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Integrated Circuits for Volumetric Ultrasound Imaging With 2-D CMUT Arrays

Anshuman Bhuyan, Jung Woo Choe, Byung Chul Lee, Ira O. Wygant, Amin Nikoozadeh, Omer Oralkan, Butrus T. Khuri-Yakub
2013 IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems  
Real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging systems require transmit and receive circuitry to generate ultrasound beams and process received echo signals.  ...  The FPGA provided the digital I/O signals for the IC and the back-end system was used to process the received RF echo data (from the IC) and reconstruct the volume image using a phased array imaging approach  ...  Prather for her support during wire-bonding and assembly, and Verasonics for its programming support.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tbcas.2014.2298197 pmid:24473544 fatcat:6ncgne5nabdudfm2vi6ev4b4pe

A high-frequency, high frame rate duplex ultrasound linear array imaging system for small animal imaging

Lequan Zhang, Xiaochen Xu, Changhong Hu, Lei Sun, Jesse T Yen, Jonathan M Cannata, K Kirk Shung
2010 IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control  
High-frequency (HF) ultrasound imaging has been shown to be useful for non-invasively imaging anatomical structures of the eye and small animals in biological and pharmaceutical research, achieving superior  ...  Sample in vivo cardiac high frame rate images and duplex images of mouse hearts are shown to assess its current imaging capability and performance for small animals. NIH Public Access  ...  Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank the National Institute of Health (NIH) for providing the funding for this work through grants # P41-EB002182 and R01HL079976.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tuffc.2010.1585 pmid:20639149 pmcid:PMC2908919 fatcat:snjkkjmxgzhbzi35tskbymri7q

High-Frequency Ultrasound Doppler System for Biomedical Applications with a 30-MHz Linear Array

Xiaochen Xu, Lei Sun, Jonathan M. Cannata, Jesse T. Yen, K. Kirk Shung
2008 Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology  
These results demonstrated that this system may become an indispensable part of the current HF array based imaging systems for small animal studies.  ...  This array based pulsed-wave Doppler system included a 16-channel HF analog beamformer, a HF pulsed-wave Doppler module, timing circuits, HF bipolar pulsers, and analog front-ends.  ...  Yan Bai for their help with the animal experiments.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2007.09.012 pmid:17993243 pmcid:PMC2330166 fatcat:y6u5vnspmjhsvfllofo7jrevy4

A High Frame Rate Analog Front-End IC with Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers Using Analog Multi-Line Acquisition for Ultrasound Imaging Systems

Ji-Yong Jeong, Jong-Keun Song, Min-Seog Choi, Seong-Kwan Hong, Oh-Kyong Kwon
2021 IEEE Access  
INDEX TERMS Ultrasound imaging system, piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (PMUT), analog multi-line acquisition, high frame rate, analog front-end.  ...  This paper proposes a high frame rate analog front-end (AFE) IC combined with a piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (PMUT) for ultrasound imaging systems (UISs).  ...  MULTIPLE ANALOG DELAY LINE (MADL) IN THE RX CIRCUIT IV.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2021.3108790 fatcat:zmxif2pei5fptpdwp4y2vpdohu

A Column-Row-Parallel ASIC architecture for 3D wearable / portable medical ultrasonic imaging

Kailiang Chen, Hae-Seung Lee, Charles G. Sodini
2014 2014 Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers  
An interleaved checker board pattern with I&Q excitations is also proposed for ultrasonic harmonic imaging, reducing transmitted second harmonic distortion by over 20dB, applicable to nonlinear transducers  ...  This work presents a scalable Column-Row-Parallel ASIC architecture for 3D wearable / portable medical ultrasound.  ...  using analog delay lines, figure courtesy of [55] . 2D aperture patterns.  ... 
doi:10.1109/vlsic.2014.6858445 dblp:conf/vlsic/ChenLS14 fatcat:qgth3glxzrawxge5s5nithbdri

A front-end ASIC with receive sub-array beamforming integrated with a 32 × 32 PZT matrix transducer for 3-D transesophageal echocardiography

C. Chen, Z. Chen, D. Bera, S. B. Raghunathan, M. Shabanimotlagh, E. Noothout, Z.Y. Chang, J. Ponte, C. Prins, H.J. Vos, J.G. Bosch, M.D. Verweij (+2 others)
2016 2016 IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits (VLSI-Circuits)  
This paper presents a power-and area-efficient front-end ASIC that is directly integrated with an array of 32 × 32 piezoelectric transducer elements to enable next-generation miniature ultrasound probes  ...  for real-time 3-D transesophageal echocardiography.  ...  The LNA output is AC-coupled to a flipped source follower buffer that drives the analog delay line. The joint output of all 9 analog delay lines is then amplified by the PGA.  ... 
doi:10.1109/vlsic.2016.7573470 dblp:conf/vlsic/ChenCBRSNCPPVBV16 fatcat:mtl2umaidrgjjdklf5x4hc77va

A Reduced-Wire ICE Catheter ASIC With Tx Beamforming and Rx Time-Division Multiplexing

Gwangrok Jung, Coskun Tekes, M. Wasequr Rashid, Thomas M. Carpenter, David Cowell, Steven Freear, F. Levent Degertekin, Maysam Ghovanloo
2018 IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems  
This system has been successfully used for B-mode imaging on standard ultrasound phantom with 401 mW of average power consumption.  ...  The proposed front-end ASIC is designed for driving a 64-channel 1D transducer array in intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) ultrasound catheters.  ...  It creates a maximum delay of 10.235 s with a resolution of 5 ns, using an 11-bit global counter. This maximum delay enables steering the ultrasound beam over the desired ±45° field of view.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tbcas.2018.2881909 fatcat:nmgd4qoitbhc3em67mgazzvbkm

A Front-End ASIC With Receive Sub-array Beamforming Integrated With a $32 \times 32$ PZT Matrix Transducer for 3-D Transesophageal Echocardiography

Chao Chen, Zhao Chen, Deep Bera, Shreyas B. Raghunathan, Maysam Shabanimotlagh, Emile Noothout, Zu-Yao Chang, Jacco Ponte, Christian Prins, Hendrik J. Vos, Johan G. Bosch, Martin D. Verweij (+2 others)
2017 IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits  
The LNA output is AC-coupled to a flipped source follower buffer that drives the analog delay line. The joint output of all 9 analog delay lines is then amplified by the PGA.  ...  pulse, and the resulting echoes are recorded and processed to form an image. 2-D TEE probes are widely used in clinical practice.  ... 
doi:10.1109/jssc.2016.2638433 fatcat:k7mp3jewbvebnpszppd2ykwipe

An FPGA-Based Backend System for Intravascular Photoacoustic and Ultrasound Imaging

Xun Wu, Jean L. Sanders, Xiao Zhang, Feysel Yalcin Yamaner, Omer Oralkan
2019 IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control  
The integration of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging produces an imaging modality with high sensitivity and specificity which is particularly needed in interventional  ...  Conventional side-looking IVUS imaging with a single-element ultrasound (US) transducer lacks forward-viewing capability, which limits the application of this imaging mode in intravascular intervention  ...  The transmit frequency is currently limited by the HV pulsers used in the frontend analog circuit board.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tuffc.2018.2881409 pmid:30442605 pmcid:PMC6384193 fatcat:pwlsbul2azdp7lktic6ginqrla

Delta-sigma oversampled ultrasound beamformer with dynamic delays

S.R. Freeman, M.K. Quick, M.A. Morin, R.C. Anderson, C.S. Desilets, T.E. Linnenbrink, M. O'Donnell
1999 IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control  
The high sampling rate required for the single bit A/D provides adequate delay accuracy for high quality beamforming using elementary sample manipulations.  ...  The principles of oversampling are exploited in a simple beamforming architecture using a single bit delta-sigma (∆Σ) analog to digital converter (A/D) on every channel.  ...  Others synthesized several focal zones using expensive, finely tapped delay lines that injected little noise when switched [3] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/58.753020 pmid:18238428 fatcat:ulz6pgie2zbz5oyobocoryfu4i

Single-Chip Reduced-Wire CMUT-on-CMOS System for Intracardiac Echocardiography

Gwangrok Jung, Amirabbas Pirouz, Coskun Tekes, Thomas Carpenter, Muhammad W. Rashid, Ahmad Revanitabar, David Cowell, Steven Freear, Maysam Ghovanloo, F. Levent Degertekin
2018 2018 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS)  
This system is used for B-mode imaging of imaging phantoms and its potential application for 2D CMUT-on-CMOS arrays is discussed.  ...  circuits using 8:1 time division multiplexing (TDM).  ...  The beamforming profile can be loaded during each firing to steer and focus ultrasound beam over the desired ±45° field of view with a single low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS) data line.  ... 
doi:10.1109/ultsym.2018.8579915 fatcat:wfnwtd7e65havpquslg62oubvi

Analysis of Existing Designs for FPGA-Based Ultrasound Imaging Systems

Keenan Chatar, Marcus Lloyde George
2016 International Journal of Signal Processing, Image Processing and Pattern Recognition  
Various designs for ultrasound systems are available, however the most efficient and effective design is not known.  ...  With the evolution and advances of analog technologies, digital processing and manufacturing, ultrasound systems can spread to different applications.  ...  A representative image of the body is formed by focusing the transmit beam along hundreds of scan lines in the area being analysed, and then reassembles them in the backend electronics to form a 2-D image  ... 
doi:10.14257/ijsip.2016.9.7.02 fatcat:7q5jjiil55c4dnjor2oiihomqy

Active Ultrasound Pattern Injection System (AUSPIS) for Interventional Tool Guidance

Xiaoyu Guo, Hyun-Jae Kang, Ralph Etienne-Cummings, Emad M. Boctor, Arrate Muñoz-Barrutia
2014 PLoS ONE  
In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools.  ...  This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals.  ...  Behnoosh Tavakoli and Alexis Cheng for technical assistance in the experiments. Author Contributions Conceived and designed the experiments: XG HK RE EB. Performed the experiments: XG HK RE EB.  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0104262 pmid:25337784 pmcid:PMC4206269 fatcat:hsiwjhexdvewdb2o7pvl7fhayq

A Front-End ASIC With High-Voltage Transmit Switching and Receive Digitization for 3-D Forward-Looking Intravascular Ultrasound Imaging

Mingliang Tan, Chao Chen, Zhao Chen, Jovana Janjic, Verya Daeichin, Zu-Yao Chang, Emile Noothout, Gijs van Soest, Martin D. Verweij, Nico de Jong, Michiel A. P. Pertijs
2018 IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits  
This paper presents an area-and power-efficient ASIC for 3D forward-looking intravascular ultrasound imaging.  ...  A multi-functional command line provides the required sampling clock, configuration data and supply voltage for the HV switches.  ...  The mixedvoltage multi-functional command line is generated by an FPGA and an analog switch (ADG719, Analog Device) which is used to pull the line to 5 V.  ... 
doi:10.1109/jssc.2018.2828826 fatcat:r2srhl7v5nesbkbw5udf6plqga

Study and Design of an Ultrasonic Flow Tomographic Front-End Multi Level Measurement System

Goh Chiew Loon, Ruzairi Abdul Rahim, Suzanna Ridzuan Aw, Fazlul Rahman Mohd Yunus, Nor Muzakkir Nor Ayob, Mohd Hafiz Fazalul Rahiman, Anita Ahmad, Nasaruddin Ahmad, Khairul Hamimah Abbas
2014 Jurnal Teknologi  
An ultrasonic tomography system provides non-invasive and non-intrusive flow visualisation that enhances the understanding of fluid flow processes.  ...  Based on the results from our research studies, we propose an improved front-end multi-level solution that is more accurate than previous solutions and provides real-time measurement capability.  ...  The highvoltage outputs can provide 2.0 A (typical) output current [11] . Figure 6 shows the multilevel bipolar Tx beam former circuit design using MAX4940.  ... 
doi:10.11113/jt.v69.3294 fatcat:f46l4epj4fazdjwp76hf7essbi
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