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PerceMon: Online Monitoring for Perception Systems [article]

Anand Balakrishnan, Jyotirmoy Deshmukh, Bardh Hoxha, Tomoya Yamaguchi, Georgios Fainekos
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Perception algorithms in autonomous vehicles are vital for the vehicle to understand the semantics of its surroundings, including detection and tracking of objects in the environment. The outputs of these algorithms are in turn used for decision-making in safety-critical scenarios like collision avoidance, and automated emergency braking. Thus, it is crucial to monitor such perception systems at runtime. However, due to the high-level, complex representations of the outputs of perception
more » ... f perception systems, it is a challenge to test and verify these systems, especially at runtime. In this paper, we present a runtime monitoring tool, PerceMon that can monitor arbitrary specifications in Timed Quality Temporal Logic (TQTL) and its extensions with spatial operators. We integrate the tool with the CARLA autonomous vehicle simulation environment and the ROS middleware platform while monitoring properties on state-of-the-art object detection and tracking algorithms.
arXiv:2108.08289v1 fatcat:kczyke5qmzh2bh37u26566xgzq

Augmenting Visual SLAM with Wi-Fi Sensing For Indoor Applications [article]

Zakieh S. Hashemifar, Charuvahan Adhivarahan, Anand Balakrishnan, Karthik Dantu
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Recent trends have accelerated the development of spatial applications on mobile devices and robots. These include navigation, augmented reality, human-robot interaction, and others. A key enabling technology for such applications is the understanding of the device's location and the map of the surrounding environment. This generic problem, referred to as Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM), is an extensively researched topic in robotics. However, visual SLAM algorithms face several
more » ... hms face several challenges including perceptual aliasing and high computational cost. These challenges affect the accuracy, efficiency, and viability of visual SLAM algorithms, especially for long-term SLAM, and their use in resource-constrained mobile devices. A parallel trend is the ubiquity of Wi-Fi routers for quick Internet access in most urban environments. Most robots and mobile devices are equipped with a Wi-Fi radio as well. We propose a method to utilize Wi-Fi received signal strength to alleviate the challenges faced by visual SLAM algorithms. To demonstrate the utility of this idea, this work makes the following contributions: (i) We propose a generic way to integrate Wi-Fi sensing into visual SLAM algorithms, (ii) We integrate such sensing into three well-known SLAM algorithms, (iii) Using four distinct datasets, we demonstrate the performance of such augmentation in comparison to the original visual algorithms and (iv) We compare our work to Wi-Fi augmented FABMAP algorithm. Overall, we show that our approach can improve the accuracy of visual SLAM algorithms by 11% on average and reduce computation time on average by 15% to 25%.
arXiv:1903.06687v1 fatcat:jpnqa42o5ndv5jqevixv4rcw7e

Congenital kinking of aorta

Muralidharan Thodi Ramamurthy, Vinod Kumar Balakrishnan, Sunny Anand Nesan David, Hema Sundar Korrapati
2017 BMJ Case Reports  
Muralidharan Thodi Ramamurthy, Vinod Kumar Balakrishnan, sunny Anand Nesan David, Hema sundar Korrapati Rare disease To cite: Thodi Ramamurthy M, Balakrishnan VK, David sAN, et al.  ...  First: [please include Day Month Year]. doi:10.1136/bcr-2017- 220896 Department of Cardiology, sri Ramachandra University Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India correspondence to Dr sunny Anand  ... 
doi:10.1136/bcr-2017-220896 pmid:28705800 pmcid:PMC5535190 fatcat:rzjpp2tra5dl5ky3nou5fpvt3q

Keepin' it real

Anand Agarawala, Ravin Balakrishnan
2006 Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in computing systems - CHI '06  
We explore making virtual desktops behave in a more physically realistic manner by adding physics simulation and using piling instead of filing as the fundamental organizational structure. Objects can be casually dragged and tossed around, influenced by physical characteristics such as friction and mass, much like we would manipulate lightweight objects in the real world. We present a prototype, called BumpTop, that coherently integrates a variety of interaction and visualization techniques
more » ... tion techniques optimized for pen input we have developed to support this new style of desktop organization.
doi:10.1145/1124772.1124965 dblp:conf/chi/AgarawalaB06 fatcat:mmlrl5ah4rhgfijivr7s4gt5s4

Identification and cloning of a novel tetraspanin (TSP) homologue fromBrugia malayi

Munirathinam Gnanasekar, Setty Balakrishnan Anand, Kalyanasundaram Ramaswamy
2008 DNA Sequence  
This is the first report of a tetraspanin (TSP)-like molecule in the lymphatic filarial parasites. Expressed sequence tag (EST) database search for TSP like molecules in the filarial genome resulted in three significant EST hits (two partial ESTs from Brugia malayi and one full length EST from Wuchereria bancrofti). The full length gene cloned from B. malayi showed significant similarity to Caenorhabditis elegans TSP and human TSP and hence the gene was named B. malayi TSP (BmTSP). Subsequent
more » ... mTSP). Subsequent Genbank analysis with the predicted ORF of BmTSP showed additional homologous genes reported from Schistosoma mansoni and Taenia solium parasites. Structural analyses showed that BmTSP has four transmembrane domains and other conserved domains such as CCG and two other critical cysteine residues present within the large extracellular loop similar to other reported TSPs. In addition, putative post-translational modifications such as N-glycosylation, protein kinase c phosphorylation, casein kinase II phosphorylation and Nmyristoylation sites have been found in BmTSP sequence. Further, PCR analyses showed that BmTSP is differentially transcribed, with highest level of expression being present in the adult stages followed by L3 and mf stages. This study thus describes a novel TSP cloned from B. malayi, its putative functions in cuticle biogenesis and role in protective immunity.
doi:10.1080/10425170701517614 pmid:17852334 pmcid:PMC3121260 fatcat:b2zkpsuxizaonmw6ywgjwwgira

Apical Sodium Dependent Bile Acid Transporter (ASBT, SLC10A2): A Potential Prodrug Target

Anand Balakrishnan, James E. Polli
2006 Molecular Pharmaceutics  
A major hurdle impeding the successful clinical development of drug candidates can be poor intestinal permeability. Low intestinal permeability may be enhanced by a prodrug approach targeting membrane transporters in the small intestine. Transporter specificity, affinity, and capacity are three factors in targeted prodrug design. The human apical sodium dependent bile acid transporter (SLC10A2) belongs to the solute carrier family (SLC) of transporters and is an important carrier protein
more » ... rier protein expressed in the small intestine. In spite of appearing to be an excellent target for prodrug design, few studies have targeted human apical sodium dependent bile acid transporter (hASBT) to improve oral bioavailability. The review discusses bile acids including their chemistry and their absorptive disposition. Additionally, hASBT-mediated prodrug targeting is discussed, including QSAR, in-vitro models for hASBT assay, and the current progress in utilizing hASBT as a drug delivery target.
doi:10.1021/mp060022d pmid:16749855 pmcid:PMC2796132 fatcat:velq6wtklngpplagdfuct7rv7i

Advances in biomimetic regeneration of elastic matrix structures

Balakrishnan Sivaraman, Chris A. Bashur, Anand Ramamurthi
2012 Drug Delivery and Translational Research  
Representative data from the Ramamurthi laboratory, included as illustrative examples in this manuscript, were generated with grant support from the National Institutes of Health [HL092051] awarded to Anand  ...  For example, Anand et al. used liposomes encapsulating anti-miRNA-132 functionalized with cyclic RGD peptides to suppress angiogenesis in a mouse model of human breast cancer [214] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/s13346-012-0070-6 pmid:23355960 pmcid:PMC3551595 fatcat:bx76tq37zbcjtld3pohkb6v62m

Connected domination and steiner set on asteroidal triple-free graphs [chapter]

Hari Balakrishnan, Anand Rajaraman, C. Pandu Rangan
1993 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
An asteroidal triple is a set of three independent vertices such that between any two of them there exists a path that avoids the neighl.)ourhood of the third. Graphs that do not. co~,tain an asteroidal triple are called asteroidal triple-free (AT-free) graphs. AT-free graphs strictly contain the well-known class of cocomparability graphs, and are not necessarily perfect.. We present efficient, polynomial-tinm algorithms for the minimum cardinality connected dominating set problem and the
more » ... oblem and the Steiner set problem on AT-free graphs. These results, in addition to solving these problems on this large class of graphs, also strengthen the conjecture of White. et. al. [9] that these two problems are algorithmically closely related.
doi:10.1007/3-540-57155-8_242 fatcat:orkhshdflfcadfpsjarr2xp4fy

Atoms and clique separators in graph products

Bijo Anand, Kannan Balakrishnan, Manoj Changat, Iztok Peterin
2012 Applicable Analysis and Discrete Mathematics  
We describe in the present work all minimal clique separators of the four standard products-Cartesian, strong, direct, and lexicographic-as well as all maximal atoms of the Cartesian, strong and lexicographic product, while we only partially describe maximal atoms of direct products. Typically, a product has no clique separator and so the product is a maximal atom. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. 05C69, 05C76.
doi:10.2298/aadm111230001a fatcat:dvwio7xnsvegti7nei3k7e6jui

Multifunctional nanoparticles for doxycycline delivery towards localized elastic matrix stabilization and regenerative repair

Balakrishnan Sivaraman, Anand Ramamurthi
2013 Acta Biomaterialia  
The authors acknowledge funding from the NIH (Grant HL092051 awarded to Anand Ramamurthi).  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2013.01.023 pmid:23376127 pmcid:PMC3622827 fatcat:5qesuuzmqjelbivgka2vpxi4da

Prevalence of Heart Disease among Asymptomatic Chronic Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Vinod Kumar Balakrishnan, Sangeetha Devendiran, Anand NN, Rajendran SM
2017 International Journal of Cardiovascular Research  
The burden of non-communicable diseases in India is rapidly increasing and two major diseases among them are Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Diseases. The poor prognosis of diabetic patients has been explained by a greater incidence of heart failure and the adverse impact of diabetes on heart failure, perhaps reflecting an underlying diabetic cardiomyopathy exacerbated by left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and coronary artery disease (CAD). This could be avoided if screening
more » ... f screening techniques could be used to identify LV dysfunction in its preclinical phase. This study was done to evaluate the role of BNP as a screening tool. Methodology: This study was done as a cross sectional study among 77 diabetic patients visiting a cardiac care center in a tertiary hospital in Chennai. BNP was immunoassayed using fluorescence detection technique. The results were compared with Treadmill test and Echocardiography. Validity of the screening test was assessed by estimating sensitivity, specificity, predictive values. ROC curve was plotted to assess the area under the curve. Results: BNP levels >600 were found to have high sensitivity and specificity in detection of LV dysfunction, when compared with the gold standard investigations. The results were statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: BNP is a noninvasive and a feasible screening tool which may be used for early detection of LV dysfunction among the patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
doi:10.4172/2324-8602.1000319 fatcat:unimcjwq6bbjpprmo3hoaivrv4

Towards a streaming SQL standard

Namit Jain, Stan Zdonik, Shailendra Mishra, Anand Srinivasan, Johannes Gehrke, Jennifer Widom, Hari Balakrishnan, Uǧur Çetintemel, Mitch Cherniack, Richard Tibbetts
2008 Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment  
This paper describes a unification of two different SQL extensions for streams and its associated semantics. We use the data models from Oracle and StreamBase as our examples. Oracle uses a time-based execution model while StreamBase uses a tuple-based execution model. Time-based execution provides a way to model simultaneity while tuple-based execution provides a way to react to primitive events as soon as they are seen by the system. The result is a new model that gives the user control over
more » ... user control over the granularity at which one can express simultaneity. Of course, it is possible to ignore simultaneity altogether. The proposed model captures ordering and simultaneity through partial orders on batches of tuples. The batching and the ordering are encapsulated in and can be modified by means of a powerful new operator that we call SPREAD. This paper describes the semantics of SPREAD and gives several examples of its use.
doi:10.14778/1454159.1454179 fatcat:ebt22pdv6zejbfmgnmf3f3imte

Lipoamide Channel-Binding Sulfonamides Selectively Inhibit Mycobacterial Lipoamide Dehydrogenase

Ruslana Bryk, Nancy Arango, Christina Maksymiuk, Anand Balakrishnan, Ying-Ta Wu, Chi-Huey Wong, Thierry Masquelin, Philip Hipskind, Christopher D. Lima, Carl Nathan
2013 Biochemistry  
Tuberculosis remains a global health emergency that calls for treatment regimens directed at new targets. Here we explored lipoamide dehydrogenase (Lpd), a metabolic and detoxifying enzyme in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) whose deletion drastically impairs Mtb's ability to establish infection in the mouse. Upon screening more than 1.6 million compounds, we identified N-methylpyridine 3-sulfonamides as potent and species-selective inhibitors of Mtb Lpd affording >1000-fold selectivity versus
more » ... selectivity versus the human homologue. The sulfonamides demonstrated low nanomolar affinity and bound at the lipoamide channel in an Lpd-inhibitor cocrystal. Their selectivity could be attributed, at least partially, to hydrogen bonding of the sulfonamide amide oxygen with the species variant Arg93 in the lipoamide channel. Although potent and selective, the sulfonamides did not enter mycobacteria, as determined by their inability to accumulate in Mtb to effective levels or to produce changes in intracellular metabolites. This work demonstrates that high potency and selectivity can be achieved at the lipoamide-binding site of Mtb Lpd, a site different from the NAD⁺/NADH pocket targeted by previously reported species-selective triazaspirodimethoxybenzoyl inhibitors.
doi:10.1021/bi401077f pmid:24251446 pmcid:PMC3894633 fatcat:rb3xreeiujce7jakxh7eqt5buu

Immunization with the Aeromonas OMP Provides Protection against Aeromonas hydrophila in Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

Vijayaragavan Thangaviji, Mariavincent Michaelbabu, Setty Balakrishnan Anand
2012 Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology  
Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the serious pathogens in ornamental fishes causing hemorrhagic bacterial septicemia leading to inflammation and necrosis of the gastrointestinal tract, kidney, muscle, and spleen. Recent studies demonstrated that immunoproteomic vaccines provide protection against bacterial pathogens in fin fish aquaculture and the vaccines are popular due to its long lasting immunity, safety and low cost versatile characteristics. In this study we used an Outer Membrane Protein
more » ... Membrane Protein (OMP) of Aeromonas hydrophila as a vaccine to provide protection against the pathogen in goldfish (Carassius auratus). We used the extract of Asparagus racemosus as an adjuvant in the vaccine preparation. Surivival and immunological response of the vaccinated fishes (30 and 60 days post vaccination (dpv)), were evaluated after challenge with virulent A. hydrophila. The vaccine treated experimental groups significantly improved (P<0.05) the survival at 50% compared to the controls and had improved immunological responses including phagocytosis, albumin-globulin ratio, serum bactericidal activity, and serum lysozyme activity.
doi:10.4172/1948-5948.1000070 fatcat:sy3fj6kgv5bkni3bpqtemkd5ju

Treatment of Dye Effluent by Electrochemical and Biological Processes

Balakrishnan Ramesh Babu, Anand Kuber Parande, Saravanan Arun Kumar, Sirasanaganbla Udya Bhanu
2011 Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology  
Textile dye wastewater is well known to contain strong colour, high pH, temperature, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and biodegradable materials. The electrochemical treatment of wastewater is considered as one of the advanced oxidation processes, potentially a powerful method of pollution control, offering high removal efficiencies the removal of colour of methyl red azo dye is a challenge in textile industry. The following methods have been adopted for the treatment of real textile wastewater:
more » ... xtile wastewater: 1) Electro-oxidation (EO) and 2) Bio-treatment (BT). In EO process, reduction of COD and removal of colour were 70% and 81% respectively. The effluent was further treated by BT. BT showed a final reduction of 92% of COD and removal of colour by 95%. Both the combined processes were highly competitive and showed a very good reduction of COD and colour removal. Electrochemical processes generally have lower temperature requirement than those of other equivalent non-electrochemical treatments and there is no need for additional chemicals. These treatment methods may also be employed successfully to treat other industrial effluents. More than 20 microbes were isolated from the textile wastewater. Four microbes namely Pseudomonas, phanerochaete, Bacillus and tricoderma were used in this
doi:10.4236/ojsst.2011.11002 fatcat:brvmkzm3jbhjbfvsdvdnb73nna
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