous changes, experiencing different evolutive phases through their lifecycle.  ...  These changes are of different types, caused by different needs and are affecting consumers in different ways.  ...  After analyzing different artifacts of API, we saw that less than 50% of the changes were documented in them.  ... 
doi:10.1109/edoc.2019.00037 dblp:conf/edoc/KociF0A19 fatcat:3aidqrhrbfhjbjes3d5jgk45zm

On the Evolutionary Properties of Fix Inducing Changes [article]

Aquib Azmain, Syed Fatiul Huq, Nadia Nahar, Md. Nurul Ahad Tawhid
[7] showed that 15% refactoring tasks induce bugs, analyzing 52 kinds of refactoring on 3 Java projects. They detected inheritance related refactoring as the most error-prone refactoring.  ...  There is also a significant delay in posting FICs than regular Commits. Lastly, when relating with complexity metrics, FICs show up in code with less LoC and less CC than regular Commits.  ... 
doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.14191343.v1 fatcat:47uew6wmqbb2xibhrwxxlime7u

The Impact of Code Review on Architectural Changes

Matheus Paixao, Jens Krinke, DongGyun Han, Chaiyong Ragkhitwetsagul, Mark Harman
2019 IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering  
We manually inspected all reviews that caused significant changes and found that developers are discussing the impact of their changes on the architectural structure in only 31% of the cases, suggesting  ...  73% of the cases in which developers provided architectural feedback during code review, the comments were addressed, where the final merged revision tended to exhibit higher architectural improvement than  ...  However, building and compiling the systems for each revision is a time consuming and error prone activity.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tse.2019.2912113 fatcat:t6z5wr43azdjfbbnh7bazlnlum

Analyzing the Impact of Antipatterns on Change-Proneness Using Fine-Grained Source Code Changes

Daniele Romano, Paulius Raila, Martin Pinzger, Foutse Khomh
2012 2012 19th Working Conference on Reverse Engineering  
in the three antipatterns ComplexClass, SpaghettiCode, and SwissArmyKnife are more change-prone than classes affected by other antipatterns; and 3) certain types of changes are more likely to be performed  ...  In particular we investigate: whether classes with antipatterns are more change-prone (in terms of SCC) than classes without; (2) whether the type of antipattern impacts the change-proneness of Java classes  ...  ORs less than 1 indicate that classes not affected by antipatterns are more likely to be changed.  ... 
doi:10.1109/wcre.2012.53 dblp:conf/wcre/RomanoRPK12 fatcat:bp64hz4vbneahc3b4rijqheeua
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