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Anycast Latency: How Many Sites Are Enough? [chapter]

Ricardo de Oliveira Schmidt, John Heidemann, Jan Harm Kuipers
2017 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Although prior work has studied how users associate with anycast services informally, in this paper we examine the key question how many anycast sites are needed to provide good latency, and the worst  ...  Key results of our study are to show that a few sites can provide performance nearly as good as many, and that geographic location and good connectivity have a far stronger effect on latency than having  ...  Our central question is: How many anycast sites are "enough" to get "good" latency?  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-54328-4_14 fatcat:mabj3sxox5fmjmqmrttblqn6ya

Latency-Based Anycast Geolocation: Algorithms, Software, and Data Sets

Danilo Cicalese, Diana Zeaiter Joumblatt, Dario Rossi, Marc-Olivier Buob, Jordan Auge, Timur Friedman
2016 IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications  
city population) of anycast replicas.  ...  Use of IP-layer anycast has increased in the last few years beyond the DNS realm.  ...  Similarly, researchers can develop other anycast identification algorithms, testing whether they are better than iGreedy at, with low overhead, determining whether an IP address is anycast, how many replicas  ... 
doi:10.1109/jsac.2016.2558898 fatcat:5yvgbwegord6daink7ev36bote

Anycast Agility: Network Playbooks to Fight DDoS [article]

A S M Rizvi, Leandro Bertholdo, Joao Ceron, John Heidemann
2022 arXiv   pre-print
We explore how specific anycast deployment can constrain options in this playbook, and are the first to measure how generally applicable they are across multiple anycast networks.  ...  During a DDoS attack service operators redistribute traffic between anycast sites to take advantage of sites with unused or greater capacity.  ...  BGP usually associates networks with nearby anycast sites, providing generally good latency [63] .  ... 
arXiv:2006.14058v5 fatcat:6gyxlbd32zbw3kxapttclungjm

Towards a global IP anycast service

Hitesh Ballani, Paul Francis
2005 Computer communication review  
Finally, we describe how PIAS supports two important P2P and overlay applications.  ...  We also present preliminary measurement results on anycasted DNS root servers that suggest that IP anycast provides good affinity.  ...  Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agencies above.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1090191.1080127 fatcat:2pktnzf5s5e2tmdqstp5w3wena

Towards a global IP anycast service

Hitesh Ballani, Paul Francis
2005 Proceedings of the 2005 conference on Applications, technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer communications - SIGCOMM '05  
Finally, we describe how PIAS supports two important P2P and overlay applications.  ...  We also present preliminary measurement results on anycasted DNS root servers that suggest that IP anycast provides good affinity.  ...  Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agencies above.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1080091.1080127 dblp:conf/sigcomm/BallaniF05 fatcat:yafdhlekfvbzhd6w4tekwskjle

Global-Scale Anycast Network Management with Verfploeter

Wouter B. de Vries, Salman Aljammaz, Roland van Rijswijk-Deij
2020 NOMS 2020 - 2020 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium  
We perform real-world case studies on network planning (what happens when PoPs are switched on or off), troubleshooting (reachability issues of an anycasted prefix) and security (detecting spoofed attack  ...  Yet managing an anycast network is far from simple. Earlier work studying a DDoS attack on the DNS root system, for example, shows that even highly distributed anycast networks can be overwhelmed.  ...  Service providers use IP anycast to provide increased resilience, lower latency, and increased throughput for their services.  ... 
doi:10.1109/noms47738.2020.9110449 dblp:conf/noms/VriesAR20 fatcat:zuhbc5yrbbayphcg5liyaqbv2a

A fistful of pings: Accurate and lightweight anycast enumeration and geolocation

Danilo Cicalese, Diana Joumblatt, Dario Rossi, Marc-Olivier Buob, Jordan Auge, Timur Friedman
2015 2015 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM)  
This is precisely the aim of this paper, which proposes a new method for exhaustive and accurate enumeration and city-level geolocation of anycast instances, requiring only a handful of latency measurements  ...  Use of IP-layer anycast has increased in the last few years: once relegated to DNS root and top-level domain servers, anycast is now commonly used to assist distribution of general purpose content by CDN  ...  Further, it shows how to enumerate the replicas that are behind an anycast address and how to geolocate those replicas.  ... 
doi:10.1109/infocom.2015.7218670 dblp:conf/infocom/CicaleseJRBAF15 fatcat:cchzpirdvrhxrnu4s5f5o4gtvy

A framework for scalable global IP-anycast (GIA)

Dina Katabi, John Wroclawski
2000 Computer communication review  
The second component, controlled by the edge domains, generates enhanced anycast routes that are customized according to the beneficiary domain's interests.  ...  Existing designs for providing IP-anycast must either globally distribute routes to individual anycast groups, or confine each anycast group to a pre-configured topological region.  ...  We are also grateful to David Clark, Tim Shepard, and Steve Deering, who provided valuable insights.  ... 
doi:10.1145/347057.347388 fatcat:bm66sq43jfe7hno23qmyg2iog4

A framework for scalable global IP-anycast (GIA)

Dina Katabi, John Wroclawski
2000 Proceedings of the conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communication - SIGCOMM '00  
The second component, controlled by the edge domains, generates enhanced anycast routes that are customized according to the beneficiary domain's interests.  ...  Existing designs for providing IP-anycast must either globally distribute routes to individual anycast groups, or confine each anycast group to a pre-configured topological region.  ...  We are also grateful to David Clark, Tim Shepard, and Steve Deering, who provided valuable insights.  ... 
doi:10.1145/347059.347388 dblp:conf/sigcomm/KatabiW00 fatcat:fjjzn6jscjc2lc4nznu2stzg6q

A framework for scalable global IP-anycast (GIA)

Dina Katabi, John Wroclawski
2001 Workshop on Data communication in Latin America and the Caribbean - SIGCOMM LA '01  
The second component, controlled by the edge domains, generates enhanced anycast routes that are customized according to the beneficiary domain's interests.  ...  Existing designs for providing IP-anycast must either globally distribute routes to individual anycast groups, or confine each anycast group to a pre-configured topological region.  ...  We are also grateful to David Clark, Tim Shepard, and Steve Deering, who provided valuable insights.  ... 
doi:10.1145/371626.371795 fatcat:6teoldbhkzghzlvnlb33rah5ti

A framework for scalable global IP-anycast (GIA)

Dina Katabi, John Wroclawski
2001 Computer communication review  
The second component, controlled by the edge domains, generates enhanced anycast routes that are customized according to the beneficiary domain's interests.  ...  Existing designs for providing IP-anycast must either globally distribute routes to individual anycast groups, or confine each anycast group to a pre-configured topological region.  ...  We are also grateful to David Clark, Tim Shepard, and Steve Deering, who provided valuable insights.  ... 
doi:10.1145/844193.844206 fatcat:jsmp6fdjsbcnpf2y6mu2mzs67u

FastRoute: A Scalable Load-Aware Anycast Routing Architecture for Modern CDNs

Ashley Flavel, Pradeepkumar Mani, David A. Maltz, Nick Holt, Jie Liu, Yingying Chen, Oleg Surmachev
2015 Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation  
Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) are typically used to improve user-perceived application performance through a combination of caching and intelligent routing via proxies.  ...  While anycast is a common technique in modern CDNs for providing high-performance proximity routing, it sacrifices control over the load arriving at any individual proxy.  ...  Acknowledgments Many people were involved in the design of FastRoute.  ... 
dblp:conf/nsdi/FlavelMMHLCS15 fatcat:eicsj6v4zna7thjdhxkd33ajpa

Performance Analysis of Root Anycast Nodes Based on Active Measurement

Chao Li, Yanan Cheng, Hao Men, Zhaoxin Zhang, Ning Li
2022 Electronics  
Finally, we find that 67 top-level domain names are hijacked on the resolution path based on the measured data.  ...  nodes and provide a basis for deploying new root anycast nodes in the next step.  ...  Schmidt analyzed the factors affecting the latency of root anycast instances by comparing the optimal performance and resolving latency in the wild, and they concluded that having "a few sites" is enough  ... 
doi:10.3390/electronics11081194 fatcat:xro3lsa2t5ddzccyjykn2dfooe

Anycast Routing for Survivable Optical Grids: Scalable Solution Methods and the Impact of Relocation

Ali Shaikh, Jens Buysse, Brigitte Jaumard, Chris Develder
2011 Journal of Optical Communications and Networking  
In this paper, we address the issue of resiliency against single link network failures in optical grids and show how the anycast routing principle, which is typical of grids, can be exploited in providing  ...  Numerical results are presented for three mesh networks with varying node degrees. They allow an illustration of the scalability of the newly proposed approaches.  ...  Thus, we decide how many wavelengths that need to be activated on each link, as well as paths to set-up from traffic sources to server sites (i.e. data centers).  ... 
doi:10.1364/jocn.3.000767 fatcat:7xvdhht4vrbrhibyrepzrubryq

Application-layer anycasting: a server selection architecture and use in a replicated Web service

E.W. Zegura, M.H. Ammar, Zongming Fei, S. Bhattacharjee
2000 IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking  
This paper examines the definition and support of the anycasting paradigm at the application layer, providing a service that uses an anycast resolver to map an anycast domain name and a selection criteria  ...  In the anycasting communication paradigm, a sender communicates with a receiver chosen from an anycast group of equivalent receivers.  ...  Many of the metrics are locally significant, thus they are maintained independently at each anycast resolver that has the ADN group membership information cached.  ... 
doi:10.1109/90.865074 fatcat:ytdjuc5rijbetfxhf4ms73l36q
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