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An Axiomatic Approach to Block Rewards [article]

Xi Chen and Christos Papadimitriou and Tim Roughgarden
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Proof-of-work blockchains reward each miner for one completed block by an amount that is, in expectation, proportional to the number of hashes the miner contributed to the mining of the block.  ...  To answer these questions, we embark on an axiomatic theory of incentives in proof-of-work blockchains at the time scale of a single block.  ...  An example of an asymmetric rule is a dictator rule, which always allocates the block reward to the miner with the (say) lexicographically smallest public key.  ... 
arXiv:1909.10645v1 fatcat:miznzcxcybdolick7clkrzwwqe

An MEG signature corresponding to an axiomatic model of reward prediction error

Deborah Talmi, Lluis Fuentemilla, Vladimir Litvak, Emrah Duzel, Raymond J. Dolan
2012 NeuroImage  
., An MEG signature corresponding to an axiomatic model of reward prediction error, NeuroImage (2011),  ...  Our primary objective was to use formal criteria, based upon an axiomatic model (Caplin and Dean, 2008a) , to determine the presence and timing profile of MEG signals that express prediction errors.  ...  Please cite this article as: Talmi, D., et al., An MEG signature corresponding to an axiomatic model of reward prediction error, NeuroImage  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.06.051 pmid:21726648 pmcid:PMC3200436 fatcat:3wq4s2x5grdudcyl74ousylp24

Cannabinoids and value-based decision making: Implications for neurodegenerative disorders

Angela M. Lee, Erik B. Oleson, Leontien Diergaarde, Joseph F. Cheer, Tommy Pattij
2012 Basal Ganglia  
Value-based decision making in particular is an important executive cognitive function that is not only impaired in patients with PD, but also shares neural substrates with PD in basal ganglia structures  ...  This review will provide an overview of the interdisciplinary research that has influenced our understanding of value-based decision making and the role of dopamine, particularly in the context of reinforcement  ...  The axiomatic approach and its advantages Caplin and Dean proposed an axiomatic approach as a solution to clarify the role of dopamine in decision making, and more specifically RL [55] .  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.baga.2012.06.005 pmid:23162787 pmcid:PMC3496267 fatcat:3twywf5offas3dwl2eqmpweize

A Review Essay aboutFoundations of Neuroeconomic Analysisby Paul Glimcher

Colin F Camerer
2013 Journal of Economic Literature  
The alternative to an axiomatic or nonparametric approach is a workmanlike tinkering approach in which surprising effects are first generated (often absent any model at all), then parametric specifications  ...  The simplest example of how axiomatics could work in neuroscience is reward prediction error (RPE). RPE is the difference between a received reward and an expectation (an economic "surprise").  ... 
doi:10.1257/jel.51.4.1155 fatcat:znbfe3zdhng3nl7ma5gubxl6zm

Measuring Beliefs and Rewards: A Neuroeconomic Approach*

Andrew Caplin, Mark Dean, Paul W. Glimcher, Robb B. Rutledge
2010 Quarterly Journal of Economics  
The neurotransmitter dopamine is central to the emerging discipline of neuroeconomics; it is hypothesized to encode the difference between expected and realized rewards and thereby to mediate belief formation  ...  These tests are satisfied by neural activity in the nucleus accumbens, an area rich in dopamine receptors.  ...  Axiomatic modelling, an approach that offers many advantages over traditional neurobiological modelling which is often necessarily ad hoc in nature, can be used to provide novel insights into brain function  ... 
doi:10.1162/qjec.2010.125.3.923 pmid:25018564 pmcid:PMC4092011 fatcat:epsbgzqz4ndshgwzemvsfyimru

Temporal dissociation of salience and prediction error responses to appetitive and aversive taste

E. J. Hird, W. El-Deredy, A. Jones, D. Talmi
2017 Psychophysiology  
ERPs also expressed aversive prediction error peaking at 285ms, which conformed to the logic of an axiomatic model of prediction error.  ...  When tested axiomatically, frontocentral ERPs showed a salience response across tastes, with a particularly early response to outcome delivery, supporting recent propositions of a fast, unsigned and unspecific  ...  , 2012) , we employed an additional data-driven approach for data analysis.  ... 
doi:10.1111/psyp.12976 pmid:28833254 fatcat:zkm5xa7mjncb3fh4uke4wnsbwm

Temporal dissociation of salience and prediction error responses to appetitive and aversive taste [article]

Emily Hird, Wael El-Deredy, Anthony Jones, Deborah Talmi
2017 bioRxiv   pre-print
ERPs also expressed aversive prediction error peaking at 285ms, which conformed to the logic of an axiomatic model of prediction error.  ...  When tested axiomatically, frontocentral ERPs showed a salience response across tastes, with a particularly early response to outcome delivery, supporting recent propositions of a fast, unsigned and unspecific  ...  , 2012) , we employed an additional data-driven approach for data analysis.  ... 
doi:10.1101/184341 fatcat:e277dinahfaubod7xmjobfjwoy

Adaptive coding of pain prediction error in the anterior insula [article]

Robert Hoskin, Deborah Talmi
2021 bioRxiv   pre-print
Our analysis followed an axiomatic approach.  ...  Additionally, there is evidence that reward prediction errors are coded adaptively, but no parallel evidence regarding pain prediction errors.  ...  Discussion Signal in the left anterior insula represented adaptive prediction error of pain, defined according to an axiomatic approach.  ... 
doi:10.1101/2021.10.15.464508 fatcat:ca5tf57u2feszga7wdj6c73lyq

Principal components analysis of reward prediction errors in a reinforcement learning task

Thomas D. Sambrook, Jeremy Goslin
2016 NeuroImage  
to neurally encode an RPE.  ...  An outstanding question however, is whether the FRN is sensitive to the size of both positive RPEs and negative RPEs.  ...  attempts to demonstrate that the FRN axiomatically constitutes an RPE.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.07.032 pmid:26196667 fatcat:5ra5hxerarg3hfvs3h5snjx6le

Representation of aversive prediction errors in the human periaqueductal gray

Mathieu Roy, Daphna Shohamy, Nathaniel Daw, Marieke Jepma, G Elliott Wimmer, Tor D Wager
2014 Nature Neuroscience  
We combined an instrumental pain avoidance task with an axiomatic approach to assessing fMRI signals related to prediction errors (PEs), which drive reinforcement-based learning.  ...  Axiomatic tests combined with dynamic causal modeling suggested that ventromedial prefrontal cortex, supported by putamen, provides an expected value-related input to the PAG, which then conveys PE signals  ...  test whether or not activity profiles in the PAG and VS ROIs integrate outcome information with prior expectations into an aversive PE signal, we used an axiomatic approach initially developed to test  ... 
doi:10.1038/nn.3832 pmid:25282614 pmcid:PMC4213247 fatcat:scuid77zm5evpi74mggcb5hxtq

Controlled Communication Networks [chapter]

V. Feltkamp, A. van den Nouweland
1993 Operations Research '92  
Network games In the previous sections we approached the problem how to divide the reward r ( Hence, we associate with C E CCNN the network game (N, vc) as defined above.  ...  However, this approach fails to take into account communication restrictions that may cause deficiencies in cooperation in some coalitions.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-662-12629-5_114 fatcat:ait5ke3wcndbldtbu4lirtvqza

Page 1408 of Mathematical Reviews Vol. , Issue 2001B [page]

2001 Mathematical Reviews  
In this model capitals move from low-reward to high-reward employ- ments, whilst in the determination of prices the full-cost principle plays the main role and excess demand only a minor one.  ...  Furthermore, it leads to an axiomatic characterization of the solution.” 2001b:91042 91B26 91A05 91A28 91A40 Lizzeri, Alessandro (1-PRIN-E; Princeton, NJ); Persico, Nicola (1-PA-E; Philadelphia, PA) Uniqueness  ... 

ANALYTIC NETWORK PROCESS & AXIOMATIC DESIGN: A STUDY IN FAST MOVING CONSUMER GOODS INDUSTRY

Atakan Alkan, Duygu Diyaroğlu, Selen Avcı, Zerrin Aladağ
2018 Zenodo  
In order to solve the problem Analytic Network Process and Weighted Axiomatic Design approaches have been suggested.  ...  On the first step of this study, via ANP method, market share forecast of different brands and priorities of criteria have been calculated, and those priorities have been used in Axiomatic Design Approach  ...  To deal with the case of criteria being not compensated, an IT-ELECTRE II approach is proposed.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.1708230 fatcat:6xjqdwmfnbardc7n7b67wbqz24

ANALYTIC NETWORK PROCESS & AXIOMATIC DESIGN: A STUDY IN FAST MOVING CONSUMER GOODS INDUSTRY

Atakan Alkan, Duygu Diyaroğlu, Selen Avcı, Zerrin Aladağ
2018 International journal of research - granthaalayah  
In order to solve the problem Analytic Network Process and Weighted Axiomatic Design approaches have been suggested.  ...  On the first step of this study, via ANP method, market share forecast of different brands and priorities of criteria have been calculated, and those priorities have been used in Axiomatic Design Approach  ...  To deal with the case of criteria being not compensated, an IT-ELECTRE II approach is proposed.  ... 
doi:10.29121/granthaalayah.v6.i11.2018.1083 fatcat:dfiqxr347rbyvhcevli7p6oale

Dopamine, Reward Prediction Error, and Economics*

Andrew Caplin, Mark Dean
2008 Quarterly Journal of Economics  
The best-developed current theory of dopaminergic function is the "reward prediction error" hypothesis-that dopamine encodes the difference between the experienced and predicted "reward" of an event.  ...  We provide axiomatic foundations for this hypothesis to help bridge the current conceptual gap between neuroscience and economics.  ...  This axiomatic approach solves the language barrier between economics and neuroscience by being explicit in its definition of the term "reward."  ... 
doi:10.1162/qjec.2008.123.2.663 fatcat:lx4kzxsz4bed5nyhoywcolqxkq
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