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Retrieving Passages and Finding Answers

Mostafa Keikha, Jae Hyun Park, W. Bruce Croft, Mark Sanderson
2014 Proceedings of the 2014 Australasian Document Computing Symposium on - ADCS '14  
We then examine the effectiveness of current passage retrieval models in terms of finding passages that contain answers.  ...  As the first stage of developing retrieval models for "answer passages", we describe the process of creating a test collection of questions and multiple-sentence answers based on the TREC GOV2 queries  ...  PASSAGE RETRIEVAL METHODS FOR RETRIEVING ANSWERS To study the effectiveness of existing passage retrieval methods for finding answers, we investigated different language model-based models.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2682862.2682877 dblp:conf/adcs/KeikhaPCS14 fatcat:ctp3zimpdbe4db4t23zoyh65ny

Answer models for question answering passage retrieval

Andrés Corrada-Emmanuel, W. Bruce Croft
2004 Proceedings of the 27th annual international conference on Research and development in information retrieval - SIGIR '04  
We show how they fit naturally into a probabilistic model for answer passage retrieval and demonstrate their effectiveness on the TREC 2002 QA Corpus.  ...  We present here a simpler approach that extends the techniques of language modeling to create answer models. These are language models trained on the correct answers to training questions.  ...  We are interested in measuring the performance of an answer passage retrieval system, not an answer extraction system. We standarized on passages with a maximum length of 250 bytes.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1008992.1009098 dblp:conf/sigir/Corrada-EmmanuelC04 fatcat:4vcfgjnoxnhq7ovabte6d7jkve

Passage retrieval vs. document retrieval for factoid question answering

Charles L. A. Clarke, Egidio L. Terra
2003 Proceedings of the 26th annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in informaion retrieval - SIGIR '03  
These questions, answers and documents form the basis for the experiments reported in this paper. PASSAGE RETRIEVAL We examine two passage-retrieval methods.  ...  As seen in the figure, answers tend to cluster in and around the hotspot. Figure 2: Passage Retrieval vs.  ... 
doi:10.1145/860500.860534 fatcat:3aae4nx3xnbvpk4txps5fhhzaa

Passage retrieval vs. document retrieval for factoid question answering

Charles L. A. Clarke, Egidio L. Terra
2003 Proceedings of the 26th annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in informaion retrieval - SIGIR '03  
These questions, answers and documents form the basis for the experiments reported in this paper. PASSAGE RETRIEVAL We examine two passage-retrieval methods.  ...  As seen in the figure, answers tend to cluster in and around the hotspot. Figure 2: Passage Retrieval vs.  ... 
doi:10.1145/860435.860534 dblp:conf/sigir/ClarkeT03 fatcat:zbt4somusjahbpwopne2ietzvu

Dense Passage Retrieval for Open-Domain Question Answering [article]

Vladimir Karpukhin, Barlas Oğuz, Sewon Min, Patrick Lewis, Ledell Wu, Sergey Edunov, Danqi Chen, Wen-tau Yih
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Open-domain question answering relies on efficient passage retrieval to select candidate contexts, where traditional sparse vector space models, such as TF-IDF or BM25, are the de facto method.  ...  When evaluated on a wide range of open-domain QA datasets, our dense retriever outperforms a strong Lucene-BM25 system largely by 9%-19% absolute in terms of top-20 passage retrieval accuracy, and helps  ...  If none of the top 100 retrieved passages has the answer, the question will be discarded.  ... 
arXiv:2004.04906v3 fatcat:yff6ror4xbbjxjcoaaczsdzhqi

Language Independent Passage Retrieval for Question Answering [chapter]

José Manuel Gómez-Soriano, Manuel Montes-y-Gómez, Emilio Sanchis-Arnal, Luis Villaseñor-Pineda, Paolo Rosso
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Passage Retrieval (PR) is typically used as the first step in current Question Answering (QA) systems.  ...  Experimental results of this method on Spanish, French and Italian show that this approach can be useful for multilingual question answering systems.  ...  This model, which allowed us to obtain passages that contain the answer for a given question, outperforms the classic vector space model for passage retrieval, giving a higher coverage with a high redundancy  ... 
doi:10.1007/11579427_83 fatcat:ld74i4zykjeijpkge4g2vr56ce

Question answering passage retrieval using dependency relations

Hang Cui, Renxu Sun, Keya Li, Min-Yen Kan, Tat-Seng Chua
2005 Proceedings of the 28th annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval - SIGIR '05  
State-of-the-art question answering (QA) systems employ termdensity ranking to retrieve answer passages.  ...  Such methods often retrieve incorrect passages as relationships among question terms are not considered.  ...  Recently, passage retrieval has become a crucial component in question answering (QA) systems.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1076034.1076103 dblp:conf/sigir/CuiSLKC05 fatcat:6c2mgupdznc45lmftcyhp4bmn4

Hot-Spot Passage Retrieval in Question Answering [chapter]

Jian Huang, Xuanjing Huang, Lide Wu
2004 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
And passage retrieval is a finer-grain approach than the traditional document retrieval both for the answer identifier and a human reader.  ...  In this paper, distinctions are first made between document retrieval and passage retrieval.  ...  The proportion of the questions for which correct answers could be found among the passages retrieved. 2. Redundancy. The number of times answers exist per question.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-30544-6_54 fatcat:s2vufqs3q5b6hmew7n5as6vlm4

Evaluating Passage Retrieval Approaches for Question Answering [chapter]

Ian Roberts, Robert Gaizauskas
2004 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
collection which are likely to contain answers, and then these passages are analysed in detail to extract answers from them.  ...  Many QA systems have been developed and most follow the same broad pattern of operation: first an information retrieval (IR) system, often passage-based, is used to find passages from a large document  ...  Figure 1 : 1 Results of passage retrieval experiments Table 2 : 2 Results of passage retrieval experiments -answer redundancy If a question has multiple possible answers, it is possible that the  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-24752-4_6 fatcat:l2de4l73lzhidmenemnwcx2buq

Leveraging Passage Retrieval with Generative Models for Open Domain Question Answering [article]

Gautier Izacard, Edouard Grave
2021 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we investigate how much these models can benefit from retrieving text passages, potentially containing evidence.  ...  Interestingly, we observe that the performance of this method significantly improves when increasing the number of retrieved passages.  ...  This approach scales well with the number of retrieved passages, as the performance keeps improving when retrieving up to one hundred passages. support documents, before extracting the answer from these  ... 
arXiv:2007.01282v2 fatcat:r7ycylnttvc43pm5gwltoggqbu

Iterative Relevance Feedback for Answer Passage Retrieval with Passage-level Semantic Match [article]

Keping Bi, Qingyao Ai, W. Bruce Croft
2018 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we study iterative relevance feedback techniques with a focus on retrieving answer passages.  ...  and from retrieving documents to retrieving answers.  ...  In addition, we propose an embeddingbased IRF method using passage-level similarity for answer passage retrieval.  ... 
arXiv:1812.08870v1 fatcat:fwyo536aq5eyppr3vxk4cjkaie

Clickbait Spoiling via Question Answering and Passage Retrieval [article]

Matthias Hagen and Maik Fröbe and Artur Jurk and Martin Potthast
2022 arXiv   pre-print
., a phrase or a passage), and to generate appropriate spoilers.  ...  analysis on a new corpus of 5,000 manually spoiled clickbait posts -- the Webis Clickbait Spoiling Corpus 2022 -- shows that our spoiler type classifier achieves an accuracy of 80%, while the question answering  ...  Passage Retrieval Passage retrieval relaxes the question answering task a bit in the sense of allowing longer passages of text as answers (e.g., one or more sentences), rather than exact phrases or statements  ... 
arXiv:2203.10282v1 fatcat:u53n6jtzxbcxhnskj5hbvozydi

Improving Passage Retrieval in Question Answering Using NLP [chapter]

Jörg Tiedemann
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
This paper describes an approach for the integration of linguistic information in passage retrieval in an open-source question answering system for Dutch.  ...  The system is trained on questions annotated with their answers from the competition on Dutch question answering within the Cross-Language Evaluation Forum (CLEF).  ...  answers in passages retrieved by IR.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11595014_62 fatcat:w5rydrtnpbharg5hxiiyl6asiu

A Passage Retrieval System for Multilingual Question Answering [chapter]

José Manuel Gómez Soriano, Manuel Montes y Gómez, Emilio Sanchis Arnal, Paolo Rosso
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper we present a new Question Answering (QA) system based on redundancy and a new Passage Retrieval (PR) method oriented to QA.  ...  Next, we use Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Pattern Matching (PM) to identify the answer type and extract the answer respectively.  ...  Next, the Answer Extraction obtains the answer from the expected type, constraints and passages returned by Question Analysis and Passage Retrieval modules.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11551874_57 fatcat:5njkncqlivewzbfbxenodmuhxe

Encoder Adaptation of Dense Passage Retrieval for Open-Domain Question Answering [article]

Minghan Li, Jimmy Lin
2021 arXiv   pre-print
One key feature of dense passage retrievers (DPR) is the use of separate question and passage encoder in a bi-encoder design.  ...  For example, applying an OOD passage encoder usually hurts the retrieval accuracy while an OOD question encoder sometimes even improves the accuracy.  ...  Each score represents the percentage of top 20/100 retrieved passages that contain answers.  ... 
arXiv:2110.01599v1 fatcat:4oir3cwcc5cqrlkatf7gf62b6i
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