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Friendly Observers Ease Off-Line E-Cash [chapter]

Shouhuai Xu, Moti Yung, Gendu Zhang
<span title="">2000</span> <i title="Springer US"> Smart Card Research and Advanced Applications </i> &nbsp;
In the case of on-line checking there is the potential for efficiency bottlenecks, whereas in off-line cash, the prevention which is currently available depends on the "mere tamper-resistance" of the hardware  ...  Double (or over) spending seems rather difficult to absolutly prevent in both perfectly and conditionally anonymous e-cash systems.  ...  As far as on-line checking is concerned, it may impose an efficiency bottleneck.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-35528-3_1">doi:10.1007/978-0-387-35528-3_1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/g4746jj4jffqpditbnghxolp6y">fatcat:g4746jj4jffqpditbnghxolp6y</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170826214213/https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2F978-0-387-35528-3_1.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/15/82/15828c996ca20919d865812acf4e03583494beef.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-35528-3_1"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Practical Design And Implementation Of A Mobile Off-Line E-Wallet

Mbouassa Edmond Yannick, Hu Dong Hui
<span title="2019-05-31">2019</span> <i title="Zenodo"> Zenodo </i> &nbsp;
However, the user will still need an internet connection to contact the bank for registration, cash withdrawal and deposit, once the cash is downloaded; users can pay or transfer cash to others without  ...  With the advancement of digital economies many mobile payment systems have seen the day, with these mobile payment systems you can make a payment to anyone who uses the same payment system as yours.  ...  Tsiounis and M. Yung proposed a fair off-line ECash system (FOLC) [9] . G. Davida, Y. Frankel, Y. Tsiounis and M.Young improved the efficiency of FOLC system [10] .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3252959">doi:10.5281/zenodo.3252959</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/iwu3rq5tdbbhxlem6jq6wh3twy">fatcat:iwu3rq5tdbbhxlem6jq6wh3twy</a> </span>
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The Development of Central Bank Digital Currency in China: An Analysis [article]

Geoffrey Goodell, Hazem Danny Al Nakib
<span title="2021-10-25">2021</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
With this change and a related set of minor adjustments, China has an opportunity to lead the world in the implementation of a central bank digital currency (CBDC) solution that protects the authority  ...  of the central bank to implement monetary policy, preserves the role of public-sector and private-sector banking institutions, promotes the efficiency of retail transactions and businesses, satisfies regulatory  ...  We acknowledge the UCL Centre for Blockchain Technologies and the Systemic Risk Centre at the London School of Economics.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2108.05946v3">arXiv:2108.05946v3</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ubnvtmpdo5fn5gtextgxgyd6gi">fatcat:ubnvtmpdo5fn5gtextgxgyd6gi</a> </span>
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Distributed architectures for electronic cash schemes: a survey1

Isabelle Simplot-Ryl, Issa Traoré, Patricia Everaere
<span title="">2009</span> <i title="Informa UK Limited"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/u7grh3in55gwrjcxxsxko5kjp4" style="color: black;">International Journal of Parallel, Emergent and Distributed Systems</a> </i> &nbsp;
We discuss the strengths and limitations of these architectures with respect to fundamental system distribution criteria.  ...  Among these infrastructures is electronic cash, which is an attempt to reproduce the characteristics of paper cash in online transactions.  ...  According to Yacobi, although b-wallets are more space-efficient, they are inherently less effective in detecting fraudulent behavior compared with c-wallets [57] .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1080/17445760802441671">doi:10.1080/17445760802441671</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/6cjxbs7eh5b2ra2dertvdnvqtq">fatcat:6cjxbs7eh5b2ra2dertvdnvqtq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20090115214654/http://www2.lifl.fr/~everaerp/survey.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/df/1e/df1ee65f1112beb35be9ecc89e76e8963ebdc62b.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1080/17445760802441671"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> tandfonline.com </button> </a>

Digital Coins: Fairness Implemented by Observer

Heike Neumann, Thomas Schwarzpaul
<span title="2006-04-01">2006</span> <i title="MDPI AG"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/7dmxr4h4kjejzkp6utbgwryloi" style="color: black;">Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research</a> </i> &nbsp;
Unlike other fair off-line coin systems, fairness is implemented with the help of the observer, thereby reducing the computational effort during the withdrawal.  ...  We present a coin system featuring both observer and fairness, showing that both concepts do not interfere with each other and can be implemented simultaneously without loss of security.  ...  Fair Coins in Wallets with Observers To combine both concepts we have to carefully implement an observer in the fair system.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/jtaer1010002">doi:10.3390/jtaer1010002</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/nqrisrq2azc5rg4dh66olonj3i">fatcat:nqrisrq2azc5rg4dh66olonj3i</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20201129213755/https://res.mdpi.com/d_attachment/jtaer/jtaer-01-00002/article_deploy/jtaer-01-00002.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/55/38/5538caec9651851e229f31da75c9e26bb7231570.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/jtaer1010002"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> mdpi.com </button> </a>

Easy come — Easy go divisible cash [chapter]

Agnes Chan, Yair Frankel, Yiannis Tsiounis
<span title="">1998</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
Recently, there has been an interest in creating practical anonymous electronic cash with the ability to conduct payments of exact amounts, as is typically the practice in physical payment systems.  ...  Okamoto presented the first efficient divisible, anonymous (but hnkable) off-line e-cash scheme requiring only O(log Af) computations for each of the withdrawal, payment and deposit procedures, where A  ...  Acknowledgements We would like to thank Tatsuaki Okamoto for pointing out the need for checking the range of exponents (for which we designed the range-bounded commitment); Moti Yung for providing several  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/bfb0054154">doi:10.1007/bfb0054154</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/2mvk7rapybbd3dfwiurzoqhbvy">fatcat:2mvk7rapybbd3dfwiurzoqhbvy</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180728231555/https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2FBFb0054154.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/06/1c/061c8fdbdcd46b01e1f41f9d01ae198d52585147.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/bfb0054154"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Enhancing Privacy of Electronic Coins through Cryptography

Palak Dave, Ritesh Patel
<span title="2017-05-17">2017</span> <i title="Foundation of Computer Science"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/b637noqf3vhmhjevdfk3h5pdsu" style="color: black;">International Journal of Computer Applications</a> </i> &nbsp;
Focal thought of this paper is to think about Al the electronic money framework.  ...  Keywords E-cash, E-coins, online transaction component Opening account: The bank opens a client record and registers his own information.  ...  UL Rev. 46 (1996): 1131.[4] Petersen, Holger, and Guillaume Poupard. "Efficient scalable fair cash with off-line extortion prevention."  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5120/ijca2017913869">doi:10.5120/ijca2017913869</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/fulgu2cj3nav3buhajmbma6lli">fatcat:fulgu2cj3nav3buhajmbma6lli</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180604013120/https://www.ijcaonline.org/archives/volume166/number1/dave-2017-ijca-913869.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/bf/2a/bf2a4b6a35879ccfc35ba18d24d358011ef91133.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5120/ijca2017913869"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

The New Era of Digital Payments [article]

Dr S.C.B. Samuel Anbu Selvan
<span title="2021-11-25">2021</span> <i title="Zenodo"> Zenodo </i> &nbsp;
Since the digital age has arrived decades back and it's penetrating in to various industrial sectors with innovation and breath taking changes.  ...  This book proposes several opportunities, demerits, improvements, innovations, legal obligations, governmental support etc. with regard to digital transformation of payment system in Banks and financial  ...  Given that most people will in general catch while topping off check and bank structures, even with educated, and the exchange is an expense in provincial regions.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5748642">doi:10.5281/zenodo.5748642</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/i4yyrbtxgrbxpneql2aferalpi">fatcat:i4yyrbtxgrbxpneql2aferalpi</a> </span>
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Divisible E-Cash in the Standard Model [chapter]

Malika Izabachène, Benoît Libert
<span title="">2013</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
Off-line e-cash systems are the digital analogue of regular cash.  ...  Compact e-cash systems make it possible to store a wallet of O(2 L ) coins using O(L + λ) bits, where λ is the security parameter.  ...  Secure and Efficient Off-Line Digital Money. In ICALP'93, LNCS 700, pp. 265-276, 1993. 30. G. Fuchsbauer, D. Pointcheval, D. Vergnaud. Transferable Constant-Size Fair E-Cash.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-36334-4_20">doi:10.1007/978-3-642-36334-4_20</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/wamsnmlbhbgu5hganx6slmngqu">fatcat:wamsnmlbhbgu5hganx6slmngqu</a> </span>
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Review of Cashless Economy in Nigeria and the Challenges of Network Infrastructures

A.I. Adigwe
<span title="2022-03-30">2022</span> <i title="Zenodo"> Zenodo </i> &nbsp;
A number of researchers agree that this initiative by the CBN is anchored on the fact that an efficient and digitized payment system positively correlates with economic development, which is believed to  ...  : The central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) conceptualized the idea of Cashless Economy in 2011 as part of its blueprint to drive economic development and modernise our payment system in line with the Nation's  ...  Electronic wallet (e-wallet): E-wallet, also known as digital wallet refers to an electronic device or online service that allows an individual to make electronic transactions with the use of a computer  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6396427">doi:10.5281/zenodo.6396427</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/3evxubcjk5akfg6g3klcte2nve">fatcat:3evxubcjk5akfg6g3klcte2nve</a> </span>
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Making p2p accountable without losing privacy

Mira Belenkiy, Melissa Chase, C. Chris Erway, John Jannotti, Alptekin Küpçü, Anna Lysyanskaya, Eric Rachlin
<span title="">2007</span> <i title="ACM Press"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/gstzkitjpfagfei6fz6yhj4apu" style="color: black;">Proceedings of the 2007 ACM workshop on Privacy in electronic society - WPES &#39;07</a> </i> &nbsp;
We conclude that provably secure, anonymous, and scalable peer-to-peer systems are within reach.  ...  We show that e-cash can be used to provide accountability without compromising the existing privacy goals of a peer-to-peer system.  ...  CONCLUSION We have described a practical application of e-cash to the problem of free-loading in peer-to-peer systems.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/1314333.1314339">doi:10.1145/1314333.1314339</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/wpes/BelenkiyCEJKLR07.html">dblp:conf/wpes/BelenkiyCEJKLR07</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/lg23uwxfibet3djhniu7jhdq7y">fatcat:lg23uwxfibet3djhniu7jhdq7y</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170811063151/http://cs.brown.edu/~mchase/papers/bittorrent.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/32/0a/320a1a8353979ceb4a573a15f66e6cf561b9d0dc.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/1314333.1314339"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> acm.org </button> </a>

International Journal of Business and Management Research "IJBMR" 2019 Issue. 2

Ijbmr.Org
<span title="2019-12-26">2019</span> <i title="Zenodo"> Zenodo </i> &nbsp;
of every year via digital media and available for viewing and/or download from the journal' s web site at http://www.ijbmr.org Volume 12, Issue 2 The International Journal of Business and Management Research  ...  A refereed journal published by the International Journal of Business and Management Research 2019 The International Journal of Business and Management Research (IJBMR) is published annually on December  ...  should be combined with the city's transportation system and in due time making the project more viable and efficient.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5525604">doi:10.5281/zenodo.5525604</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/4vdaephe6za25l3wvckelpkgqi">fatcat:4vdaephe6za25l3wvckelpkgqi</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20210930133411/https://zenodo.org/record/5525604/files/2019.Issue-2.IJBMR.org.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/3a/58/3a582a865e569fb540e468d2b8d4e0171b847dc1.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5525604"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> zenodo.org </button> </a>

Electronic Cash [chapter]

Caroline Fontaine, Bir Bhanu, Micah Sherr, Darrel Hankerson, Alfred Menezes, Tanja Lange, Jean-Jacques Quisquater, David Samyde, Gerrit Bleumer, Marijke De Soete, Gerrit Bleumer, Gerrit Bleumer (+39 others)
<span title="">2011</span> <i title="Springer US"> Encyclopedia of Cryptography and Security </i> &nbsp;
The CAFE system is based on the one-show blinding paradigm and the wallet-with-observer paradigm, and more specifically on the public-key cryptographic techniques of Brands for withdrawing, paying and  ...  CAFE is a European Commission sponsored project, involving thirteen leading European parties from academic research and industries, that has tested an off-line electronic cash system in the Commission  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-5906-5_197">doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-5906-5_197</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/refw5kajwbbhdjwkpcwlaur5lq">fatcat:refw5kajwbbhdjwkpcwlaur5lq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190308074648/http://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ef49/c978b40c5a4ad38bf929934cb926700948e4.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/ef/49/ef49c978b40c5a4ad38bf929934cb926700948e4.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-5906-5_197"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Losers: Recovering Lost Property in Japan and the United States

Mark D. West
<span title="">2002</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/tol7woxlqjeg5bmzadeg6qrg3e" style="color: black;">Social Science Research Network</a> </i> &nbsp;
These recognized, centuries-old rules mesh with norms, institutional structures, and economic incentives to reinforce mutually the message that each sends and yields more lost-property recovery than altruism  ...  This article examines the lost property regime of Japan, which has one of the most impressive reputations in the world for returning lost property to its rightful owner, and compares it with that of the  ...  efficiency of the Japanese system with that of New York.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.316119">doi:10.2139/ssrn.316119</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/i6tu3nh4z5at3nomampzq3hy6u">fatcat:i6tu3nh4z5at3nomampzq3hy6u</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160909124646/http://bem.law.ui.ac.id:80/fhuiguide/uploads/materi/mark-d-west....-lost-united-states.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/bd/e4/bde43d6f69af6d1afce8c40c01dd7936470922d6.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.316119"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> ssrn.com </button> </a>

Losers: Recovering Lost Property in Japan and the United States

Mark D. West
<span title="">2003</span> <i title="Wiley"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/gi5cnjapsrb3jhtm7waoyko3qy" style="color: black;">Law &amp; society review</a> </i> &nbsp;
These recognized, centuries-old rules mesh with norms, institutional structures, and economic incentives to reinforce mutually the message that each sends and yields more lost-property recovery than altruism  ...  This article examines the lost property regime of Japan, which has one of the most impressive reputations in the world for returning lost property to its rightful owner, and compares it with that of the  ...  efficiency of the Japanese system with that of New York.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-5893.3702007">doi:10.1111/1540-5893.3702007</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/72wyxzawe5cwno4jbo3mymx7hm">fatcat:72wyxzawe5cwno4jbo3mymx7hm</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160909124646/http://bem.law.ui.ac.id:80/fhuiguide/uploads/materi/mark-d-west....-lost-united-states.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/bd/e4/bde43d6f69af6d1afce8c40c01dd7936470922d6.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-5893.3702007"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>
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