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An Empirical Model for Continuous and Weighted Metric Aggregation

Karine Mordal-Manet, Jannik Laval, Stephane Ducasse, Nicolas Anquetil, Francoise Balmas, Fabrice Bellingard, Laurent Bouhier, Philippe Vaillergues, Thomas J. McCabe
2011 2011 15th European Conference on Software Maintenance and Reengineering  
In this paper, we present the problems we faced when designing the Squale quality model, then we present an empirical solution based on weighted aggregations and on continuous functions.  ...  Yet, aggregating and weighting metrics to produce quality indexes is a difficult task.  ...  The contributions of this paper are: (1) identification of problems when aggregating metrics, (2) proposition for advanced continuous and weighted metrics aggregation and (3) validation of the proposition  ... 
doi:10.1109/csmr.2011.20 dblp:conf/csmr/Mordal-ManetLDABBBVM11 fatcat:atj5ttm7jrhi7byna6rtnnvugy

A Methodology for Empirical Quality Assessment of Object-Oriented Design [article]

Devpriya Soni, Namita Shrivastava, M. Kumar
2010 arXiv   pre-print
For measuring these factors, we have to express them in terms of metrics or models.  ...  Researchers have developed quality models that attempt to measure quality in terms of attributes, characteristics and metrics.  ...  He has written two books and guided 12 candidates for Ph D degree and 3 more are currently working.  ... 
arXiv:1003.1456v1 fatcat:u3xqh3be6nfgbi3ozyfew5aezm

Weighted software metrics aggregation and its application to defect prediction

Maria Ulan, Welf Löwe, Morgan Ericsson, Anna Wingkvist
2021 Empirical Software Engineering  
We propose an automated approach to weighted metrics aggregation that is based on unsupervised learning. It sets metrics scores and their weights based on probability theory and aggregates them.  ...  For different purposes, different metrics might be relevant. However, weighting these software metrics according to their contribution to the respective purpose is a challenging task.  ...  We are also grateful to the authors (Fu and Menzies 2017) , who made their well-packaged and well-documented software available for others 18 .  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10664-021-09984-2 fatcat:cij67aaxgzfulddj3jmqmsobea

Software quality metrics aggregation in industry

Karine Mordal, Nicolas Anquetil, Jannik Laval, Alexander Serebrenik, Bogdan Vasilescu, Stéphane Ducasse
2012 Journal of Software: Evolution and Process  
In this paper we derive, from our experience on real industrial cases and from the scientific literature, requirements for an aggregation method.  ...  We then present a solution through the Squale model for metric aggregation, a model specifically designed to address the needs of practitioners.  ...  In [10] we have proposed Squale 1 , an empirical model for continuous and weighted metric aggregation, to address the aforementioned two challenges.  ... 
doi:10.1002/smr.1558 fatcat:ibrar6pbvfeytlia2mmigel3i4

Evaluation of Understandability of Object-Oriented Design [chapter]

Devpriya Soni
2013 Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering  
Quantitative measurement of an operational system's understandability is desirable both as an instantaneous measure and as a predictor of understandability over time.  ...  I have also evaluated one design through this model.  ...  For example at the end of the aggregation process we have the sub-characteristic coded 3.1 (called Encapsulation in the hierarchical Model, with a relative importance or weight of 0.3), and 3.2 subcharacteristic  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-37949-9_82 fatcat:ux5wdwv6vbbi3kemj6mswr7yfe

Aggregating predictions from experts: a scoping review of statistical methods, experiments, and applications [article]

Thomas McAndrew, Nutcha Wattanachit, G. Casey Gibson, Nicholas G. Reich
2020 arXiv   pre-print
We gathered common terminology, aggregation methods, and forecasting performance metrics, and offer guidance to strengthen future work that is growing at an accelerated pace.  ...  Researchers have proposed a wide array of algorithms to combine expert predictions into a single forecast, but there is no consensus on an optimal aggregation model.  ...  or and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  ... 
arXiv:1912.11409v2 fatcat:ihzcen2cfrhg3ee7qtzxzey7nu

A comparative study of Gaussian geostatistical models and Gaussian Markov random field models

Hae-Ryoung Song, Montserrat Fuentes, Sujit Ghosh
2008 Journal of Multivariate Analysis  
Gaussian geostatistical models (GGMs) and Gaussian Markov random fields (GMRFs) are two distinct approaches commonly used in spatial models for modeling point-referenced and areal data, respectively.  ...  The distances between the spectral density functions of GGMs and GMRFs measured by these metrics are minimized to obtain the approximations of GGMs and GMRFs.  ...  To approximate the aggregated PM process by a GMRF, we obtain the empirical covariance of GGMs based on the aggregated PM process and approximate the empirical covariance of the aggregated PM process by  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jmva.2008.01.012 pmid:19337581 pmcid:PMC2662683 fatcat:edr2adwmbbhtze3pjh6o5vofw4

The Connection between Antipatterns and Maintainability in Firefox

Dénes Bán
2017 Acta Cybernetica  
All five regression types we tried had correlation coefficients over 0.77 and used mostly negative weights for the antipattern predictors in the models we constructed.  ...  We seek to investigate this issue by analyzing the connection between antipatterns and maintainability in an empirical study of Firefox, an open source browser application developed in C++.  ...  It achieves this by providing an estimate for the dependent variable from a continuous interval.  ... 
doi:10.14232/actacyb.23.2.2017.3 fatcat:o2clxy4t5ra2nbd4dbpbh34gtu

The Wasserstein Metric and Robustness in Risk Management

Rüdiger Kiesel, Robin Rühlicke, Gerhard Stahl, Jinsong Zheng
2016 Risks  
We advocate the Wasserstein metric as the canonical metric for approximations in robust risk management and present supporting arguments.  ...  Representing risk measures as statistical functionals, we relate risk measures with the concept of robustness and hence continuity with respect to the Wasserstein metric.  ...  Acknowledgments: Robin Rühlicke is grateful for partial financial support by Talanx AG.  ... 
doi:10.3390/risks4030032 fatcat:7khq3bwjsjddvin7eaxoulseve

An empirical analysis of airline business model convergence

Jost Daft, Sascha Albers
2015 Journal of Air Transport Management  
The present paper complements the mostly qualitative and anecdotal literature on convergence in the airline industry, empirically shows actual adaptations in airlines' business models, and provides a platform  ...  for further research in the fields of empirical convergence analysis and corresponding strategic airline management. j o u rn a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e ls e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / j a i  ...  For each observation point, we consider one calendar year. Therefore, continuous data are aggregated on a yearly basis (January to December).  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jairtraman.2015.03.008 fatcat:2x4kg4uuejf2nhvuwo5kwkxgqm

EPB910161 Supplemental material - Supplemental material for Assessment of landscape changes under different urban dynamics based on a multiple-scenario modeling approach

Chao Xu, Dagmar Haase, Meirong Su, Yutao Wang, Stephan Pauleit
2020 Figshare  
Supplemental material, EPB910161 Supplemental material for Assessment of landscape changes under different urban dynamics based on a multiple-scenario modeling approach by Chao Xu, Dagmar Haase, Meirong  ...  Su, Yutao Wang and Stephan Pauleit in EPB: Urban Analytics and City Science  ...  Please refer to Pribadi and Xu (2017) for more details of this urban growth model. Table S1 . Descriptions of the landscape metrics used in this study.  ... 
doi:10.25384/sage.11973468 fatcat:z432xvtsmnbj5ofkjvrxjieczi

FairFed: Enabling Group Fairness in Federated Learning [article]

Yahya H. Ezzeldin, Shen Yan, Chaoyang He, Emilio Ferrara, Salman Avestimehr
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Federated learning has been viewed as a promising solution for collaboratively training of machine learning models among multiple parties while maintaining the privacy of their local data.  ...  Motivated by the importance and challenges of group fairness in federated learning, in this work, we propose FairFed, a novel algorithm to enhance group fairness via a fairness-aware aggregation method  ...  The server updates the aggregation weights ω k based on the difference between the global metric and the participants local metrics as defined in (6); 4.The server aggregates local model updates and broadcasts  ... 
arXiv:2110.00857v2 fatcat:4cxk6cco3fclboyq76fylmsmee

An aggregate–disaggregate intermittent demand approach (ADIDA) to forecasting: an empirical proposition and analysis

K Nikolopoulos, A A Syntetos, J E Boylan, F Petropoulos, V Assimakopoulos
2011 Journal of the Operational Research Society  
For example, non-overlapping aggregation of an INAR (1) model produces a model that resembles an INARMA (1,1) but with moving average components that are correlated.  ...  In Table 2 we present empirical results for an aggregation level = LT + 1 (the review period has been set equal to a single period for all SKUs).  ... 
doi:10.1057/jors.2010.32 fatcat:tj5ueinekzdaxk5b65pbzdj6si

Learning Rank Functionals: An Empirical Study [article]

Truyen Tran, Dinh Phung, Svetha Venkatesh
2015 arXiv   pre-print
For the loss function, we study three techniques: approximating the rank metric by a smooth function, decomposition of the loss into a weighted sum of element-wise losses and into a weighted sum of pairwise  ...  Learning to rank has the goal of estimating a ranking model automatically from training data.  ...  Thus the empirical risk is also continuous in model parameters, where gradient-based optimisation routines can be applied for find the minimisers of R(f ).  ... 
arXiv:1407.6089v2 fatcat:fpk5ppzzbrca3ngnjuepxawuwe

Non-attendance and dual processing of common-metric attributes in choice analysis: a latent class specification

David A. Hensher, William H. Greene
2009 Empirical Economics  
KEY WORDS: Attribute non-attendance, common-metric attributes aggregation, parameter transfer, latent class, stated choice, willingness to pay.  ...  it with the results from a model specification in which all attributes are assumed to be attended to and are not added up with parameter preservation.  ...  Non-attendance and dual processing of common-metric attributes in choice analysis: Table 2: Empirical findings for MNL and latent class process models (t-ratios in brackets) 3,888 observations (t-ratios  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00181-009-0310-x fatcat:nw62mvux6bhvronfydrfuxsdsu
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