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The role of Schlemm's canal in aqueous outflow from the human eye

M C Johnson, R D Kamm
1983 Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science  
A mathematical model of Schlemm's canal is developed to simulate collapse of the canal and its effect on resistance to flow through the aqueous outflow network.  ...  Based on comparisons between the model and results in the literature, the following tentative conclusions are reached: (1) Most of the resistance in the aqueous outflow network occurs in the inner wall  ...  Therefore, we conclude that most of the resistance in the aqueous outflow network occurs in the inner wall of Schlemm's canal.  ... 
pmid:6832907 fatcat:wvvlm5v6jrfp7f6rc7z4rxianu

Interactions between endothelia of the trabecular meshwork and of Schlemm's canal: a new insight into the regulation of aqueous outflow in the eye

Jorge A Alvarado, Ru-Fang Yeh, Linda Franse-Carman, George Marcellino, Michael J Brownstein
2005 Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society  
To test the hypothesis that trabecular meshwork endothelial cells (TMEs) regulate aqueous outflow by actively releasing ligands that upon binding to Schlemm's canal endothelial cells (SCEs) increase transendothelial  ...  We tested our hypothesis by (1) activating the TMEs in vitro using a laser procedure known to increase aqueous outflow in vivo; (2) demonstrating that lasered TMEs become activated at the genome-wide level  ...  INTRODUCTION The conventional aqueous outflow pathway functions to facilitate the egress of aqueous from the anterior chamber of the eye into the lumen of Schlemm's canal and to prevent the reflux of blood  ... 
pmid:17057799 pmcid:PMC1447570 fatcat:fh54psekabf5blaxqdj76qhxum

Mechanical responsiveness of the endothelial cell of Schlemm's canal: scope, variability and its potential role in controlling aqueous humour outflow

E. H. Zhou, R. Krishnan, W. D. Stamer, K. M. Perkumas, K. Rajendran, J. F. Nabhan, Q. Lu, J. J. Fredberg, M. Johnson
2011 Journal of the Royal Society Interface  
Aqueous humour outflow passes mainly through the trabecular meshwork (TM) and then through pores formed in the endothelium of Schlemm's canal (SC), which experiences a basal-to-apical pressure gradient  ...  Primary open-angle glaucoma is associated with elevated intraocular pressure, which in turn is believed to result from impaired outflow of aqueous humour.  ...  juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT), the inner wall endothelium of Schlemm's canal (SC) and/or its basement membrane [1, 2] .  ... 
doi:10.1098/rsif.2011.0733 pmid:22171066 pmcid:PMC3350739 fatcat:specxalbbjamzg3vyg5s4gzfqq

How Does Nonpenetrating Glaucoma Surgery Work? Aqueous Outflow Resistance and Glaucoma Surgery

Douglas H. Johnson, Mark Johnson
2001 Journal of glaucoma  
Histologic, experimental, and theoretical studies of the aqueous outflow pathways point toward the juxtacanalicular region and inner wall of Schlemm's canal as the likely site of aqueous outflow resistance  ...  Schlemm's canal.  ...  outflow system in the human eye comprises the trabecular meshwork, Schlemm's canal, and the aqueous veins (Fig. 1 ).  ... 
doi:10.1097/00061198-200102000-00011 pmid:11219641 fatcat:5dwtda4usbgztoritw6bn22udi

Progression on canaloplasty for primary open angle glaucoma

Jun Zhang
2019 International Journal of Ophthalmology  
As a non-penetrating glaucoma surgery (NPGS), canaloplasty aims to reconstruct the physiological outflow of aqueous humor by dilating the Schlemm's canal.  ...  Ab interno canaloplasty (ABiC), which can reconstruct the natural outflow pathways of aqueous humor in mild-to-moderate primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients, is a new minimally invasive glaucoma  ...  The Schlemm's canal was expanded and the aqueous humor outflow was increased during the reconstruction of the physiological aqueous humor outflow system.  ... 
doi:10.18240/ijo.2019.10.16 pmid:31637200 pmcid:PMC6796084 fatcat:dz66geftxbcljoqhfde4jurqia

Microscopy in the Study of the Eye Disease Glaucoma

Cheryl R. Hann, Michael P. Fautsch
2016 Microscopy and Microanalysis  
From Schlemm's canal, aqueous humor passes through collector channels that drain into the episcleral venous system (Fig 1) .  ...  called Schlemm's canal.  ...  From Schlemm's canal, aqueous humor passes through collector channels that drain into the episcleral venous system (Fig 1) .  ... 
doi:10.1017/s1431927616006814 fatcat:sxrttjjjgrdkbpivqwygoupsoy

Biomechanics of Aqueous Humor Outflow Resistance* [chapter]

M. Johnson, E.R. Tamm
2010 Encyclopedia of the Eye  
After traveling circumferentially in Schlemm's canal, the aqueous humor enters one of approximately 30 collecting channels that connect Schlemm's canal with the aqueous veins.  ...  Glossary Conventional aqueous outflow pathway -Comprised of the trabecular meshwork, the juxtacanalicular connective tissue, the endothelial lining of Schlemm's canal, Schlemm's canal itself, the collecting  ... 
doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-374203-2.00093-2 fatcat:zc7qd3kakfdlzoph5w5pdpuof4

Glaucoma Surgery and Aqueous Dynamics [chapter]

Parul Ichhpujani
2016 Glaucoma - Intraocular Pressure and Aqueous Dynamics  
Most new surgical innovations have been designed according to natural physiology by routing aqueous as nature intended, through the Schlemm's canal.  ...  Reduction in intraocular pressure is the only proven method to treat glaucoma.  ...  Site of outflow resistance Evidence suggests that the majority of outflow resistance in the trabecular meshwork is generated in the inner wall endothelium of Schlemm's canal and its underlying matrix in  ... 
doi:10.5772/66144 fatcat:e7j25exrp5bxhjiuvrsdh3ufpm

Aqueous Humor Outflow: What Do We Know? Where Will It Lead Us?

Michael P. Fautsch, Douglas H. Johnson
2006 Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science  
enter Schlemm's canal?  ...  The session centered around three questions: What is the evidence that the pathophysiology of ocular hypertension is cell mediated, how do outflow cells deal with stress, and how does the aqueous humor  ...  How do aligned Schlemm's canal cells differ from Schlemm's canal cells that are not aligned? How does the aqueous humor move from the TM into Schlemm's canal?  ... 
doi:10.1167/iovs.06-0830 pmid:17003404 pmcid:PMC2092444 fatcat:mlq5bkf2c5aothsfwaz32h53ma

Alterations of aqueous humour outflow following argon laser trabeculoplasty in monkeys

S. Melamed, D. L. Epstein
1987 British Journal of Ophthalmology  
In the control eyes cationised ferritin was found throughout the conventional aqueous outflow tract, labelling trabecular endothelial cells, both inner and outer walls of Schlemm's canal, and the collecting  ...  Four weeks later in both eyes of each monkey we infused cationised ferritin as a tracer of the aqueous outflow pathways for 30-40 minutes before fixation.  ...  This study was supported in part by grant EY01894 and from the National Eye Institute, and a grant from National Glaucoma Research, a programme of American Health Assistance Foundation.  ... 
doi:10.1136/bjo.71.10.776 pmid:3676149 pmcid:PMC1041305 fatcat:lx2qn5tvsrg3zmaztra62ruedy

Guanylate Cyclase Activators, Cell Volume Changes and IOP Reduction

Dorette Z. Ellis
2011 Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry  
There is a correlation between changes in TM and Schlemm's canal cell volume and rates of aqueous humor outflow; agents that decrease TM and Schlemm's canal cell volume, increase the rate of aqueous humor  ...  Because the spaces through which the fluid flows get smaller as the TM joins the area of the Schlemm's canal, there is resistance to aqueous humor outflow and this resistance creates IOP.  ...  IOP results from the balance between aqueous humor secretion by the ciliary processes and outflow through the TM and Schlemm's canal (the conventional outflow pathway).  ... 
doi:10.1159/000335866 pmid:22179003 fatcat:3gnqigqz7rblzpq2y22uysipka

'What controls aqueous humour outflow resistance?'

Mark Johnson
2006 Experimental Eye Research  
The bulk of aqueous humour outflow resistance is generated in or near the inner wall endothelium of Schlemm's canal in normal eyes, and probably also in glaucomatous eyes.  ...  either in the extracellular matrix of the juxtacanalicular connective tissue or the basement membrane of Schlemm's canal.  ...  Upon leaving Schlemm's canal, the aqueous humour enter one of approximately 30 collecting channels that connect Schlemm's canal with the aqueous veins.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.exer.2005.10.011 pmid:16386733 pmcid:PMC2892751 fatcat:5t73i3uvc5b7dgd3r52ftjsr3m

In Vivo Identification of the Posttrabecular Aqueous Outflow Pathway Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

Akihito Uji, Yuki Muraoka, Nagahisa Yoshimura
2016 Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science  
drainage system of the aqueous humor are needed. 9 In this study, we describe a novel method to identify the continuous posttrabecular aqueous outflow pathway, from Schlemm's canal to the episcleral  ...  (E, K, Q, W) The identified aqueous outflow delineated on the en face image (yellow line). Red arrowheads indicate the location of Schlemm's canal.  ... 
doi:10.1167/iovs.16-19869 pmid:27537266 fatcat:p7gmm3ntyjefjnkiaafzk6ppwi

Page 901 of JAMA Ophthalmology Vol. 56, Issue 6 [page]

1956 JAMA Ophthalmology  
Incising or cannulating Schlemm’s canal trans-sclerally, from the outside of the eye, reduced the resistance to outflow in one human and two monkey eyes.  ...  .‘ Essentially the same pressure (10% less) was recorded in Schlemm’s canal as in the anterior chamber.  ... 

Page 531 of JAMA Ophthalmology Vol. 60, Issue 4 [page]

1958 JAMA Ophthalmology  
If the present observations are applicable to open-angle glaucoma, it would appear that improvement of facility of aqueous outflow may be achieved surgically by mak- ing an opening into Schlemm’s canal  ...  the portion of the meshwork which overlies Schlemm’s canal.  ... 
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