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Understanding myosin functions in plants: are we there yet?

Stephanie L Madison, Andreas Nebenführ
2013 Current opinion in plant biology  
Identification of a mechanistic link between intracellular movements and cell expansion has proven more challenging, not the least because of the high level of apparent genetic redundancy among myosin  ...  This work and similar approaches in the moss, Physcomitrella patens, also established that myosindriven movements are necessary for cell growth and polarity, organelle distribution and shape, and actin  ...  Acknowledgements We apologize to our colleagues whose work could not be included due to space constraints.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.pbi.2013.10.004 pmid:24446546 fatcat:d5pq2j737ja2xmuajlsibyf6de

Are we there yet? Initial targeting of the Male-Specific Lethal and Polycomb group chromatin complexes in Drosophila

K. A. McElroy, H. Kang, M. I. Kuroda
2014 Open Biology  
Additionally, zeste mutants have no observed mutant phenotype (homeotic or otherwise), suggesting it may be redundant or non-essential [94] .  ...  If we consider PREs as the ChIP-enriched peak of PRC1 (intersection of Pc and Ph), then Pho sites are estimated to overlap with approximately 96% of mapped PREs.  ... 
doi:10.1098/rsob.140006 pmid:24671948 pmcid:PMC3971409 fatcat:fodaitkcqzdp5gwhxollf3xgwi

Demonstrating unselfishness: They haven't done it yet

Stephen C. Stearns
1989 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
Hence, cooperation in the support of group welfare will only occur if there are selfish incentives that convert the social dilemma into a nondilemma.  ...  The cognitive and affective mechanisms underlying such choices evolved under selection pressures on small groups for developing and maintaining group membership and for predicting and controlling the behavior  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are grateful to Marilynn Brewer.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0140525x0002553x fatcat:jllz2etjqvdstegqda4mdts5pi

Bax Forms an Oligomer via Separate, Yet Interdependent, Surfaces

Zhi Zhang, Weijia Zhu, Suzanne M. Lapolla, Yiwei Miao, Yuanlong Shao, Mina Falcone, Doug Boreham, Nicole McFarlane, Jingzhen Ding, Arthur E. Johnson, Xuejun C. Zhang, David W. Andrews (+1 others)
2010 Journal of Biological Chemistry  
To map the interface of the Bax oligomer we used Triton X-100 as a membrane surrogate and performed site-specific photocross-linking.  ...  Therefore, Bax oligomerization proceeds through a series of interactions that occur at separate, yet allosterically, coupled interfaces.  ...  Acknowledgment-We thank Gillian Air for thoroughly editing the manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.1074/jbc.m110.113456 pmid:20382739 pmcid:PMC2878526 fatcat:vzdz57qb6bektdwg2whaj4khr4

Multifunctional G-Rich and RRM-Containing Domains of TbRGG2 Perform Separate yet Essential Functions in Trypanosome RNA Editing

Bardees M. Foda, Kurtis M. Downey, John C. Fisk, Laurie K. Read
2012 Eukaryotic Cell  
Here, we perform in vitro and in vivo separation-of-function studies to interrogate the mechanism of TbRGG2 action in RNA editing.  ...  Overall, our results are consistent with a model in which the high-affinity RNA binding and RNA-annealing activities of the G-rich domain are essential for RNA editing in vivo .  ...  We thank Julius Lukes for anti-GAP1 antibodies and Michelle Ammerman for critical reading of the manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.1128/ec.00175-12 pmid:22798390 pmcid:PMC3445973 fatcat:fvkxu77mp5a5fjz4xe5pd6ampu

On the utility of dominator mutants for mutation testing

Bob Kurtz
2016 Proceedings of the 2016 24th ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Foundations of Software Engineering - FSE 2016  
However, practitioner adoption of mutation testing has been minimal in part because of problems that arise from the huge numbers of redundant and equivalent mutants that are generated.  ...  The research described here examines the relationship between mutants and attempts to reduce the number of redundant and equivalent mutants in order to make mutation testing more practical for the software  ...  PhD thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 1980.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2950290.2983950 dblp:conf/sigsoft/Kurtz16 fatcat:7qdhs5bytfe7re3y4qv2nkji6q

Do Redundant Mutants Affect the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Mutation Analysis?

Rene Just, Gregory M. Kapfhammer, Franz Schweiggert
2012 2012 IEEE Fifth International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation  
40,000 lines of code, to show the prevalence of redundant mutants.  ...  removal of redundant mutants reduces the runtime of mutation analysis by up to 34%.  ...  After completing these steps, we intend to replicate the empirical study in this paper to better understand how redundant mutants affect the effectiveness and efficiency of mutation analysis.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icst.2012.162 dblp:conf/icst/JustKS12 fatcat:dzj64xyj45fmhch65ao7rrm6au

Bcr-Abl with an SH3 Deletion Retains the Ability To Induce a Myeloproliferative Disease in Mice, yet c-Abl Activated by an SH3 Deletion Induces Only Lymphoid Malignancy

Alec W. Gross, Xiaowu Zhang, Ruibao Ren
1999 Molecular and Cellular Biology  
are either not required or redundant in Bcr-Abl-induced myeloproliferative disease.  ...  In this study, we examined the role of the Abl SH3 domain of Bcr-Abl in induction of myeloproliferative disease and tested whether c-Abl activated by SH3 deletion can induce a CML-like disease.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank Ben Hentel for help in analyzing mice and with flow cytometry. This work was supported by National Cancer Institute grant CA68008 (to R.R.).  ... 
doi:10.1128/mcb.19.10.6918 pmid:10490629 pmcid:PMC84687 fatcat:wrjhthtehbcipoye3x7rrfwtuy

Analyzing the validity of selective mutation with dominator mutants

Bob Kurtz, Paul Ammann, Jeff Offutt, Márcio E. Delamaro, Mariet Kurtz, Nida Gökçe
2016 Proceedings of the 2016 24th ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Foundations of Software Engineering - FSE 2016  
We then exhaustively evaluate all small sets of mutation operators for the Proteum mutation system and determine dominator mutation scores and required work for each of these sets on an empirical test  ...  The recent development of dominator mutants and minimal mutation analysis lets us analyze selective mutation without the noise introduced by the redundancy inherent in traditional mutation.  ...  We also classified sets of mutants based on redundancy and equivalency and examined the effect on the ability to determine test completeness.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2950290.2950322 dblp:conf/sigsoft/KurtzAODKG16 fatcat:qbdanyxeofdsva5fsj6busc57y

The Impact of Equivalent, Redundant and Quasi Mutants on Database Schema Mutation Analysis

Chris J. Wright, Gregory M. Kapfhammer, Phil McMinn
2014 2014 14th International Conference on Quality Software  
Using a DBMS-independent abstract representation, the presented techniques automatically identify and remove mutants that are either equivalent to the original schema, redundant with respect to other mutants  ...  Applying our techniques for ineffective mutant removal to a variety of schemas, many of which are from real-world sources like the U.S.  ...  The SQL is then submitted to the DBMS and the test suite is run against it to determine how many mutants the tests killed. SQL Mutants A.  ... 
doi:10.1109/qsic.2014.26 dblp:conf/qsic/WrightKM14 fatcat:euggff4z7bh3ve5o6lgfa5porm

Do Null-Type Mutation Operators Help Prevent Null-Type Faults? [chapter]

Ali Parsai, Serge Demeyer
2019 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We show how these mutation operators are capable of revealing the missing tests, and we demonstrate that these mutation operators are useful in practice.  ...  For the latter, we analyze the test suites of 15 open-source projects to describe the trade-offs related to the adoption of these operators to strengthen the test suite.  ...  Considering that 3 mutants generated by null-type mutation operators are not equivalent, and yet the mutation-adequate test suite we created according to the general-purpose tools cannot kill them, we  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-10801-4_33 fatcat:dwhtmnvdzbc75ibwa3k3qht27e

Mutant Minimization for Model-Checker Based Test-Case Generation

Gordon Fraser, Franz Wotawa
2007 Testing: Academic and Industrial Conference Practice and Research Techniques - MUTATION (TAICPART-MUTATION 2007)  
In this paper, we describe how the number of mutants can be minimized with special properties, which help to detect equivalent mutants more quickly and to avoid the creation of redundant test-cases.  ...  Issues that contribute to potentially bad performance are equivalent mutants which result in no test-cases, and the fact that many different mutants lead to identical or subsumed test-cases.  ...  There are approaches of how to eliminate redundant test-cases for a complete test-suite (e.g., winnowing [1] ), but ideally it should be avoided to call the model-checker on mutants unnecessarily, before  ... 
doi:10.1109/taicpart.2007.4344120 fatcat:zxbd5kgbfrd5tdo3ark47s44hy

Mutant Minimization for Model-Checker Based Test-Case Generation

Gordon Fraser, Franz Wotawa
2007 Testing: Academic and Industrial Conference Practice and Research Techniques - MUTATION (TAICPART-MUTATION 2007)  
In this paper, we describe how the number of mutants can be minimized with special properties, which help to detect equivalent mutants more quickly and to avoid the creation of redundant test-cases.  ...  Issues that contribute to potentially bad performance are equivalent mutants which result in no test-cases, and the fact that many different mutants lead to identical or subsumed test-cases.  ...  There are approaches of how to eliminate redundant test-cases for a complete test-suite (e.g., winnowing [1] ), but ideally it should be avoided to call the model-checker on mutants unnecessarily, before  ... 
doi:10.1109/taic.part.2007.30 fatcat:s3hafk2n2jfojcsyvmz7xxfmci

Efficient mutation analysis by propagating and partitioning infected execution states

René Just, Michael D. Ernst, Gordon Fraser
2014 Proceedings of the 2014 International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis - ISSTA 2014  
Mutants that are embedded in compound expressions may infect the state locally without affecting the outcome of the compound expression.  ...  Mutation analysis evaluates a testing technique by measuring how well it detects seeded faults (mutants).  ...  Table 3 summarizes how many of the mutants that were covered by the test suites remain after the prepass optimizations filter out test-equivalent and redundant mutants.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2610384.2610388 dblp:conf/issta/JustEF14 fatcat:ixggwgg4jjaedmy2ijp53wg7b4

A study of equivalent and stubborn mutation operators using human analysis of equivalence

Xiangjuan Yao, Mark Harman, Yue Jia
2014 Proceedings of the 36th International Conference on Software Engineering - ICSE 2014  
We report on the causes and prevalence of equivalent mutants and their relationship to stubborn mutants (those that remain undetected by a high quality test suite, yet are non-equivalent).  ...  Though mutation testing has been widely studied for more than thirty years, the prevalence and properties of equivalent mutants remain largely unknown.  ...  MANUAL ANALYSIS OF STUBBORN & EQUIVALENT MUTANTS This section explains how we set up and carried out the procedures required to determine equivalence and stubbornness of mutants so that we can answer the  ... 
doi:10.1145/2568225.2568265 dblp:conf/icse/YaoHJ14 fatcat:lbuqk3vtavar3hmeefrgpheopm
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