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Analysis of buffering effects on hard real-time priority-preemptive wormhole networks [article]

Leandro Soares Indrusiak and Alan Burns and Borislav Nikolic
2016 arXiv   pre-print
There are several approaches to analyse the worst-case response times of sporadic packets transmitted over priority-preemptive wormhole networks.  ...  We specifically address the problems created by buffering and backpressure in wormhole networks, which amplifies the problem of indirect interference in a way that has not been considered by the early  ...  To the best of our knowledge, their work is the current state-of-the-art for real-time analysis of priority-preemptive wormhole networks.  ... 
arXiv:1606.02942v1 fatcat:vyh73gbcpjagfiduva44mfo4si

A Novel Flow Control Mechanism to Avoid Multi-Point Progressive Blocking in Hard Real-Time Priority-Preemptive NoCs

A. Burns, L. S. Indrusiak, N. Smirnov, J. Harrison
2020 2020 IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS)  
The recently uncovered problem of multi-point progressive blocking (MPB) has significantly increased the complexity of schedulability analysis of priority-preemptive wormhole networks-on-chip.  ...  Rather than construct the analysis to fit the protocol, we modify the protocol so that effective analysis applies.  ...  Schedulability analysis Schedulability analysis for priority-preemptive wormhole networks has existed for more than two decades, even before networks-on-chip were a reality.  ... 
doi:10.1109/rtas48715.2020.00-11 dblp:conf/rtas/BurnsISH20 fatcat:oikioivt5ncctkj3l5cqbqygdq

Real-Time Communication Analysis for On-Chip Networks with Wormhole Switching

Zheng Shi, Alan Burns
2008 Second ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Networks-on-Chip (nocs 2008)  
In this paper, we discuss a real-time on-chip communication service with a priority-based wormhole switching policy. A novel off-line schedulability analysis approach is presented.  ...  Due to the inevitable existence of parallel interference, we prove that the general problem of determining the exact schedulability of real-time traffic-flow over the onchip network is NP-hard.  ...  System model and attributes The packet level analysis approach of real-time communication in general networks [22] in the absence of buffer restrictions is not suitable for wormhole networks.  ... 
doi:10.1109/nocs.2008.4492735 fatcat:j4fljmwf3fcwhbyuegw2fi6qfm

Buffer-aware bounds to multi-point progressive blocking in priority-preemptive NoCs

Leandro Soares Indrusiak, Alan Burns, Borislav Nikolic
2018 2018 Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition (DATE)  
This paper aims to reduce the pessimism of the analysis of the multi-point progressive blocking (MPB) problem in real-time priority-preemptive wormhole networks-on-chip.  ...  It shows that the amount of buffering on each network node can influence the worst-case interference that packets can suffer along their routes, and it proposes a novel analytical model that can quantify  ...  INTRODUCTION Networks-on-chip (NoCs) with priority-preemptive arbitration have been widely studied for their ability to provide hard real-time guarantees [2] , [11] , [10] and support for mixedcriticality  ... 
doi:10.23919/date.2018.8342006 dblp:conf/date/IndrusiakBN18 fatcat:cyfx65ipfbge7ocnfrewthsakq

Simultaneous Progressing Switching Protocols for Timing Predictable Real-Time Network-on-Chips [article]

Niklas Ueter, Georg von der Brueggen, Jian-Jia Chen, Tulika Mitra, and Vanchinathan Venkataramani
2019 arXiv   pre-print
We demonstrate the analytical dominance of the fixed-priority SP^2 over some of the existing sufficient schedulability analysis for fixed-priority wormhole switched network-on-chips.  ...  However, not only the distributed structure but also the link switching on the NoCs have imposed a great challenge in the design and analysis for real-time systems.  ...  Another research line to analyze the worst-case response time of wormhole-switched fixed-priority NoC with preemptive virtual channels is to apply Network Calculus and Compositional Performance Analysis  ... 
arXiv:1909.09457v2 fatcat:gk7ud22uyzgytgeu35262nukxm

Comparative performance evaluation of latency and link dynamic power consumption modelling algorithms in wormhole switching networks on chip

James Harbin, Leandro Soares Indrusiak
2016 Journal of systems architecture  
This paper presents a series of network-on-chip transaction-level model (TLM) algorithms that provide a highly abstracted view of the process of data transmission in priority preemptive and non-preemptive  ...  modelling algorithms in wormhole switching networks on chip.  ...  If prediction of the latency of specific packets is not critical (because the network does not have hard real-time constraints) or the network utilisation/mappings are not expected to produce significant  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.sysarc.2016.01.002 fatcat:6pmplq7aerhutnxx6nhejqk56u

Feasibility analysis of messages for on-chip networks using wormhole routing

Zhonghai Lu, Axel Jantsch, Ingo Sander
2005 Proceedings of the 2005 conference on Asia South Pacific design automation - ASP-DAC '05  
We present a novel feasibility analysis for real-time (RT) and nonrealtime (NT) messages in wormhole-routed networks on chip.  ...  The feasibility of a message in a network concerns if its timing property can be satisfied without jeopardizing any messages already in the network to meet their timing properties.  ...  In [2] , based on a global priority, Preemptive Pipelined Circuit Switching for Real-Time (PPCS-RT) decouples the message delivery into two phases: path establishment and data delivery, where the path  ... 
doi:10.1145/1120725.1120767 dblp:conf/aspdac/LuJS05 fatcat:lljbmnwgqra4fcdki2olbdnk7y

A Stochastic Response Time Analysis for Communications in On-chip Networks

Meng Liu, Moris Behnam, Thomas Nolte
2015 2015 IEEE 21st International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications  
Priority-based wormhole-switching has been proposed as a solution to handle real-time traffic in on-chip networks.  ...  These approaches calculate a single upper-bound of the response time of each Network-on-Chip (NoC) flow, which is suitable for hard real-time applications.  ...  This is suitable for hard real-time applications, since the analysis results are guaranteed.  ... 
doi:10.1109/rtcsa.2015.25 dblp:conf/rtcsa/LiuBN15 fatcat:76lqbdjmxzgz7pxx2uf4tbuypa

On Routing Flexibility of Wormhole-Switched Priority-Preemptive NoCs

Borislav Nikolic, Luis Miguel Pinho, Leandro Soares Indrusiak
2016 2016 IEEE 22nd International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA)  
Motivated by this reality, in this work we study the effects of routing flexibility on wormhole-switched priority-preemptive NoCs.  ...  Motivated by this reality, in this work we study the effects of routing flexibility on wormhole-switched priority-preemptive NoCs.  ...  BACKGROUND AND PRELIMINARIES In this section, we cover the real-time analysis of wormhole-switched priority-preemptive NoCs with fixed priorities.  ... 
doi:10.1109/rtcsa.2016.37 dblp:conf/rtcsa/NikolicPI16 fatcat:gmjfadcv4jd55i7fnow6ke3xda

Mathematical formalisms for performance evaluation of networks-on-chip

Abbas Eslami Kiasari, Axel Jantsch, Zhonghai Lu
2013 ACM Computing Surveys  
This article reviews four popular mathematical formalisms-queueing theory, network calculus, schedulability analysis, and dataflow analysis-and how they have been applied to the analysis of on-chip communication  ...  The article discusses the basic concepts and results of each formalism and provides examples of how they have been used in Networks-on-Chip (NoCs) performance analysis.  ...  As an example, schedulability analysis is usually used to determine the worst-case delay bound in systems with hard real-time constraints, so we assume the preemptive flow control.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2480741.2480755 fatcat:wwlsqn7arng7hcgu4lxwbpdf3u

A Tighter Real-Time Communication Analysis for Wormhole-Switched Priority-Preemptive NoCs [article]

Borislav Nikolic, Leandro Soares Indrusiak, Stefan M. Petters
2016 arXiv   pre-print
For such systems the analytic-based real-time analysis is the only viable approach. In this paper the focus is on the real-time communication analysis for wormhole-switched priority-preemptive NoCs.  ...  Therefore, these approaches are not suitable for safety-critical and hard real-time systems, where one of the fundamental requirements is to provide strong guarantees that all timing requirements will  ...  Contribution: In this paper the focus is on the real-time communication analysis for wormhole-switched priority-preemptive NoCs.  ... 
arXiv:1605.07888v1 fatcat:zp7344s5ojd5tmew566btjaylq

Real-Time Guarantees in Routerless Networks-on-Chip [article]

Leandro Soares Indrusiak, Alan Burns
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Extensive comparative analysis is provided, considering different architectures for routerless networks and a state-of-the-art wormhole network based on priority-preemptive routers as a baseline.  ...  This paper considers the use of routerless networks-on-chip as an alternative on-chip interconnect for multiprocessor systems requiring hard real-time guarantees for inter-processor communication.  ...  Most of the real-time analytical models for priority-based wormhole NoCs have been based on analysis developed in the mid 1990s for general purpose wormhole networks [17] [18] [19] .  ... 
arXiv:2209.10430v1 fatcat:4vz4sqg7rzathbtvz2j6tlkcf4

Performance analysis of a QoS capable cluster interconnect

Eun Jung Kim, Ki Hwan Yum, Chita R. Das
2005 Performance evaluation (Print)  
We evaluate a 16-port router and hypercubes of different dimensions with a mixed workload of real-time and best-effort (BE) traffic.  ...  The growing use of clusters in diverse applications, many of which have real-time constraints, requires quality-of-service (QoS) support from the underlying cluster interconnect.  ...  Since a wormhole-switched network cannot provide a hard guarantee due to chained blocking, the system can provide a soft guarantee in terms of the probability of missing a deadline.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.peva.2004.10.008 fatcat:2hdlc2oatrcojp7og2h734yauy

Improved priority assignment for real-time communications in on-chip networks

Meng Liu, Matthias Becker, Moris Behnam, Thomas Nolte
2015 Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Real Time and Networks Systems - RTNS '15  
Fixed-priority based preemptive scheduling using virtual-channels is a solution to support real-time communications in on-chip networks.  ...  The Network-on-Chip is the on-chip interconnection medium of choice for modern massively parallel processors and System-on-Chip in general.  ...  As many platforms target the embedded industry, an increased interest lies on the real-time requirements for messages on NoCs [9, 10] . Wormhole switching/routing is not a new technology [4] .  ... 
doi:10.1145/2834848.2834867 dblp:conf/rtns/LiuBBN15 fatcat:wjhs6dzly5gjrix35p3greq3bq

Side-channel attack resilience through route randomisation in secure real-time Networks-on-Chip

Leandro Soares Indrusiak, James Harbin, Martha Johanna Sepulveda
2017 2017 12th International Symposium on Reconfigurable Communication-centric Systems-on-Chip (ReCoSoC)  
Using an evolutionary optimisation approach, we show how to effectively apply route randomisation in such a way that it can increase NoC security while controlling its impact on hard real-time performance  ...  We therefore propose packet route randomisation as a mechanism to increase NoC resilience against side-channel attacks, focusing specifically on the potential impact of such an approach upon hard real-time  ...  Schedulability Analysis Schedulability analysis for a set of sporadic packets transferred over a priority-preemptive wormhole switching NoC was presented in [22] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/recosoc.2017.8016142 dblp:conf/recosoc/IndrusiakHS17 fatcat:fb75uq3755gwfcu5v35hwuyp4m
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