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Demands for spin-based nonvolatility in emerging digital logic and memory devices for low power computing

Viktor Sverdlov, Siegfried Selberherr
2018 Facta universitatis - series Electronics and Energetics  
for energy efficient computations.  ...  Shifting data processing capabilities into the nonvolatile segment paves the way for a new low power and high-performance computing paradigm based on an in-memory computing architecture, where the same  ...  Acknowledgement: The financial support by the Austrian Federal Ministry for Digital and Economic Affairs and the National Foundation for Research, Technology and Development is gratefully acknowledged.  ... 
doi:10.2298/fuee1804529s fatcat:2qsasewqvzdpfp2z5etkeuhv64

Study Of Two Writing Schemes For A Magnetic Tunnel Junction Based On Spin Orbit Torque

K. Jabeur, L. D. Buda-Prejbeanu, G. Prenat, G. Di Pendina
2013 Zenodo  
Three-terminal MTJ based on Spin-Orbit Torque (SOT) approach revitalizes the hope of an ideal MRAM.  ...  While a growing interest is given to two-terminal Magnetic Tunnel Junctions (MTJ) based on Spin-Transfer Torque (STT) switching as the potential candidate for a universal memory, its reliability is dramatically  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors acknowledge Gilles Gaudin for fruitful discussions.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.1086682 fatcat:jex2fefchjedbpcxukp2nfisuq

A new spin on magnetic memories

Andrew D. Kent, Daniel C. Worledge
2015 Nature Nanotechnology  
Estimates for emerging memories are based on expectations for functioning chips, not demonstrations of individual bits. See text for abbreviations.  ...  Refresh power and time needed High voltage required High voltage required Destructive readout Operating T < 125 °C Low read signal Complex mechanism Significant disadvantages are marked in bold.  ...  DeBrosse for comments on the manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.1038/nnano.2015.24 pmid:25740126 fatcat:o7ak3fxc3jdvdd3djc2qvftnlq

Modeling spin-based electronic devices

V. Sverdlov, J. Ghosh, H. Mahmoudi, A. Makarov, D. Osintsev, T. Windbacher, S. Selberherr
2014 2014 29th International Conference on Microelectronics Proceedings - MIEL 2014  
We demonstrate that an implication gate is promising for realizing intrinsic non-volatile logic-in-memory architectures.  ...  A new rapidly switching structure for spin-based non-volatile memory cell, MRAM, was optimized by means of micromagnetic simulations.  ...  The computational results have been achieved in part using the Vienna Scientific Cluster (VSC).  ... 
doi:10.1109/miel.2014.6842081 fatcat:brz3vdyrvrdpdedhfoyng7fzbi

Roadmap of spin-orbit torques [article]

Qiming Shao, Peng Li, Luqiao Liu, Hyunsoo Yang, Shunsuke Fukami, Armin Razavi, Hao Wu, Kang L. Wang, Frank Freimuth, Yuriy Mokrousov, Mark D. Stiles, Satoru Emori (+7 others)
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Spin-orbit torque (SOT) is an emerging technology that enables the efficient manipulation of spintronic devices.  ...  The initial processes of interest in SOTs involved electric fields, spin-orbit coupling, conduction electron spins and magnetization.  ...  Devices based on spin-orbit torques a. Three-terminal SOT memory SOT-MRAM, STT-MRAM, Cache memory: SOT-induced magnetization switching can be used for the write method of MRAM.  ... 
arXiv:2104.11459v1 fatcat:fkei75oxdrdsjl6k3biosq74uu

Spin-orbit torque switching of magnetic tunnel junctions for memory applications

Viola Krizakova, Manu Perumkunnil, Sebastien Couet, Pietro Gambardella, Kevin Garello
2022 Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials  
Spin-orbit torques (SOT) provide a versatile tool to manipulate the magnetization of diverse classes of materials and devices using electric currents, leading to novel spintronic memory and computing approaches  ...  In the third part, we consider SOT-MRAMs in the perspective of circuit integration processes, introducing considerations on scaling and performance, as well as macro-design architectures.  ...  In general, a spin-orbit torque 𝜞 can be decomposed into two perpendicular components [Fig. 2(b) ]: a longitudinal dampinglike torque (DLT) acting on the magnetization as an effective damping term, and  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jmmm.2022.169692 fatcat:dj7n6omrn5g6nn7tihnvoktnvi

Spin-Orbit-Torque-based Devices, Circuits and Architectures [article]

Farshad Moradi, Hooman Farkhani, Behzad Zeinali, Hamdam Ghanatian, Johan Michel Alain Pelloux-Prayer, Tim Boehnert, Mohammad Zahedinejad, Hadi Heidari, Vahid Nabaei, Ricardo Ferreira, Johan Akerman, Jens Kargaard Madsen
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Here, in this paper, we review the works within spintronics, more specifically on spin-orbit torque (SOT) within different research groups.  ...  Spintronics, the use of spin of an electron instead of its charge, has received huge attention from research communities for different applications including memory, interconnects, logic implementation  ...  orbit torque (SOT) in a HM layer below the MTJ (Fig. 9 ).  ... 
arXiv:1912.01347v1 fatcat:rpvanog7yzcivlxk77nzh7y4gu

Maximizing Spin-Orbit Torque Generated by the Spin Hall Effect of Pt [article]

Lijun Zhu, Daniel C. Ralph, Robert A Buhrman
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Efficient generation of spin-orbit torques (SOTs) is central for the exciting field of spin-orbitronics.  ...  Pt-based spin-orbit torque memories and logic that are fast, efficient, reliable, scalable, and non-volatile.  ...  SPIN-ORBIT-TORQUE MRAM DEVICES One of main motivation for SOT research is its potential for enabling fast and energy-efficient non-volatile magnetic memories.  ... 
arXiv:2106.04992v2 fatcat:fh3zmdapc5dj3k7tu6ichscqr4

Nonvolatile Memories in Spiking Neural Network Architectures: Current and Emerging Trends

M. Lakshmi Varshika, Federico Corradi, Anup Das
2022 Electronics  
This review collects the most recent trends in exploiting the physical properties of nonvolatile memory technologies for implementing efficient in-memory and in-device computing with spike-based neuromorphic  ...  A sustainable computing scenario demands more energy-efficient processors.  ...  Recently, Spin-Orbit Torque (SOT) MRAM has gained interest due to its high spin injection efficiency [121] .  ... 
doi:10.3390/electronics11101610 fatcat:x4aqw2xk55g5tmdfqvygyxh5eu

Neuromorphic Computing Using Emerging Synaptic Devices: A Retrospective Summary and an Outlook

Jaeyoung Park
2020 Electronics  
In this paper, emerging memory devices are investigated for a promising synaptic device of neuromorphic computing.  ...  This paper suggests adopting an approximate computing approach to deal with the error without degrading the advantages of emerging memory devices.  ...  Spin-Transfer Torque RAM (STT-RAM), also called STT-MRAM, is an advanced type of MRAM devices.  ... 
doi:10.3390/electronics9091414 fatcat:6gzng5vdwfbendqxbt24xg7uby

The promise of spintronics for unconventional computing [article]

Giovanni Finocchio, Massimiliano Di Ventra, Kerem Y. Camsari, Karin Everschor-Sitte, Pedram Khalili Amiri, Zhongming Zeng
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Spintronics offers a promising basis for the development of efficient devices and unconventional operations for at least three main reasons: (i) the low-power requirements of spin-based devices, i.e.,  ...  In this perspective, we will discuss how spintronics may aid in the realization of efficient devices primarily based on magnetic tunnel junctions and how those devices can impact in the development of  ...  new scalable energy-efficient logic devices combining magnetoelectricity and spin-orbit coupling 61 .  ... 
arXiv:1910.07176v1 fatcat:tr5nlskrbzggrhnilqpt7jo6ie

High Performance MRAM with Spin-Transfer-Torque and Voltage-Controlled Magnetic Anisotropy Effects

Hao Cai, Wang Kang, You Wang, Lirida Naviner, Jun Yang, Weisheng Zhao
2017 Applied Sciences  
Spin transfer torque magnetic tunnel junction (STT-MTJ)-based nonvolatile memory (NVM) has demonstrated great performance in terms of zero standby power, switching power efficiency, infinite endurance  ...  VCMA-MTJ-based MRAM could be a promising candidate in IoT node memory for high-performance, ultra-low power consumption targets. Appl.  ...  NV memories with spintronic devices, e.g., magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), have demonstrated outstanding performance in terms of zero standby power, switching energy efficiency, infinite endurance and  ... 
doi:10.3390/app7090929 fatcat:offarsciffdxhifmjzmjkfsq3q

Spin-torque building blocks

N. Locatelli, V. Cros, J. Grollier
2014 Nature Materials  
Magnetoresistive effects allow the read-out of increasingly small magnetic bits, and the spin torque provides an efficient tool to manipulate - precisely, rapidly and at low energy cost - the magnetic  ...  The discovery of the spin torque effect has made magnetic nanodevices realistic candidates for active elements of memory devices and applications.  ...  Yuasa in AIST Tsukuba Japan for invaluable collaboration. We are grateful to O. Temam, D. Querlioz, P. Bessière and J. Droulez for stimulating discussions. J. G. and N.  ... 
doi:10.1038/nmat3823 pmid:24343514 fatcat:rjnlblszc5fl5oznve2kinolti

A Survey of Test and Reliability Solutions for Magnetic Random Access Memories

Patrick Girard, Yuanqing Cheng, Arnaud Virazel, Weisheng Zhao, Rajendra Bishnoi, Mehdi B. Tahoori
2020 Proceedings of the IEEE  
This article provides an up-to-date and practical coverage of MRAM test and reliability solutions existing in the literature.  ...  After some background on existing MRAM technologies, defectiveness and reliability issues are discussed, as well as functional fault models used for MRAM.  ...  To mitigate some of the remaining issues of STT-MRAM, spin-orbit torque (SOT) MRAM has been proposed.  ... 
doi:10.1109/jproc.2020.3029600 fatcat:vylorloh3bfqda7ossdczxspm4

PANDA: Processing-in-MRAM Accelerated De Bruijn Graph based DNA Assembly [article]

Shaahin Angizi, Naima Ahmed Fahmi, Wei Zhang, Deliang Fan
2020 arXiv   pre-print
In this work, we present an efficient Processing-in-MRAM Accelerated De Bruijn Graph based DNA Assembly platform named PANDA based on an optimized and hardware-friendly genome assembly algorithm.  ...  Spurred by widening gap between data processing speed and data communication speed in Von-Neumann computing architectures, some bioinformatic applications have harnessed the computational power of Processing-in-Memory  ...  SOT-MRAM Fig. 2a shows a Spin-Orbit Torque Magnetic Random Access Memory (SOT-MRAM) device structure.  ... 
arXiv:2008.06177v1 fatcat:5oebprh5ezgbnhe2kjrd2l66gi
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