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Lecture Notes in Computer Science
This work presents a framework, founded on multi-relational instancebased learning, for inductive (memory-based) reasoning on knowledge bases expressed in Description Logics. ... In a preliminary experimentation, we show that the method is sound. Besides it is actually able to induce new knowledge that might be acquired in the knowledge base. ...  , approximate reasoning (see the discussion in  ), case-based reasoning  and inductive-analogical forms such as inductive generalization  and specialization  . ...doi:10.1007/978-3-540-89765-1_19 fatcat:oe2woeugbvf5zbalaiv64ucszq
This has led to the formulation of step (or situated) logic, an approach to reasoning in which the formalism has a kind of real-time self-reference that affects the course of deduction itself. ... To do this, the agent’s reasoning must be “situated” in a temporal environment. ...
These are the Military Analogical Reasoning System (MARS) and the Planning for Urban Terrain Operations (PLUTO) system. ... FaCT++ FaCT++ is a descriptive logic reasoned  that can reason over OWL DL or OWL 2 ontologies. It is implemented in C++. ... Jena is implemented in Java. Pellet Pellet is an open-source OWL descriptive logic reasoned  that is implemented in Java. Pellet can be downloaded and included in other applications. ...doi:10.48009/2_iis_2009_231-236 fatcat:jssmnqgwzfdgfgme55thbgzrve
By Parity of Reasoning ... standard logician's sense, formal." 32 In "Analogies Hard and Soft" (Analogical Reasoning, pp. 401-419.) ... The more Parity of Reasoning 133 interesting cases involve the presentation of pairs of arguments the sentences of which admit of an abstract re-description; the same abstract re-description for each ...doi:10.22329/il.v11i3.2627 fatcat:uqjllcrxorbhbjcqrmaualjkhy
The chapter on analogies includes better discussions of precedents, induction, the function of analogical arguments in moral reasoning, and the explanative function of some analogies. ... This description contains in fact two arguments from analogy that should be distinguished, and that would be expressed more clearly in a standard form. ...doi:10.22329/il.v19i2.2333 fatcat:6hcxutbz7zc3ll3ikjvtt3mxnm
A key problem in the description of language structure is to explain its contradictory properties of specificity and generality, the contrasting poles of formulaic prescription and generative productivity ... I argue that this is possible if we accept analogy and similarity as the basic mechanisms of structural definition. ... Logical Description. Just as I think analogy will prove indispensable to model the processes of language, logical grammars will probably prove indispensable for their description. ...arXiv:cmp-lg/9608004v1 fatcat:ezcpe7cxbfbmfee5bmaotmhnua
The imprecise term ‘reasoning by analogy’ refers to a type of reasoning in which the type of proof being sought is sharply influenced by the style of proof that was successfully used to prove related theorems ... The problem proposed for research asks one to find criteria that an automated reasoning program can apply to determine whether to attack a given question with reasoning by analogy. ...
analogy and the approach found in logic textbooks. ... Logic is not a set of instructions, or even guidelines, that people apply in order to reason. ...doi:10.22329/il.v11i3.2630 fatcat:xyyaum4n4nfutks3br4ekwyxcy
These objective criteria are to be found in “phenomenological” descriptions of “kinds’’ of mathe- matical reasoning. ... Differences and analogies between first and second order logic are reflected in these results. They should prove useful in classroom presentation of the subject. L. E. Sanchis (Syracuse, N.Y.) ...
Argumentation theorists often disagree about which scheme best represents a given type of argument (e.g. argument by analogy, argument from authority, inference to the best explanation). ... Unfortunately, authors sometimes become involved in fruitless pseudo-agreement because they fail to perceive that their supposedly competing schemes are means for achieving different (but compatible) practical ... Acknowledgements: For helpful comments and discussion, I would like to thank Pat Bondy, Luís Duarte d'Almeida, Ben Hamby, Katharina Stevens, and two anonymous reviewers for Informal Logic. ...doi:10.22329/il.v36i4.4610 fatcat:tl2bhfgh6fagdiqrahp3v6a5xu
The Philosophical Review
XIX. by reason of the substitution of present feeling for memory. Such assimilation is at the basis of symbolism, in which an image is taken for the real sensation. ... The past is in present consciousness, not as simplification or analogy, but as a present feeling. The function accomplishing this projection may be called thought. ...
Both facts and quasi-formal criteria have roles to play in a theory of analogical reasoning. ... In its place, he offers the "material theory of analogy": each analogical inference is "powered" by a local fact of analogy rather than by any formal schema. ... As a preliminary point, we can distinguish between descriptive and normative goals for a theory of analogical reasoning. There is one principal descriptive goal: � Understanding. ...doi:10.1016/j.shpsa.2020.01.003 pmid:32773058 fatcat:bruaal6vxrbaffwrlurg567stm
Hypothesis gives a direction to an inquiry and also plays an important role in connecting students' preconcepts and new concepts. ... Teachers should help students develop their ability to generate hypotheses through simulating real life situation, making use of materials from daily life suitably and teaching students logical thinking ... The logical reasoning methods of science learning mainly include: inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning and analogical reasoning. ...doi:10.23977/aetp.2018.21007 fatcat:odwhcg3eefbmjhkiewrytk7up4
Pragma-dialectical analysis of arguments by analogy and e contrario seem to fall foul to the rigors of logical analysis, in which problems or even concepts of analogy and e contrario seem to disappear. ... Still, pragma-dialectics and logical analysis of legal argument are best seen as fruitfully supplementing each other in ongoing research of ever evolving legal argument. ... New Jersey Steamboat Co. case paradigmatically serves to show what matters in legal reasoning by analogy (see Golding, 1984, pp. 46 ff., for a description of the case and an analysis of analogy rather ...doi:10.1007/s10503-005-0527-6 fatcat:f54bjlswgjeiro53psee43xkn4
The descriptions can be used in building models based on analogies with certain issues in management, especially related to the quantitative approach, where the definitions of measure are not well established ... viewpoint, and the definition of the state of the system at a given moment in time. ... Some successful descriptions offered by Econophysics demonstrate reasonable analogies [37, 38] . ...doi:10.12693/aphyspola.117.658 fatcat:y6jspoiqmbhnzkm6i4ur7qbugu
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