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Color images available online at www.liebertpub.com/rej Table 1 . 1 Factors Influence Nuclear Reprogramming Mechanism XU ET AL. ...doi:10.1089/rej.2013.1455 pmid:23987213 pmcid:PMC3929433 fatcat:exmkabo4pfdbzninnpczlb4uie
Obesity is markedly associated with abnormal bone density indicating the importance of adipocytes in bone metabolism. However, the specific function of adipocytes remains unclear, with marked discrepancies in observations of previous studies. In the present study, the effect of adipocytes on osteoblasts/osteoclasts was analyzed. A mouse model of obesity was established and an in vitro co-culture system was utilized containing adipocyte and MC3T3/RAW 264.7 cells in a Transwell plate. Compareddoi:10.3892/mmr.2013.1572 pmid:23835909 fatcat:lkiymoelybfifi74k736nhucy4
more »... h control mice, obese mice exhibited low body weight and bone mineral density of the tibia and fat cells were observed to accumulate in bone marrow. MC3T3/RAW 264.7 cells were co-cultured with adipocytes and the mRNA and protein expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin was found to be decreased in MC3T3-E1 cells and mRNA and protein expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and cathepsin K was significantly increased in RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, the effect of adipocytes on the osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)/RANK system indicated that the RANKL/OPG ratio secreted by osteoblasts increased and RANK expression by osteoclasts increased, leading to increased osteoclastogenesis. These results indicate that bone metabolism is impaired in obese mice leading to decreased osteoblastogenesis and marked increases in osteoclastogenesis and low bone mass. Abbreviations: TRAP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase; RANK, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB; RANKL, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand; OPG, osteoprotegerin; CTSK, cathepsin K Key words: adipocyte, osteoblasts osteoclast, obesity, osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand/receptor activator of nuclear factor κB system
The fifth generation (5G) communication has the potential to achieve ubiquitous positioning when integrated with a global navigation satellite system (GNSS). The device-to-device (D2D) communication, serving as a key technology in the 5G network, provides the possibility of cooperative positioning with high-density property. The mobile users (MUs) collaborate to jointly share the position and measurement information, which can make use of more references for positioning. In this paper, adoi:10.3390/rs14061517 fatcat:jnd3xto37vcj7id4ut3hwivz2m
more »... integrated three-dimensional positioning scheme based on D2D communication is proposed, where the time of arrival (TOA) and received signal strength (RSS) measurements are jointly utilized in the 5G network. The density spatial clustering of application with noise (DBSCAN) is exploited to reduce the position uncertainty of the cooperative nodes, and the positions of the requesting nodes are obtained simultaneously. The particle filter (PF) algorithm is further conducted to improve the position accuracy of the requesting nodes. Numerical results show that the position deviation of the cooperative nodes can be significantly decreased and that the proposed algorithm performs better than the nonintegrated one. The DBSCAN brings an increase of about 50% in terms of the positioning accuracy compared with GNSS results, and the PF further increases the accuracy about 8%. It is also verified that the algorithm suits the fixed and dynamic condition well.
After different rolling conditions, four 7055 aluminum alloy samples with different precipitation sizes were measured by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and laser ultrasonic. The attenuation coefficients of ultrasound measured by laser ultrasonic were calculated in the time domain, frequency domain and wavelet denoising, respectively. The relationship between the precipitate size and attenuation coefficient was established. The results show that the attenuation ofdoi:10.3390/met11020275 fatcat:3fyk4i2x5bb7lmbf637bfnbzvu
more »... the ultrasonic wave is related to the size of the precipitated phase; this provides a new method for rapid non-destructive testing of the precipitation of aluminum alloys.
It is well known that diamond does not deform plastically at room temperature and usually fails in catastrophic brittle fracture. Here we demonstrate room-temperature dislocation plasticity in sub-micrometer sized diamond pillars by in-situ mechanical testing in the transmission electron microscope. We document in unprecedented details of spatio-temporal features of the dislocations introduced by the confinement-free compression, including dislocation generation and propagation. Atom-resolvedarXiv:2002.05913v1 fatcat:ywn7axpyundyfdlcpc2aqagxd4
more »... servations with tomographic reconstructions show unequivocally that mixed-type dislocations with Burgers vectors of 1/2<110> are activated in the non-close-packed 001 planes of diamond under uniaxial compression of <111> and <110> directions, respectively, while being activated in the 111 planes under the <100> directional loading, indicating orientation-dependent dislocation plasticity. These results provide new insights into the mechanical behavior of diamond and stimulate reconsideration of the basic deformation mechanism in diamond as well as in other brittle covalent crystals at low temperatures.
The genus Calotropis (Asclepiadaceae) is comprised of two species, C. gigantea and C. procera, which both show significant economic potential for use of their seed fibers in the textile industry, and of their bioactive compounds as new medicinal resources. The available wild-sourced germplasm contains limited genetic information that restricts further germplasm exploration for the purposes of domestication. We here developed twenty novel EST-SSR markers and applied them to assess geneticdoi:10.1038/s41598-018-26275-x pmid:29777161 pmcid:PMC5959898 fatcat:ow3zaw5fyrdarkvas2oeg5wofe
more »... ty, population structure and differentiation within Calotropis. The polymorphic information index of these markers ranged from 0.102 to 0.800; indicating that they are highly informative. Moderate genetic diversity was revealed in both species, with no difference between species in the amount of genetic diversity. Population structure analysis suggested five main genetic groups (K = 5) and relatively high genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.528) between the two species. Mantel test analysis showed strong correlation between geographical and genetic distance in C. procera (r = 0.875, p = 0.020) while C. gigantea showed no such correlation (r = 0.390, p = 0.210). This study provides novel insights into the genetic diversity and population structure of Calotropis, which will promote further resource utilization and the development of genetic improvement strategies for Calotropis. The genus Calotropis (Asclepiadaceae), which is native to the tropics and subtropics of Africa and Asia, has great potential for use as a fiber and medicinal plant 1,2 . Its long, fine seed hair (similar to that of cotton) is a high quality fiber, while the sap contains unique chemical compounds that have the diverse bioactive and pharmacological properties indicative of potential for new drug discovery 3 . In addition, Calotropis' growth properties include drought hardiness, fast growth after establishment, a short reproductive cycle and adaptation to salty soils. This suggests that it is an important shrub which could serve as a key plant for ecological restoration in arid and semiarid regions 4,5 . There are two closely related species of the genus; Calotropis procera (mainly distributed in the tropic and subtropics of Africa) and Calotropis gigantea (mainly found in tropic and subtropics of Asia). Due to their morphological similarity, with major differences occurring only on the floral structures, distinguishing them during the non-flowering season is difficult 4 . Taxonomically, C. procera is distinguished from C. gigantea by its flower characteristics such as subglobose flower buds, corona as long as gynostegium and erect corolla with five petals with dark purple tips 4 . Development of a genetic marker to distinguish the two species would facilitate species identification outside the flowering season. Utilization of Calotropis products have mostly been explored from wild populations, which raises concerns regarding their sustainability and low product yield. Currently, there is a Calotropis domestication trial as a fiber source underway in Kenya (personal communication). The available wild germplasm has limited genetic information, with few molecular markers pinpointed that separate the two species. This currently limits germplasm
The analyses of texture evolution of cold rolled interstitial free (IF) steel sheets during annealing and recrystallization are presented, in which the dispersion curves of surface acoustic waves (SAW) excited by laser-induced transient thermal grating method are measured. The results show that the angular anisotropy of the SAW velocity changes due to the texture changes at different stages of recrystallization. The theoretically simulated angular dispersion of SAW velocity within individualdoi:10.3390/met9030288 fatcat:idw32hbf5zaureh4zgebww7s4m
more »... stal revealed that the change of SAW velocity is closely related to recrystallization texture evolution. A model for the angular dependence of the SAW velocity in textured polycrystalline IF steel with different oriented crystals is presented and the simulations are yielded, which show that the results agree with those of experiments.
Chinese Physics B
It has been found that the quantum-to-classical transition can be observed independent of macroscopicity of the quantum state for a fixed degree of fuzziness in the coarsened references of measurements. Here, a general situation, that is the degree of fuzziness can change with the rotation angle between two states (different rotation angles represent different references), is researched based on the reason that the fuzziness of reference can come from two kinds: the Hamiltonian (rotationdoi:10.1088/1674-1056/25/11/110302 fatcat:sz6wb76p5bgc3k5z72muzt4pri
more »... cy) and the timing (rotation time). Our results show that, for the fuzziness of Hamiltonian alone, the degree of fuzziness for reference will change with the rotation angle between two states and the quantum effects can still be observed no matter how much degree of fuzziness of Hamiltonian; for the fuzziness of timing, the degree of coarsening reference is unchanged with the rotation angle. Moreover, during the rotation of the measurement axis, the decoherence environment can also help the classical-to-quantum transition due to changing the direction of measurement axis.
ANMIN XU is a Ph.D. student in computer science at Tsinghua University. ZE CHEN is a master's student in computer science at Tsinghua University. ... ACCEPTED FROM OPEN CALL Pingping Lin, Jun Bi, Stephen Wolff, Yangyang Wang, Anmin Xu, Ze Chen, Hongyu Hu, Yikai Lin A West-East Bridge Based SDN Inter-Domain Testbed et forwarding. ...doi:10.1109/mcom.2015.7045408 fatcat:7xe3r7nv2zfcjdj6w5ag25erfi
The beneficial effects of chronic/repeated magnetic stimulation on humans have been examined in previous studies. Although pain relief effects have been reported several weeks after magnetic treatment, no report is available regarding the prompt effect of magnetic stimulations. In this study, a novel apparatus was developed to generate time-varying magnetic fields with rotating magnets. Adult, conscious rats were exposed to the rotating magnets in a posture in which their spines were paralleldoi:10.2528/pierm12100915 fatcat:alcgwxcmqzayhfcikwn2p26krm
more »... the induced electric current. The magnetic field suppressed the paw withdrawal reflex in the anesthetized rats, and the suppression effect disappeared 5 minutes after magnets stopped rotating. The tail flick (TF) latency and mechanic withdrawal thresholds (MWT) of the rats were significantly increased by the rotating magnets; the increases positively correlated with the velocity and period of the magnet rotating. These analgesia effects recovered to the baseline level 30 minutes after magnets stopped rotating. A biophysics model was proposed to qualitatively understand the mechanism of pain inhibition by the rotating field. The prompt analgesia effect of the rotating magnets and its rapid recovery encourage the application of this technique as a promising new analgesia and anesthesia method.
Thiazolidinediones are traditional anti-diabetic therapeutic agents that have been associated with bone loss and increased fracture risk. However, the underlying mechanisms of this side effect require further elucidation. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of pioglitazone (PIO), a thiazolidinedione, on osteoblastogenesis, osteoclastogenesis and the osteoprotegerin (OPG) / receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) / RANK system. The MC3T3-E1 murine pre-osteoblasticdoi:10.3892/mmr.2016.5515 pmid:27430581 fatcat:m4uu2l6bnjhzlp4mqdduc4vaeq
more »... l line was treated with PIO and processed for reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis of OPG, RANKL, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN), and western blotting analysis of OPG and RANKL. The culture medium was collected for ELISA analysis of OPG and RANKL. Murine bone marrow monocytes (BMMCs) were treated with PIO in the presence of RANKL and macrophage-colony stimulating factor and subjected to tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and activity measurement, and RT-qPCR analysis of cathepsin K, TRAP and RANK. Co-culture of MC3T3-E1 and BMMCs was performed in the presence of PIO, and TRAP staining was also conducted. PIO inhibited the osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells, and promoted the osteoclastic differentiation of BMMCs with or without co-culturing with MC3T3-E1 cells. ELISA analysis indicated increased RANKL and decreased OPG expression levels in the medium of MC3T3-E1 cells treated with PIO. PIO upregulated expression of RANKL and PPARγ and downregulated expression of OPG, RUNX2, ALP and OCN in MC3T3-E1 cells, while expression levels of RANK in BMMCs remained unchanged. These results suggest that PIO suppresses osteoblastogenesis and enhances osteoclastogenesis. In addition, PIO may also promote osteoclastogenesis by affecting the OPG-RANKL-RANK system.
The Internet is the most complex machine humankind has ever built, and how to defense it from intrusions is even more complex. With the ever increasing of new intrusions, intrusion detection task rely on Artificial Intelligence more and more. Interpretability and transparency of the machine learning model is the foundation of trust in AI-driven intrusion detection results. Current interpretation Artificial Intelligence technologies in intrusion detection are heuristic, which is neither accuratearXiv:2204.02255v2 fatcat:ps7fydeysfhgnabttrjdvhtvga
more »... nor sufficient. This paper proposed a rigorous interpretable Artificial Intelligence driven intrusion detection approach, based on artificial immune system. Details of rigorous interpretation calculation process for a decision tree model is presented. Prime implicant explanation for benign traffic flow are given in detail as rule for negative selection of the cyber immune system. Experiments are carried out in real-life traffic.
Multi-pulse nanosecond laser ablation of Ti–6Al–4V is a complex process. In this study, the effect of substrate temperature on the nanosecond laser ablation of Ti–6Al–4V was investigated. Morphology, diameter and depth of ablation craters were observed; ablation efficiency ω (μm3/mJ) was proposed to analyzes the ablation process. The results showed that, with the increasing of substrate temperature, the ablation craters' diameter increased and depth decreased, while ω initially increased, butdoi:10.3390/app10134657 fatcat:xyhhtw322jbltjady3hjufdlsa
more »... en decreased rapidly. Furthermore, with increasing pulse number, the depth of ablation crater increased linearly, while the growth of the diameter gradually slowed down and tended to be stable after the 16th irradiation. The above changes were different in details at different substrate temperatures.
This paper numerically studied the residual stress in a butt-welded steel pipe. A comparison of 3D pipe and axi-symmetric finite element model under the condition of same welding simulation parameters was carried out. The results showed that axisymmetric model share similar residual stress distribution with 3D model in the condition of same heat source shape parameters. However, the stress values of the two concerned models were quite different. Meanwhile the scale of welding pool for 3D modeldoi:10.1016/j.mspro.2014.06.085 fatcat:q7rvrwmkgnh3xep43qjstxt3ty
more »... as almost twice bigger than that of axi-symmetric model. Both welding experiment and simulation results of 3D model showed that peak temperature of welding pool along the welding path increased during the welding process, and welding pool width and depth also increased with the moving of heat source.
As a common injury almost all cells face, DNA damage in oocytes—especially double-strand breaks (DSBs), which occur naturally during the first meiosis phase (meiosis I) due to synaptic complex separation—affects the fertilization ability of oocytes, instead of causing cancer (as in somatic cells). The mechanism of oocytes to effectively repair DSB damage has not yet been clearly studied, especially considering medically induced DSBs superimposed on naturally occurring DSBs in meiosis I. It wasdoi:10.3390/ijms21238892 pmid:33255251 fatcat:nymlnbxz55bn7hg7dlwaszessu
more »... ound that maturation rates decreased or increased, respectively corresponding with overexpression or interference of p21 in bovine oocytes. At the same time, the maturation rate of bovine oocytes decreased with a gradual increase in Zeocin dose, and the p21 expression in those immature oocytes changed significantly with the gradual increase in Zeocin dose (same as increased DSB intensity). Same as p21, the variation trend of ATM expression was consistent with the gradual increase in Zeocin dose. Furthermore, the oocytes demonstrated tolerance to DSBs during meiosis I, while the maturation rates decreased when the damage exceeded a certain threshold; according to which, it may be that ATM regulates the p53–p21 pathway to affect the completion of meiosis. In addition, nonhomologous recombination and cumulus cells are potentially involved in the process by which oocytes respond to DSB damage.
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