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Modeling and rendering of outdoor scenes for distributed virtual environments

Dieter Schmalstieg, Michael Gervautz
1997 Proceedings of the ACM symposium on Virtual reality software and technology - VRST '97  
We present an approach for modeling and realtime rendering of outdoor scenes, for use in virtual reality applications such as flight simulators and multi-user virtual environments.  ...  It allows to represent extremely complex scenes with little memory and modeling effort.  ...  Such a graph traversal works well for DAGs, but the cycles contained in DCGs would lead to infinite looping without special measures.  ... 
doi:10.1145/261135.261173 dblp:conf/vrst/SchmalstiegG97 fatcat:kdrcqmmvj5b2tk5wnn2yposvru

DCGs: Parsing as Deduction? [chapter]

Chris Mellish
2002 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The fact that DCGs are based on using deduction (validity) and unification grammar approaches are based on constructing models (satisfiability) seems to indicate a significant divergence of views.  ...  In this paper, we concentrate on Definite Clause Grammars (DCGs), the paradigm example of "parsing as deduction".  ...  Acknowledgements This paper was largely written when the author was visiting IMS at the University of Stuttgart in the summer of 1994 and he would like to thank IMS for giving him this opportunity.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-45632-5_21 fatcat:nlcrvl3lffe4fgzv7xeh2nta54

Recursive Scene Graphs for Art and Design [article]

Brian Wyvill, Neil A. Dodgson
2010 Computational Aesthetics in Graphics  
This approach permits a range of possibilities, including scenes with carefully controlled and locally varying recursive depth. It has applications in art and design.  ...  Conventional scene graphs use directed acyclic graphs; conventional iterated function systems use infinitely recursive definitions.  ...  Ebert [EMP * 03] uses the term cyclic scene graph to mean both the limit of an L-system and, equivalently, an iterated function system.  ... 
doi:10.2312/compaesth/compaesth10/033-040 fatcat:iswz6dxlrbaapaiixxobh3pjkm

Two ways of formalizing grammars

Mark Johnson
1994 Linguistics and Philosophy  
Because the DCG approach is validity-based, while the FS approach is satisfiability-based, different constructs must be used in each approach to represent similar data structures.  ...  Both approaches use terms and equality to encode 'structured entities' such as strings, trees, etc.  ...  In the DCG approach if an utterance u is ambiguous with respect to a grammar with a DCG axiomatization D and tx and t2 are the terms representing two of its different parse trees, then D t wf(u, tl) A  ... 
doi:10.1007/bf00985036 fatcat:yplkvemksrerzprlsoe2l6fsuq

Using regular tree grammars to enhance sentence realisation

2011 Natural Language Engineering  
We make use of this fact to specify and implement both an FTAG-based sentence realiser and a benchmark generator for this realiser.  ...  We argue furthermore that the FRTG encoding enables us to improve on other proposals based on a grammar of TAG derivation trees in several ways.  ...  Acknowledgments We are grateful to Sylvain Schmitz for providing us with the FTAG-to-FRTG conversion tool. We also thank the reviewers for their helpful comments.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s1351324911000076 fatcat:p5k4t6i5abfdjnutquhdhea7ou

A classification of noncircular attribute grammars based on the look-ahead behavior

Wuu Yang
2002 IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering  
We also show that, for any finite m, an NCm attribute grammar can be transformed to an equivalent NCH grammar.  ...  The location of a noncircular attribute grammar in the NC hierarchy is an intrinsic property of the grammar.  ...  Within the capability of Nielson's framework, her approach is similar to ours in that the top-down assignment of partitions in her framework is similar to the traverse procedure in Fig. 7 without the  ... 
doi:10.1109/32.991318 fatcat:24oslxamu5dslegyig23xthij4

On the use of advanced logic programming languages in computational linguistics

Solange Coupet-Grimal, Olivier Ridoux
1995 The Journal of Logic Programming  
This list is used both to perform ~-reduction (clause 3 in predicate reduce) and to prevent looping when traversing the infinite tree e (clause 2 in predicate reduce).  ...  This makes it possible to unify variable x and the term ff (aa, x), resulting in the following infinite term:This infinite term is called n~tional because it has only a finite number of different subterms  ...  The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers whose comments helped to improve the paper. Thanks must also go to David Trotman and Luke Hornof for their careful reading of the paper.  ... 
doi:10.1016/0743-1066(95)00040-q fatcat:ph7ll7eoinekvll3i6o5ktyqsa

A semantic-head-driven generation algorithm for unification-based formalisms

Stuart M. Shieber, Gertjan van Noord, Robert C. Moore, Fernando C. N. Pereira
1989 Proceedings of the 27th annual meeting on Association for Computational Linguistics -  
The enabling design feature of the algorithm is its implicit traversal of the analysis tree for the string being generated in a semantic-head-driven fashion. to the generation algorithm presented here.  ...  We present an algorithm for generating strings from logical form encodings that improves upon previous algorithms in that it places fewer restrictions on the class of grammars to which it is applicable  ...  An algorithm for generation in unification categorial grammar. In Proceedings of the ~th  ... 
doi:10.3115/981623.981625 dblp:conf/acl/ShieberNMP89 fatcat:5mf4smcugvdz7dvfhzfsrc2bsa

Declarative programming for verification

Michael Leuschel
2008 Proceedings of the 10th international ACM SIGPLAN symposium on Principles and practice of declarative programming - PPDP '08  
More precisely, we present insights gained and lessons learned while implementing animators and model checkers in Prolog for various specification languages, ranging from process algebras such as CSP to  ...  This paper summarises roughly ten years of experience using declarative programming for developing tools to validate formal specifications.  ...  Acknowledgments I would like to thank the co-authors of the papers that are behind this work: Jens Bendisposto, Michael Butler, Marc Fontaine, Helko Lehmann, Thieryy Massart, Daniel Plagge, Corinna Spermann  ... 
doi:10.1145/1389449.1389450 dblp:conf/ppdp/Leuschel08 fatcat:f55xkcbjaral7lytcr6odnmsee

A systematic study of the delayed column generation method for optimizing wireless networks

Yu Cheng, Xianghui Cao, Xuemin (Sherman) Shen, Devu Manikantan Shila, Hongkun Li
2014 Proceedings of the 15th ACM international symposium on Mobile ad hoc networking and computing - MobiHoc '14  
With a protocol interference model, we rigorously prove that searching an entering column in the DCG operation is equivalent to a maximum weighted independent set (MWIS) problem.  ...  A prominent theoretical contribution of this paper is the theorem that: if an MWIS approximation algorithm with the approximation ratio β (< 1) is applied in the DCG method, the maximum flow solved will  ...  We show that searching an entering column in the DCG method is equivalent to an MWIS problem.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2632951.2632978 dblp:conf/mobihoc/ChengCSSL14 fatcat:xq4auhjolvdm7jugz5pp3y6dfi

Harnessing Twitter to support serendipitous learning of developers

Abhishek Sharma, Yuan Tian, Agus Sulistya, David Lo, Aiko Fallas Yamashita
2017 2017 IEEE 24th International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution and Reengineering (SANER)  
In this work to support serendipitous discovery of relevant and informative resources to support developer learning, we propose an unsupervised and a supervised approach to find and rank URLs (which point  ...  Singer et al. found that developers tend to use channels such as Twitter to keep themselves updated and support learning, often in an undirected or serendipitous way, coming across things that they may  ...  This research is supported by the National Research Foundation, Prime Minister's Office, Singapore under its International Research Centres in Singapore Funding Initiative.  ... 
doi:10.1109/saner.2017.7884639 dblp:conf/wcre/SharmaTSLY17 fatcat:dzerjkkzfjeenmegjl7hhmfyl4

Lazy Stream Programming in Prolog

Paul Tarau, Jan Wielemaker, Tom Schrijvers
2019 Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science  
Unfortunately, support in Prolog has so far been lacking and most existing approaches are ad-hoc.  ...  We expose stream generators to the application programmer in two ways: 1) through an abstract sequence manipulation API, convenient for defining custom generators, and 2) as idiomatic lazy lists, compatible  ...  When the list traversal predicate recurses on Tail, this process is repeated. Improvement There is a significant disadvantage to the above basic approach.  ... 
doi:10.4204/eptcs.306.26 fatcat:bvwx5zl52rantnkj4mdqbslcwq

An Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning System for Arabic Learners

Khaled F Shaalan 1
2005 Computer Assisted Language Learning  
In this system, we use NLP tools (including morphological analyser and syntax analyser) and error analyser to issue feedback to the learner.  ...  The learners are encouraged to produce sentences freely in various situations and contexts and guided to recognise by themselves the erroneous or inappropriate functions of their misused expressions.  ...  An exhaustive-search to traverse the ATN generates all the possible interpretations of an inflected Arabic word.  ... 
doi:10.1080/09588220500132399 fatcat:27bsnur6zzhr5d5yv6g4qolxh4

Dynamic Trade-Off Prediction in Multi-Stage Retrieval Systems [article]

J. Shane Culpepper and Charles L. A. Clarke and Jimmy Lin
2016 arXiv   pre-print
In such an architecture, the quality of the final ranked list may not be sensitive to the quality of initial candidate pool, especially in terms of early precision.  ...  The interesting twist in our new approach is to train classifiers without requiring explicit relevance judgments.  ...  Shane Culpepper is the recipient of an Australian Research Council DECRA Research Fellowship (DE140100275).  ... 
arXiv:1610.02502v1 fatcat:cwjhgbvynvaptetvvbiwqwr2z4

Game-Tree Search Using Proof Numbers: The First Twenty Years

Akihiro Kishimoto, Mark H.M. Winands, Martin Müller, Jahn-Takeshi Saito
2012 ICGA Journal  
An implicit assumption in solvers based on αβ search is that proofs at shallow search depths are easier to find.  ...  Like PNS, McAllester's conspiracy number search (CNS) performs variable-depth search by trying to expand an unreliable leaf node, as estimated by conspiracy numbers, in order to make the score of that  ...  The authors are very grateful to Professor Jaap van den Herik for all improvements of the current version. REFERENCES  ... 
doi:10.3233/icg-2012-35302 fatcat:whg346ql2vdbzdip3unujsgfya
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