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Reference sequence (RefSeq) database at NCBI: current status, taxonomic expansion, and functional annotation

Nuala A. O'Leary, Mathew W. Wright, J. Rodney Brister, Stacy Ciufo, Diana Haddad, Rich McVeigh, Bhanu Rajput, Barbara Robbertse, Brian Smith-White, Danso Ako-Adjei, Alexander Astashyn, Azat Badretdin (+43 others)
2015 Nucleic Acids Research  
The RefSeq project at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) maintains and curates a publicly available database of annotated genomic, transcript, and protein sequence records (http:// The RefSeq project leverages the data submitted to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC) against a combination of computation, manual curation, and collaboration to produce a standard set of stable, non-redundant reference sequences.
more » ... he RefSeq project augments these reference sequences with current knowledge including publications, functional features and informative nomenclature. The database currently represents sequences from more than 55 000 organisms (>4800 viruses, >40 000 prokaryotes and >10 000 eukaryotes; RefSeq release 71), ranging from a single record to complete genomes. This paper summarizes the current status of the viral, prokaryotic, and eukaryotic branches of the RefSeq project, reports on improvements to data access and details efforts to further expand the taxonomic representation of the collection. We also highlight diverse functional curation initiatives that support multiple uses of RefSeq data including taxonomic validation, genome annotation, comparative genomics, and clinical testing. We summarize our approach to utilizing available RNA-Seq and other data types in our manual curation process for vertebrate, plant, and other species, and describe a new direction for prokaryotic genomes and protein name management.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkv1189 pmid:26553804 pmcid:PMC4702849 fatcat:2bm7d5coyvfotaj23hnj3mce6m

Immunopotency of a novel catanionic surfactant vesicle vaccine for bovine mastitis

Prarthana Vasudevan
Finally, I would like to thank my family: my cousins Anjana and Vinaya, my grandparents Venu and Viji, and especially my parents Ramaa and Vasu for their unwavering love, support, and encouragement.  ...  I would also like to thank Melanie Khanna, Erin Butler, Alpana Kaushiva, Pooja Patil, Maansi Vatsan, Mark Gossage, Hameed Khan, Amy King, and Alexander Scheltema for many years of friendship and especially  ...  Additionally, the lack of O-antigen renders bacteria less antigenic than R-1 strains like P4.  ... 
doi:10.13016/m2f012 fatcat:khde7zyxznchzgwj22syl5zcpm