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Answering Count Queries with Explanatory Evidence [article]

Shrestha Ghosh, Simon Razniewski, Gerhard Weikum
2022 arXiv   pre-print
This paper proposes a methodology for answering count queries with inference, contextualization and explanatory evidence.  ...  A challenging case in web search and question answering are count queries, such as "number of songs by John Lennon".  ...  This paper presents CoQEx, Count Question answering with Explanatory evidence, which answers count queries via three components: i) answer inference ii) answer contextualization and, iii) answer explanation  ... 
arXiv:2204.05039v1 fatcat:5hqigc3d45gbbei6ac62u3d5qi

Answering Count Queries with Explanatory Evidence

Shrestha Ghosh, Simon Razniewski, Gerhard Weikum
2022 Proceedings of the 45th International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval  
This paper proposes a methodology for answering count queries with inference, contextualization and explanatory evidence.  ...  A challenging case in web search and question answering are count queries, such as "number of songs by John Lennon".  ...  This paper presents CoQEx, Count Question answering with Explanatory evidence, which answers count queries via three components: i) answer inference ii) answer contextualization and, iii) answer explanation  ... 
doi:10.1145/3477495.3531870 fatcat:utxiur7vjjfglgptz6grf6mwuu

Explanation Container in Case-Based Biomedical Question-Answering [article]

Prateek Goel, Adam J. Johs, Manil Shrestha, Rosina O. Weber
2021 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we present the design of the Explanatory Agent (xARA), a case-based ARA that answers biomedical queries by accessing multiple KPs, ranking results, and explaining the ranking of results.  ...  The Explanatory Agent is designed with five knowledge containers that include the four original knowledge containers and one additional container for explanation - the Explanation Container.  ...  The results of the first query produced several phenotypes, one of them was Red blood cell count (EFO0004305).  ... 
arXiv:2112.06780v2 fatcat:aar5q4jcqbdpniy6utyjkfnizu

How to refer to 'diabetes'? Language in online health advice

Rainer Bromme, Regina Jucks, Thomas Wagner
2005 Applied Cognitive Psychology  
The respondents, who are medical experts (n ¼ 46), answered to fictitious patients' queries on health problems. Language technicality within patients' queries was manipulated.  ...  Detailed analyses provide evidence that experts not only use the inquiry vocabulary, but also adapt the content of their answers to the technicality of the inquiry.  ...  The frequency of occurrence of these explanatory units throughout the texts was rated. Medical concepts could be explained more than once and with more than one explanatory unit.  ... 
doi:10.1002/acp.1099 fatcat:fn3phs2sv5fnrni65a566gzaxe

Searching for explanations: How the Internet inflates estimates of internal knowledge

Matthew Fisher, Mariel K. Goddu, Frank C. Keil
2015 Journal of experimental psychology. General  
Here we show that searching the Internet for explanatory knowledge creates an illusion whereby people mistake access to information for their own personal understanding of the information.  ...  Evidence from 9 experiments shows that searching for information online leads to an increase in self-assessed knowledge as people mistakenly think they have more knowledge "in the head," even seeing their  ...  It persists when the queries posed to the search engine are not answered (Experiment 4b) and remains even in cases where the search query fails to provide relevant answers or even any results at all (Experiment  ... 
doi:10.1037/xge0000070 pmid:25822461 fatcat:olkptcqdand7ddaqq7be6bfeke

Beneficial and harmful explanatory machine learning

Lun Ai, Stephen H. Muggleton, Céline Hocquette, Mark Gromowski, Ute Schmid
2021 Machine Learning  
The approach involves a cognitive window consisting of two quantifiable bounds and it is supported by empirical evidence collected from human trials.  ...  This paper investigates the explanatory effects of a machine learned theory in the context of simple two person games and proposes a framework for identifying the harmfulness of machine explanations based  ...  An evaluation in which an answer to the query is found ends with value ⊤ , and an evaluation in which no answer to the query is found ends with ⊥.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10994-020-05941-0 fatcat:4boa2d43zvgg5lhe3k6zoiwzym

CD4+ cell count at antiretroviral therapy initiation and economic restoration in rural Uganda

Atheendar S. Venkataramani, Harsha Thirumurthy, Jessica E. Haberer, Yap Boum II, Mark J. Siedner, Annet Kembabazi, Peter W. Hunt, Jeffrey N. Martin, David R. Bangsberg, Alexander C. Tsai
2014 AIDS (London)  
Conclusion: ART helps participants initiating therapy at CD4 þ below 200 rejoin the labor force, though the findings for participants initiating with higher CD4 þ cell counts suggests that pretreatment  ...  declines in labor supply may be prevented altogether with earlier therapy.  ...  For all models, the main explanatory variables were CD4 þ cell count M.J.S. assisted with the interpretation of the results, made substantial edits and critical revisions to the article, and gave final  ... 
doi:10.1097/qad.0000000000000188 pmid:24406678 pmcid:PMC4092056 fatcat:uvpj247ttbe3xpsehvapamk7na

Justification of automated decision-making: medical explanations as medical arguments

R D Shankar, M A Musen
1999 Proceedings. AMIA Symposium  
User requests to explain the eligibility score for the platelet-count criterion. 7. WOZ taps into the warrant element to answer the user.  ...  WOZ uses the data element to answer the user. It displays the KNAVE agent's presentation that the patient had a platelet count = 250,000/mm3. 6 .  ... 
pmid:10566388 pmcid:PMC2232527 fatcat:lvkvau4t4jgcnkhtzpsm532wxi

What Is Not in the Bag of Words forWhy-QA?

Suzan Verberne, Lou Boves, Nelleke Oostdijk, Peter-Arno Coppen
2010 Computational Linguistics  
While developing an approach to why-QA, we extended a passage retrieval system that uses offthe-shelf retrieval technology with a re-ranking step incorporating structural information.  ...  Thus, in the ranking process, we can extend the query with explanatory cue words such as because. 11 We expect that the addition of explanatory cue phrases will give an improvement in ranking performance  ...  After applying our answer patterns to the passages retrieved, we count the questions that have at least one relevant answer in the top n results.  ... 
doi:10.1162/coli.2010.09-032-r1-08-034 fatcat:zbdosumr4vdvdbfiffqi3vhgde

What Is Not in the Bag of Words for Why-QA?

Suzan Verberne, Lou Boves, Nelleke Oostdijk, Peter-Arno Coppen
2010 Computational Linguistics  
While developing an approach to why-QA, we extended a passage retrieval system that uses offthe-shelf retrieval technology with a re-ranking step incorporating structural information.  ...  Thus, in the ranking process, we can extend the query with explanatory cue words such as because. 11 We expect that the addition of explanatory cue phrases will give an improvement in ranking performance  ...  After applying our answer patterns to the passages retrieved, we count the questions that have at least one relevant answer in the top n results.  ... 
doi:10.1162/coli.09-032-r1-08-034 fatcat:qii34icyhjhtlpmf3ejygohdee

Page 336 of Notes and Queries Vol. 10, Issue 252 [page]

1914 Notes and Queries  
—The following notes may be useful as a contribution towards an answer to this interesting query. Bacon in ‘Sylva Sylvarum’ (1627), as in his Essays, uses ‘I’?  ...  of their ancestor Geoffrey, Count of Anjou.  ... 

Ancrene Wisse

Roger Dahood
2002 Notes and Queries  
as unconvincing number of Again, Hasenfratz reports without comment Hope Emily Allen's attempt to identify the three original anchor- on a counts esses with three anchoresses who lived at Kil- burn in  ...  The extensive glosses at the foot of each page and the ‘Explanatory Notes’ together with the serviceable glossary at the end of the volume provide much useful infor- mation for understanding AW and direct  ... 
doi:10.1093/nq/490509 fatcat:r5jwhrehwrezbl2mc4zbz2xsri

Page 105 of Notes and Queries Vol. 34, Issue 1 [page]

1987 Notes and Queries  
Explanatory notes are minimal, amounting to, at a quick count, twenty. Who is this ex- pensive edition for? On what principle have the annotations been chosen?  ...  Having forgotten the answers to these teasers, I found no help in the Oxford text, and was driven back to my handy Penguin, edited by David Lodge.  ... 

Ancrene Wisse

R. Dahood
2002 Notes and Queries  
as unconvincing number of Again, Hasenfratz reports without comment Hope Emily Allen's attempt to identify the three original anchor- on a counts esses with three anchoresses who lived at Kil- burn in  ...  The extensive glosses at the foot of each page and the ‘Explanatory Notes’ together with the serviceable glossary at the end of the volume provide much useful infor- mation for understanding AW and direct  ... 
doi:10.1093/nq/49.4.509 fatcat:cnkvyo4krffh5ft677pxijf5yu

Expertise, Relevance and Types of Knowledge

Pierluigi Barrotta, Eleonora Montuschi
2018 Social Epistemology  
'expert query').  ...  Experts need to take into consideration factors coming from 'outside' the remit of scientific theory, thereby crossing the divide between empirical evidence and socio-political input (what we call the  ...  The Role and Value of Local Knowledge: An Epistemic Answer to the Expert Query Having addressed the Relevance query, how can we argue that it helps us in clarifying, and purportedly finding an answer to  ... 
doi:10.1080/02691728.2018.1546345 fatcat:3k3w7ocpznclhktynp6q54mvsa
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