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As the rapid pace of smartphone improvements drives consumer appetites for the latest and greatest devices, the hidden cost is millions of tons of e-waste containing hazardous chemicals that are difficult to dispose of safely. Studies show that smartphone users are replacing their devices every 18 months, almost three times faster than desktop computers [1, 3], producing millions of discarded smartphones each year that end up lying in desk drawers, buried in landfills, or shipped to third-worlddoi:10.1145/2565585.2565598 dblp:conf/wmcsa/ChallenHMNPPW14 fatcat:usae6mp46rccjjugtzxrrfy67e
more »... countries where they are burned to extract precious metals, a process that damages both the health of those involved and the environment. Fortunately, the capabilities of discarded smartphones make them ideal for reuse. Instead of ending up in a landfill, a discarded smartphone could be integrated into a home security system or transformed into a health care device for the elderly. In this paper, we evaluate using discarded smartphones to replace traditional sensor network "motes". Compared with motes, discarded devices have many advantages: price, performance, connectivity, interfaces, and ease of programming. While the main question is whether their energy consumption is low enough to enable harvesting solutions to allow continuous operation, we present preliminary results indicating that this may be possible. Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. Copyrights for components of this work owned by others than the author(s) must be honored. Abstracting with credit is permitted. To copy otherwise, or republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. Request permissions from Permissions@acm.org.
Smartphone energy management is a complex challenge. Considerable energy-related variation exists between devices, apps, and users; and while over-allocating energy can strand the user with an empty battery, over-conserving energy can unnecessarily degrade performance. But despite this complexity, current smartphone platforms include "one-size-fits-all" energy management policies that cannot satisfy the diverse needs of all users. To address this problem we present Jouler, a framework enablingdoi:10.1007/978-3-319-29003-4_10 fatcat:c45sqnlrrjchzk6qtl7gs7tu24
more »... ffective and flexible smartphone energy management by cleanly separating energy control mechanisms from management policies. Jouler provides both imperative mechanisms that can control all apps, and cooperative mechanisms that allow modified apps to adapt to the user's energy management goals. We have implemented Jouler for Android and used it to provide three new energy management policies to 203 smartphone users. Results from our deployment indicate that users appreciate more flexible smartphone energy management and that Jouler policies can help users achieve their energy management goals.
One of the reasons programming mobile systems is so hard is the wide variety of environments a typical app encounters at runtime. As a result, in many cases only post-deployment user testing can determine the right algorithm to use, the rate at which something should happen, or when an app should attempt to conserve energy. Programmers should not be forced to make these choices at development time. Unfortunately, languages leave no way for programmers to express and structure uncertainty aboutdoi:10.1145/2699343.2699361 dblp:conf/wmcsa/ChallenADKMNSSSZ15 fatcat:hbmylaa47bddpmf5ngrnxbzchi
more »... untime conditions, forcing them to adopt ineffective or fragile ad-hoc solutions. We introduce a new approach based on structured uncertainty through a new language construct: the maybe statement. maybe statements allow programmers to defer choices about app behavior that cannot be made at development time, while providing enough structure to allow a system to later adaptively choose from multiple alternatives. Eliminating the uncertainty introduced by maybe statements can be done in a large variety of ways: through simulation, split testing, user configuration, temporal adaptation, or machine learning techniques, depending on the type of adaptation appropriate for each situation. Our paper motivates the maybe statement, presents its syntax, and describes a complete system for testing and choosing from maybe alternatives.
First, Anudipa Maiti of the University at Buffalo presented, "The Missing Numerator: Toward a Value Measure for Smartphone Apps," which looks beyond merely using energy consumption measurements to address ... Maiti proposed a method for measuring an app's "value" metric to be used for fairly distributingenergy. ...doi:10.1109/mprv.2015.30 fatcat:aaolpul4jnhdtdqjfikelm4qku