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Annotation Uncertainty in the Context of Grammatical Change [article]

Marie-Luis Merten, Marcel Wever, Michaela Geierhos, Doris Tophinke, Eyke Hüllermeier
2021 arXiv   pre-print
This paper elaborates on the notion of uncertainty in the context of annotation in large text corpora, specifically focusing on (but not limited to) historical languages.  ...  By examining annotation uncertainty in more detail, we identify the sources and deepen our understanding of the nature and different types of uncertainty encountered in daily annotation practice.  ...  Overlapping categories and the gradualness of change What do these examples (a to c) tell us about sources of uncertainty in the (corpus) linguistic context?  ... 
arXiv:2105.07270v2 fatcat:u3yo2w7prvbjbcl3awgi4ygaae

Annotation Challenges for Reconstructing the Structural Elaboration of Middle Low German

Nina Seemann, Marie-Luis Merten, Michaela Geierhos, Doris Tophinke, Eyke Hüllermeier
2017 Proceedings of the Joint SIGHUM Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, Humanities and Literature  
Since current annotation tools consider construction contexts and the dynamics of the grammaticalization only partially, we plan to extend CorA -a web-based annotation tool for historical and other nonstandard  ...  We especially focus on syntactic ambiguity and gradience in Middle Low German, which causes uncertainty to some extent.  ...  Furthermore, we want to express our gratitude to the ReN project for providing us with data and Marcel Bollmann for his transfer of CorA.  ... 
doi:10.18653/v1/w17-2206 dblp:conf/latech/SeemannMGTH17 fatcat:dbhxhm6jifak5gm5nco7yr3hku

The emergence of disjunction: A history of constructionalization in Chinese

Zhuo Jing-Schmidt, Xinjia Peng
2016 Cognitive Linguistics  
Specifically, the results (1) show that construction is the source, unit and product of change, (2) demonstrate the pivotal role of syntactic and semantic reanalysis in the micro changes leading to the  ...  and entrenchment of constructional schema, and (5) confirm the role played by an isolating typology in syntactic and categorial reassignment as a key step in grammatical constructionalization.  ...  Acknowledgements: Earlier versions of this paper were presented at the University of Oregon Linguistics Colloquium (November 2014), the 8th International Conference on Construction Grammar (ICCG8) in Osnabrück  ... 
doi:10.1515/cog-2015-0073 fatcat:phj5atevwzc2rppyb74ulcwoby

Modal Markers as Potential Sources of Distortion in Translated Medical Abstracts

Hanna Martikainen
2018 Educational Sciences Theory & Practice  
with the communicative purpose of the text, when these markers are included in specific lexico-grammatical patterns used in the mediation of medical knowledge.  ...  Moreover, frequent instances of distortion with embedded and overlapping markers (e.g. modal auxiliaries plus change in tense) were observed.  ...  distortion in the annotation typology (i.e. lexis, grammar, and lexico-grammatical patterns).  ... 
doi:10.12738/estp.2018.4.0299 fatcat:tjtpgezwq5gohpu52zar6su3qm

An Annotation Scheme for Free Word Order Languages [article]

Wojciech Skut, Brigitte Krenn, Thorsten Brants, Hans Uszkoreit
1997 arXiv   pre-print
The resulting scheme reflects a stratificational notion of language, and makes only minimal assumptions about the interrelation of the particular representational strata.  ...  Since the requirements for such a formalism differ from those posited for configurational languages, several features have been added, influencing the architecture of the scheme.  ...  Special thanks go to Oliver Plaehn, who implemented the annotation tool, and to our fearless annotators Roland Hendriks, Kerstin Klöckner, Thomas Schulz, and Bernd-Paul Simon.  ... 
arXiv:cmp-lg/9702004v1 fatcat:o73csewphvdy3c67t6uj5k4hfa

Evidentiality as Conversational Implicature: Implications for Corpus Annotation

Marta Carretero, Juan Rafael Zamorano-Mansilla
2015 Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences  
This paper discusses a number of issues involved in the annotation of evidentiality communicated as a conversational implicature in authentic written texts.  ...  Some types of these pragmatic evidentials are specified, together with the implications for the design of an annotation system for evidentiality.  ...  Acknowledgements This research has been carried out as part of the MULTINOT Project, financed by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) under the I+D Research Projects Programme (  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.11.312 fatcat:45hjr4tnwna6tbht5acyrl3sii

How to annotate morphologically rich learner language. Principles, problems and solutions

Sisko Brunni, Liisa-Maria Lehto, Jarmo H. Jantunen, Valtteri Airaksinen
2015 Bergen Language and Linguistics Studies  
Learner data variables, taxonomy, and principles in grammatical and error annotation are also discussed with the help of the ICLFI in the present article.  ...  This article illustrates the grammatical and error annotations of a morphologically rich learner language with the help of the International Corpus of Learner Finnish (ICLFI).  ...  'The bed is big and comfortable' (*sängi is misspelled) The aim is not to correct errors by changing the word or inflect it to suit the context.  ... 
doi:10.15845/bells.v6i0.812 fatcat:qeqmozbu6fcqbkzlz2hgnmhkoa

What about Grammar? Using BERT Embeddings to Explore Functional-Semantic Shifts of Semi-Lexical and Grammatical Constructions

Lauren Fonteyn
2020 Workshop on Computational Humanities Research  
changes in the use of the construction [BE about] in the Corpus of Historical American English (COHA).  ...  The aim of this short paper is to extend the application of embedding-based methodologies beyond the realm of lexical semantic change.  ...  Acknowledgments I am grateful to Folgert Karsdorp for his advice on how to implement parts of the analysis.  ... 
dblp:conf/chr/Fonteyn20 fatcat:rqbmaj3blnhinmpwo2v5xamzca

Selective Annotation of Modal Readings

Lori Moon, Patricija Kirvaitis, Noreen Madden
2016 Linguistic Issues in Language Technology  
Sequence of tense contexts (Abusch, 1997) present a major factor in the difficulty of determining the temporal properties present in uses of could.  ...  Among three annotators, we achieved raw agreement scores of 89%−96%(κ =0.779−0.919%) on identification of sequence of tense contexts.  ...  SoT contexts are well-known to result in changing the present tense of direct speech into a past tense in indirect speech (see e.g.  ... 
doi:10.33011/lilt.v14i.1403 fatcat:t7kf3ztd75hhjodxmgfzabyvvu

There's No Comparison: Reference-less Evaluation Metrics in Grammatical Error Correction

Courtney Napoles, Keisuke Sakaguchi, Joel Tetreault
2016 Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing  
However, these methods suffer from penalizing grammatical edits that are correct but not in the gold standard.  ...  By interpolating both methods, we achieve state-of-the-art correlation with human judgments.  ...  This material is based upon work partially supported by the NSF GRF under Grant No. 1232825.  ... 
doi:10.18653/v1/d16-1228 dblp:conf/emnlp/NapolesST16 fatcat:qivro6mfwfbctexzepaqm4mnum

There's No Comparison: Reference-less Evaluation Metrics in Grammatical Error Correction [article]

Courtney Napoles, Keisuke Sakaguchi, Joel Tetreault
2016 arXiv   pre-print
However, these methods suffer from penalizing grammatical edits that are correct but not in the gold standard.  ...  By interpolating both methods, we achieve state-of-the-art correlation with human judgments.  ...  This material is based upon work partially supported by the NSF GRF under Grant No. 1232825.  ... 
arXiv:1610.02124v1 fatcat:aqwiwawz4zeozjg7jo2h6jul3m

Annotation Guidelines for the Turku Paraphrase Corpus [article]

Jenna Kanerva, Filip Ginter, Li-Hsin Chang, Iiro Rastas, Valtteri Skantsi, Jemina Kilpeläinen, Hanna-Mari Kupari, Aurora Piirto, Jenna Saarni, Maija Sevón, Otto Tarkka
2021 arXiv   pre-print
In addition to base labeling, the scheme is enriched with additional subcategories (flags) for categorizing different types of paraphrases inside the two positive labels, making the annotation scheme suitable  ...  Our paraphrase annotation scheme uses the base scale 1-4, where labels 1 and 2 are used for negative candidates (not paraphrases), while labels 3 and 4 are paraphrases at least in the given context if  ...  Computational resources were provided by CSC -the Finnish IT Center for Science and the research was supported by the Academy of Finland.  ... 
arXiv:2108.07499v2 fatcat:bpooyklcarhidd5rqkcchjoxjy

Binding Machines

António Branco
2002 Computational Linguistics  
Binding constraints form one of the most robust modules of grammatical knowledge.  ...  The ultimate reason for this is to be found in the original exhaustive coindexation rationale for their specification and verification.  ...  The results presented here were obtained while I was on leave at the Language Technology Group of the DFKI-German Research Center on Artificial Intelligence, Saarbrücken, Germany, whose hospitality and  ... 
doi:10.1162/089120102317341747 fatcat:3n7rstqp7fdszmo2k6hmrp6xke

An annotation scheme for free word order languages

Wojciech Skut, Brigitte Krenn, Thorsten Brants, Hans Uszkoreit
1997 Proceedings of the fifth conference on Applied natural language processing -  
The resulting scheme reflects a stratificational notion of language, and makes only minimal assumptions about the interrelation of the particu-Jar representational strata.  ...  Since the requirements for such a formalism differ from those posited for configurational languages, several features have been added, influencing the architecture of the scheme.  ...  We also wish to thank Robert Maclntyre and Ann Taylor for valualde discussions on the Penn Treebank annotation. Special thanks go to Oliver  ... 
doi:10.3115/974557.974571 dblp:conf/anlp/SkutKBU97 fatcat:ewfn3e26onh4bdxkklel774z3e

Uncertainty About the Rest of the Sentence

John Hale
2006 Cognitive Science  
The formalization is in terms of the conditional entropy of grammatical continuations, given the words that have been heard so far.  ...  This is demonstrated with a mildly context-sensitive language that includes relative clauses formed on a variety of grammatical relations across the Accessibility Hierarchy of Keenan and Comrie (1977)  ...  change in average uncertainty brought about by its addition to the end of a sentence fragment.  ... 
doi:10.1207/s15516709cog0000_64 pmid:21702829 fatcat:bor2fao2zraazbitr4eadjng7a
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