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An Analysis of Energy Consumption and Carbon Footprints of Cryptocurrencies and Possible Solutions [article]

Varun Kohli, Sombuddha Chakravarty, Vinay Chamola, Kuldip Singh Sangwan, Sherali Zeadally
<span title="2022-02-20">2022</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
We identify the problems associated with cryptocurrencies, and propose solutions that can help reduce their energy usage and carbon footprints.  ...  We compare with the energy consumption and carbon footprints of these cryptocurrencies with countries around the world, and centralized transaction methods such as Visa.  ...  Department of State Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, and through its cooperating agency the Institute of International Education ("IIE").  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2203.03717v1">arXiv:2203.03717v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/jiwa4l4rjbcxjp7ew26t2g4u74">fatcat:jiwa4l4rjbcxjp7ew26t2g4u74</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20220310182848/https://arxiv.org/pdf/2203.03717v1.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/ff/af/ffaf6578aad5c97b8a0ace5e2cbe70b7dbab234f.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2203.03717v1" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>

Accounting for carbon emissions caused by cryptocurrency and token systems [article]

Ulrich Gallersdörfer, Lena Klaaßen, Christian Stoll
<span title="2022-03-27">2022</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
The energy consumption and related carbon emissions of cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin are subject to extensive discussion in public, academia, and industry.  ...  First guidance on how to allocate the carbon footprint of the Bitcoin network to single investors exist, however a holistic framework capturing a wider range of cryptocurrencies and tokens remains absent  ...  So far, the focus of research has mainly been on calculating the energy consumption and carbon footprint of cryptocurrencies.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2111.06477v2">arXiv:2111.06477v2</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/txo65s26f5gejm4dszrn7bxrjq">fatcat:txo65s26f5gejm4dszrn7bxrjq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20220523193637/https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/2111/2111.06477.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/e3/a5/e3a52bff6f928a6b43242fe96e941a89c015a459.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2111.06477v2" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>

Based on the Time-Spatial Power-Based Cryptocurrency Miner Driving Force Model, Establish a Global CO2 Emission Prediction Framework after China Bans Cryptocurrency

Xuejia Sang, Xiaopeng Leng, Linfu Xue, Xiangjin Ran
<span title="2022-04-28">2022</span> <i title="MDPI AG"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/oglosmy3gbhuzobyjit4qalakq" style="color: black;">Sustainability</a> </i> &nbsp;
The energy consumption and carbon footprint of cryptocurrencies have always been a popular topic.  ...  By constructing a time series hash rate/power model, this research obtained the 10-year time series data on energy consumption dataset of global top-25 cryptocurrencies for the first time.  ...  This research is based on the hash rate/power time series data of different cryptocurrency devices and has obtained the world's consecutive cryptocurrency power consumption dataset for the first time since  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095332">doi:10.3390/su14095332</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/vab537tfhnbilfaxyh2awe4muq">fatcat:vab537tfhnbilfaxyh2awe4muq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20220502013626/https://mdpi-res.com/d_attachment/sustainability/sustainability-14-05332/article_deploy/sustainability-14-05332-v2.pdf?version=1651225827" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/5f/69/5f6910b25237efc3b5c93aef870aa5dd685a8211.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095332"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> mdpi.com </button> </a>

Crypto Minning : Indonesia Carbon Tax Challenges and Safeguarding International Commitment on Human Security

Ika Riswanti Putranti
<span title="2022-02-04">2022</span> <i title="Research Collaboration Community (RCC)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/3bzia2go4faezaicdwjap3mq7y" style="color: black;">International Journal of Business Economics and Social Development</a> </i> &nbsp;
The issue of carbon footprint in cryto mining has in several ways been the cause of the prohibition of this activity.  ...  The need for financial transactions in the virtual world that continues to grow demands an increase in the speed, quality, and quantity of various innovations and discoveries in the field of financial  ...  Based on the Bitcoin Energy Consumption In in 2018, Bitcoin energy use resulted in a carbon footprint of 19.0 to 29.6 million metric tons of CO 2 (475 g CO 2 /kWh).  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.46336/ijbesd.v3i1.206">doi:10.46336/ijbesd.v3i1.206</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/7s2sklyblzgxrbv3fcmifwyxsu">fatcat:7s2sklyblzgxrbv3fcmifwyxsu</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20220428214019/https://journal.rescollacomm.com/index.php/ijbesd/article/download/206/208" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/29/77/297713bc4fa4382fc7005def7c7c47de644c20c7.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.46336/ijbesd.v3i1.206"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Analyzing asymmetric effects of cryptocurrency demand on environmental sustainability

Sinan Erdogan, Maruf Yakubu Ahmed, Samuel Asumadu Sarkodie
<span title="2022-01-11">2022</span> <i title="Springer Science and Business Media LLC"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/e3hwddptujd47msteq4qpbmhgi" style="color: black;">Environmental science and pollution research international</a> </i> &nbsp;
Besides, the possible effect of BTC and other cryptocurrencies on either financial markets or transactions has been widely discussed.  ...  When bitcoin (BTC), the first pioneering cryptocurrency was released in 2009, it was considered an apolitical currency.  ...  reducing carbon footprint of PoW-based cryptocurrencies.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-17998-y">doi:10.1007/s11356-021-17998-y</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/35013947">pmid:35013947</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC8747876/">pmcid:PMC8747876</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/emwze5y2vbfb3asjy3fgvno734">fatcat:emwze5y2vbfb3asjy3fgvno734</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20220114181556/http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s11356-021-17998-y.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/31/02/310286d0ab48cbb0a75d72ce022368380d6ea556.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-17998-y"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8747876" title="pubmed link"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> pubmed.gov </button> </a>

An index of cryptocurrency environmental attention (ICEA)

Yizhi Wang, Brian Lucey, Samuel Alexandre Vigne, Larisa Yarovaya
<span title="2022-01-21">2022</span> <i title="Emerald"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/aqmzah7asrfdvk7t2yje5bxbpm" style="color: black;">China Finance Review International</a> </i> &nbsp;
significant in the analysis of whether cryptocurrency markets are sustainable regarding energy consumption requirements and negative contributions to climate change.  ...  of high-energy consumption and CO2 pollution regarding cryptocurrency have become some of the main areas of criticism, raising questions about the sustainability of cryptocurrencies.  ...  The search string is as follows: ("cryptocurrency" or "bitcoin" or "Ethereum") and atl1("energy" or "energy consumption" or "energy footprint" or "carbon footprint" or "environment" or "environmental"  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1108/cfri-09-2021-0191">doi:10.1108/cfri-09-2021-0191</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/q3iqkruyrfhmpptxapkmbnor7e">fatcat:q3iqkruyrfhmpptxapkmbnor7e</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20220422121505/https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/CFRI-09-2021-0191/full/pdf?title=an-index-of-cryptocurrency-environmental-attention-icea" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/87/7a/877acf2c04c31cccba86eeb20b1249c7694edfff.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1108/cfri-09-2021-0191"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Is Bitcoin's Carbon Footprint Persistent? Multifractal Evidence and Policy Implications

Bikramaditya Ghosh, Elie Bouri
<span title="2022-05-05">2022</span> <i title="MDPI AG"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/4d3elkqvznfzho6ki7a35bt47u" style="color: black;">Entropy</a> </i> &nbsp;
We also suggest the replacement of 'proof-of-work' with 'proof-of-space' or 'proof-of-stake', although with a trade-off (possible security breach) to reduce the carbon footprint, the implementation of  ...  Given that the persistence of high levels of energy consumption of Bitcoin could have permanent policy implications, we examine the presence of long memory in the daily data of the Bitcoin Energy Consumption  ...  Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/e24050647">doi:10.3390/e24050647</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/35626532">pmid:35626532</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/t4xk5efrfvhljly3frv2b5uhka">fatcat:t4xk5efrfvhljly3frv2b5uhka</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20220506211109/https://mdpi-res.com/d_attachment/entropy/entropy-24-00647/article_deploy/entropy-24-00647.pdf?version=1651748210" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/d9/a4/d9a42216897356309bbda31e32cc7e8493cee99f.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/e24050647"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> mdpi.com </button> </a>

The climate impact of ICT: A review of estimates, trends and regulations [article]

Charlotte Freitag, Mike Berners-Lee, Kelly Widdicks, Bran Knowles, Gordon Blair, Adrian Friday
<span title="2021-02-03">2021</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
Our findings indicate that published estimates all underestimate the carbon footprint of ICT, possibly by as much as 25%, by failing to account for all of ICT's supply chains and full lifecycle (i.e. emissions  ...  carbon footprint in alignment with the Paris Agreement.  ...  The research was partially supported by the DT/LWEC Senior Fellowship (awarded to Blair) in the Role of Digital Technology in Understanding, Mitigating and Adapting to Environmental Change, EPSRC: EP/P002285  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2102.02622v1">arXiv:2102.02622v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/faxoh7mo4jcrjbhz6jjgnzkv7e">fatcat:faxoh7mo4jcrjbhz6jjgnzkv7e</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20210206005352/https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/2102/2102.02622.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/6c/21/6c214c0326408a3d9ca9914cc87771a95022dae0.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2102.02622v1" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>

Cryptocurrency Mining from an Economic and Environmental Perspective. Analysis of the Most and Least Sustainable Countries

Sergio Luis Náñez Alonso, Javier Jorge-Vázquez, Miguel Ángel Echarte Fernández, Ricardo Francisco Reier Forradellas
<span title="2021-07-14">2021</span> <i title="MDPI AG"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/a2yvk5xhdnhpxjnk6yd33uudqq" style="color: black;">Energies</a> </i> &nbsp;
There is also an ongoing debate about the pollution generated by cryptocurrency mining, and whether or not the use of renewable energies will solve the problem of its sustainability.  ...  In our study, starting from the Environmental Performance Index (EPI), we have considered several determinants of cryptocurrency mining: energy price, how that energy is generated, temperature, legal constraints  ...  Bitcoin's carbon footprint"; and according to [64] , cryptocurrency mining is an opportunity for renewable energy.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/en14144254">doi:10.3390/en14144254</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/t6zgsurzdbg3vbxw3ncncaqjra">fatcat:t6zgsurzdbg3vbxw3ncncaqjra</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20210716164300/https://res.mdpi.com/d_attachment/energies/energies-14-04254/article_deploy/energies-14-04254-v2.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/18/6b/186b36d4fb76530c59068e39c6209edf2c118f3d.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/en14144254"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> mdpi.com </button> </a>

The economic and environmental impact of Bitcoin

Liana Badea, Mariana Claudia Mungiu-Pupazan
<span title="">2021</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/q7qi7j4ckfac7ehf3mjbso4hne" style="color: black;">IEEE Access</a> </i> &nbsp;
The findings suggest that, despite high energy consumption and adverse environmental impact, Bitcoin continues to be an instrument used in the economic environment for a variety of purposes.  ...  and CO2 emissions, in order to finally analyze Bitcoin regulation and identify possible solutions to reduce the negative impact on the environment and beyond.  ...  The carbon footprint that cryptocurrencies generate should raise the issue of externalities for governments.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/access.2021.3068636">doi:10.1109/access.2021.3068636</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ii7uqdincvebnbx76hj6edisya">fatcat:ii7uqdincvebnbx76hj6edisya</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20210717190507/https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/ielx7/6287639/6514899/09385063.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/0d/52/0d525bf188439cd7a482988ac6f93ce76836f1de.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/access.2021.3068636"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> ieee.com </button> </a>

Opinions on Sustainability of Smart Cities in the Context of Energy Challenges Posed by Cryptocurrency Mining

Fadeyi, Krejcar, Maresova, Kuca, Brida, Selamat
<span title="2019-12-24">2019</span> <i title="MDPI AG"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/oglosmy3gbhuzobyjit4qalakq" style="color: black;">Sustainability</a> </i> &nbsp;
An attempt is also made to emphasize the possible ways of reducing energy use and all activities involving digital currencies by seeking to replace "Proof of Work" (PoW) with improved alternatives.  ...  is not retracting, recently giving rise to digital currencies capable of fueling massive energy consumption via mining of "crypto-coins".  ...  Acknowledgments: The APC was funded by project of excellence 2019/2206, Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Kralove.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010169">doi:10.3390/su12010169</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/6at2kphrjffohl6t2pxeagv5ne">fatcat:6at2kphrjffohl6t2pxeagv5ne</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20191225015849/https://res.mdpi.com/d_attachment/sustainability/sustainability-12-00169/article_deploy/sustainability-12-00169.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/46/75/467550c4eb7c7d3440cfabdca7918b9084bf3a2d.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010169"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> mdpi.com </button> </a>

Banking on Blockchain: Costs Savings Thanks to the Blockchain Technology

Luisanna Cocco, Andrea Pinna, Michele Marchesi
<span title="2017-06-27">2017</span> <i title="MDPI AG"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/hijy7jexkvcipg3tulqv73bck4" style="color: black;">Future Internet</a> </i> &nbsp;
the significant energy consumption due to the high computing power required, and the high cost of hardware.  ...  A software product, "Green and Sustainable", should have an economic, societal, and ecological impact, and an impact on human beings as small as possible over its whole life cycle.  ...  Regarding the carbon footprint of Bitcoin system, let us cite an article entitled "Does Bitcoin Have an Energy Problem?"  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/fi9030025">doi:10.3390/fi9030025</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/4mts46yt45ajjdoamqvrfbtppy">fatcat:4mts46yt45ajjdoamqvrfbtppy</a> </span>
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Ten simple rules to make your computing more environmentally sustainable

Loïc Lannelongue, Jason Grealey, Alex Bateman, Michael Inouye, Russell Schwartz
<span title="2021-09-20">2021</span> <i title="Public Library of Science (PLoS)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/ch57atmlprauhhbqdf7x4ytejm" style="color: black;">PLoS Computational Biology</a> </i> &nbsp;
Cryptocurrencies are another source of concerns, and, although they rely on dedicated mining farms and hardware, their energy usage (estimated at 70 TWh/year in July 2021) is growing at a worrying pace  ...  Data centres themselves have a substantial carbon footprint of around 100 megatons of CO 2 e (comparable to American commercial aviation) emitted just from the yearly generation of 200 TWh of electricity  ...  Acknowledgments Disclaimers: The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NIHR or the Department of Health and Social Care.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1009324">doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1009324</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34543272">pmid:34543272</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC8452068/">pmcid:PMC8452068</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/k6aiwhrfrvaqpjwx4lohxuyaoe">fatcat:k6aiwhrfrvaqpjwx4lohxuyaoe</a> </span>
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Energy Footprint of Blockchain Consensus Mechanisms Beyond Proof-of-Work [article]

Moritz Platt, Johannes Sedlmeir, Daniel Platt, Paolo Tasca, Jiahua Xu, Nikhil Vadgama, Juan Ignacio Ibañez
<span title="2021-09-17">2021</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
Second, we illustrate that there are significant differences in energy consumption among the PoSbased systems analyzed, with permissionless systems having an overall larger energy footprint.  ...  Applying this model to six archetypal blockchains generates three main findings: First, we confirm the concerns around the energy footprint of PoW by showing that Bitcoin's energy consumption exceeds the  ...  R W We conducted an informal literature review using the search string ("Blockchain" OR "DLT" OR "Distributed Ledger") AND ("Energy Consumption" OR "Energy Demand" OR "Electricity Demand" OR "Carbon Footprint  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2109.03667v5">arXiv:2109.03667v5</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/dhzmmvuxyvfhbmo6ww4qja5sjm">fatcat:dhzmmvuxyvfhbmo6ww4qja5sjm</a> </span>
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Analyzing the sustainability of 28 'Blockchain for Good' projects via affordances and constraints

Bill Tomlinson, Jens Boberg, Jocelyn Cranefield, David Johnstone, Markus Luczak-Roesch, Donald J. Patterson, Shreya Kapoor
<span title="2020-10-14">2020</span> <i title="Informa UK Limited"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/ofabhxcs2zhwlkz7buvcoq42by" style="color: black;">Information Technology for Development</a> </i> &nbsp;
Furthermore, the theoretical concepts of sustainability 'problems' and 'solutions' implicit in these projects have not been made clear.  ...  In this exploratory study, we evaluate the sustainability of 28 Blockchain for Good projects that use cryptocurrencies or tradable tokens with regard to the UN sustainability goals.  ...  at Victoria University of Wellington and the Donald Bren School of Information and Computer Sciences at the University of California, Irvine, for their support of this project.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1080/02681102.2020.1828792">doi:10.1080/02681102.2020.1828792</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/kak55fkhzfewnl7hyfbxiup2f4">fatcat:kak55fkhzfewnl7hyfbxiup2f4</a> </span>
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