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Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation offers the opportunity to investigate the influence of direct modulation of neural circuits on neurobiological and clinical parameters (Höflich et al., 2013 ...doi:10.1093/ijnp/pyy081 pmid:30239748 pmcid:PMC6368373 fatcat:ja4xqu2s5vcqzd7ak74zgedwxu
of the default mode network via serotonin-1A receptors.doi:10.25006/ia.1.s1-a4.4 fatcat:tuecbneedjbp5bryddwpduqc4i
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become the primary non-invasive method for investigating the human brain function. With an increasing number of ultra-high field MR systems worldwide possibilities of higher spatial and temporal resolution in combination with increased sensitivity and specificity are expected to advance detailed imaging of distinct cortical brain areas and subcortical structures. One target region of particular importance to applications in psychiatry anddoi:10.1016/j.ejrad.2011.09.025 pmid:22138120 pmcid:PMC3629563 fatcat:ihqvipmmd5eshge2qtrdwmoeby
more »... gy is the amygdala. However, ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging of these ventral brain regions is a challenging endeavor that requires particular methodological considerations. Ventral brain areas are particularly prone to signal losses arising from strong magnetic field inhomogeneities along susceptibility borders. In addition, physiological artifacts from respiration and cardiac action cause considerable fluctuations in the MR signal. Here we show that, despite these challenges, fMRI data from the amygdala may be obtained with high temporal and spatial resolution combined with increased signal-to-noise ratio. Maps of neural activation during a facial emotion discrimination paradigm at 7 T are presented and clearly show the gain in percental signal change compared to 3 T results, demonstrating the potential benefits of ultra-high field functional MR imaging also in ventral brain areas.
Continuation electroconvulsive therapy (c-ECT) is highly effective for the prevention of depressive symptom relapse. There is a lack of understanding, about how c-ECT works in humans, particularly with regard to its effects on brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations. Here, we aimed to close a gap in the literature by evaluating BDNF levels in patients receiving c-ECT.doi:10.1111/acps.13080 pmid:31369144 pmcid:PMC6856812 fatcat:dhy2nbdjwnht7po22lpbed6yki
"Die Psychiatrie nimmt sich Zeit …" Warum Psychiater*in werden? – Eine qualitative Studie
"Die Psychiatrie nimmt sich Zeit …" Warum Psychiater*in werden? – Eine qualitative Studie
Identification of intrinsic motivators involved in choosing psychiatry as a career path. 14 qualitative in-depth interviews were analysed systematically using coding frames. Positive findings were the interpersonal focus and the holistic approach of psychiatry. Negative dimensions were the unfavorable image among colleagues, the lack of precision, prejudices and stigmatization. To interest more medical students, cases should be presented weighing psychiatric aspects as equally important todoi:10.1055/a-1472-5169 pmid:34015854 pmcid:PMC9076201 fatcat:ftw7apnpqjdbzccaqpzc2akusi
more »... medical aspects. To increase the popularity of psychiatry, the prejudices inherent in the medical system need urgent addressing. Teaching should be conducted in case presentations. Psychiatric conditions, which are highly prevalent across all medical fields, need to be adequately represented.
A characterizing symptom of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is increased emotional reactivity towards potential social threat in combination with impaired emotion and stress regulation. While several neuroimaging studies have linked SAD with hyperreactivity in limbic brain regions when exposed to emotional faces, little is known about habituation in both the amygdala and neocortical regulation areas. 15 untreated SAD patients and 15 age-and gender-matched healthy controls underwent functionaldoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050050 pmid:23209643 pmcid:PMC3510234 fatcat:wiqpkg4pnjdzdpzrpmgdubtm7e
more »... etic resonance imaging during repeated blocks of facial emotion (EDT) and object discrimination tasks (ODT). Emotion processing networks were defined by a task-related contrast (EDTwODT). Linear regression was employed for assessing habituation effects in these regions. In both groups, the employed paradigm robustly activated the emotion processing and regulation network, including the amygdalae and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Statistically significant habituation effects were found in the amygdalae, OFC, and pulvinar thalamus of SAD patients. No such habituation was found in healthy controls. Concurrent habituation in the medial OFC and the amygdalae of SAD patients as shown in this study suggests intact functional integrity and successful short-term down-regulation of neural activation in brain areas responsible for emotion processing. Initial hyperactivation may be explained by an insufficient habituation to new stimuli during the first seconds of exposure. In addition, our results highlight the relevance of the orbitofrontal cortex in social anxiety disorders.
As reported by Höflich et al. 15 , the 94 point 5D-ASC developed by Dittrich et al. 33 was performed after each of the measurements. ... For additional information regarding the esketamine administration scheme see previous publications by Höflich et al. 15,74,75 . fMRi data preprocessing. ...doi:10.1038/s41598-019-46702-x pmid:31391479 pmcid:PMC6685940 fatcat:35s4jgdznbasrfln2cdbio3yyy
., 2009 ; for review, see Hoflich et al., 2012) might point toward the relevance of the results gained in this study also in the context of depression. ...doi:10.1093/ijnp/pyv040 pmid:25896256 pmcid:PMC4576520 fatcat:ojitp6nbrzbnxp5dp3kmqacwcm
IMPORTANCE Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) research has long focused on the dopaminergic system's contribution to pathogenesis, although the results have been inconclusive. However, a case has been made for the involvement of the noradrenergic system, which modulates cognitive processes, such as arousal, working memory, and response inhibition, all of which are typically affected in ADHD. Furthermore, the norepinephrine transporter (NET) is an important target for frequentlydoi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.1226 pmid:25338091 pmcid:PMC4699255 fatcat:6dodlic3gvfy5fkygwi3y33zue
more »... cribed medication in ADHD. Therefore, the NET is suggested to play a critical role in ADHD. OBJECTIVE To explore the differences in NET nondisplaceable binding potential (NET BP ND ) using positron emission tomography and the highly selective radioligand (S,S)- between adults with ADHD and healthy volunteers serving as controls. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Twenty-two medication-free patients with ADHD (mean [SD] age, 30.7 [10.4] years; 15 [68%] men) without psychiatric comorbidities and 22 age-and sex-matched healthy controls (30.9 [10.6] years; 15 [68%] men) underwent positron emission tomography once. A linear mixed model was used to compare NET BP ND between groups. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The NET BP ND in selected regions of interest relevant for ADHD, including the hippocampus, putamen, pallidum, thalamus, midbrain with pons (comprising a region of interest that includes the locus coeruleus), and cerebellum. In addition, the NET BP ND was evaluated in thalamic subnuclei (13 atlas-based regions of interest). RESULTS We found no significant differences in NET availability or regional distribution between patients with ADHD and healthy controls in all investigated brain regions (F 1,41 < 0.01; P = .96). Furthermore, we identified no significant association between ADHD symptom severity and regional NET availability. Neither sex nor smoking status influenced NET availability. We determined a significant negative correlation between age and NET availability in the thalamus (R 2 = 0.29; P < .01 corrected) and midbrain with pons, including the locus coeruleus (R 2 = 0.18; P < .01 corrected), which corroborates prior findings of a decrease in NET availability with aging in the human brain. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Our results do not indicate involvement of changes in brain NET availability or distribution in the pathogenesis of ADHD. However, the noradrenergic transmitter system may be affected on a different level, such as in cortical regions, which cannot be reliably quantified with this positron emission tomography ligand. Alternatively, different key proteins of noradrenergic neurotransmission might be affected. and from the local community via advertisement. Patients had not received psychopharmacologic treatment for at least 6 months before the screening visit; all control participants were naive to all psychopharmacologic treatment. Of the original 51 study participants, 2 (4%) were excluded because of substance abuse, 2 (4%) because of somatic disorders, and 3 (6%) because of radiosynthesis difficulties.
Electron beam induced deposition (EBID) currently provides the only direct writing technique for truly three-dimensional nanostructures with geometrical features below 50 nm. Unfortunately, the depositions from metal-organic precursors suffer from a substantial carbon content. This hinders many applications, especially in plasmonics where the metallic nature of the geometric surfaces is mandatory. To overcome this problem a post-deposition treatment with oxygen plasma at room temperature wasdoi:10.1088/1361-6528/28/5/055303 pmid:28008889 fatcat:idfygchkvbf3zluegcknu5sb7y
more »... estigated for the purification of gold containing EBID structures. Upon plasma treatment, the structures experience a shrinkage in diameter of about 18 nm but entirely keep their initial shape. The proposed purification step results in a core-shell structure with the core consisting of mainly unaffected EBID material and a gold shell of about 20 nm in thickness. These purified structures are plasmonically active in the visible wavelength range as shown by dark field optical microscopy on helical nanostructures. Most notably, electromagnetic modeling of the corresponding scattering spectra verified that the thickness and quality of the resulting gold shell ensures an optical response equal to that of pure gold nanostructures.
Höflich helped design the helped acquire and interpret the data; drafted the manuscript; revised the manuscript; approved version of the manuscript. C. ...doi:10.1038/s41398-021-01318-6 pmid:33795646 pmcid:PMC8016970 fatcat:uj5xwacqrrgnljj5qdoizyi36y
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by over-reactivity of fear-related circuits in social or performance situations and associated with marked social impairment. We used dynamic causal modeling (DCM), a method to evaluate effective connectivity, to test our hypothesis that SAD patients would exhibit dysfunctions in the amygdala-prefrontal emotion regulation network. Thirteen unmedicated SAD patients and 13 matched healthy controls performed a series of facial emotion and objectdoi:10.1093/cercor/bht279 pmid:24108802 pmcid:PMC4379995 fatcat:kbzkrc7725hylk5vxtig2lz2ga
more »... mination tasks while undergoing fMRI. The emotion-processing network was identified by a task-related contrast and motivated the selection of the right amygdala, OFC, and DLPFC for DCM analysis. Bayesian model averaging for DCM revealed abnormal connectivity between the OFC and the amygdala in SAD patients. In healthy controls, this network represents a negative feedback loop. In patients, however, positive connectivity from OFC to amygdala was observed, indicating an excitatory connection. As we did not observe a group difference of the modulatory influence of the FACE condition on the OFC to amygdala connection, we assume a context-independent reduction of prefrontal control over amygdalar activation in SAD patients. Using DCM, it was possible to highlight not only the neuronal dysfunction of isolated brain regions, but also the dysbalance of a distributed functional network.
Mit (un)höflichen Formen des Tadels befasst sich Anna Gondek, indem sie einen Korpus von deutschen Phrasemen analysiert. ... Schlussfolgernd meint sie: "(...) dass sowohl deutsche als auch polnische Phraseologismen zum Ausdruck des Neinsagens im geringen Maße höflich sind." ...doaj:d213627a041c4ee39fa5897aeb4a38a5 fatcat:q7cadse6u5agpctgytnqnfnnqy
Liedtke schließlich diskutiert die theoretischen Ansätze von Leon Talmy (cognitive culture system), Anna Wierzbicka (cultural scripts) und Stephen Levinson (interaction engine) bezüglich ihrer Tauglichkeit ... Dieser bezieht sich nicht nur auf die sprachliche Höflichkeit, sondern die ganze Bandbreite interpersonalen Verhaltens bis hin zur Unhöflichkeit, wobei die Bewertung einer Handlung als höflich oder unhöflich ...doi:10.1515/zrs-2018-0035 fatcat:t2opzpkmlnhgleamg4uhhl6etu
American Lung Association Bulletin
Hoflich William Street School—Inez Miller, May C. Baker, Dilla K. ... Warren Harrison, Dist. 128—Anna Becker Sand Prairie, Dist. 10—Mrs. Nellie C. ...
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