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Computational Neuropsychiatry – Schizophrenia as a Cognitive Brain Network Disorder

Maria R. Dauvermann, Heather C. Whalley, André Schmidt, Graham L. Lee, Liana Romaniuk, Neil Roberts, Eve C. Johnstone, Stephen M. Lawrie, Thomas W. J. Moorhead
2014 Frontiers in Psychiatry  
In this article, we review studies that applied measures of functional and effective connectivity to fMRI data during cognitive tasks, in particular working memory fMRI studies.  ...  We provide a conceptual summary of the main findings in fMRI data and their relationship with neurotransmitter systems, which are known to be altered in individuals with schizophrenia.  ...  Dauvermann and Thomas W. J. Moorhead are supported by Dr Mortimer and Theresa Sackler Foundation. Heather C. Whalley is supported by Royal Society Dorothy Hodgkin Fellowship.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00030 pmid:24723894 pmcid:PMC3971172 fatcat:kbysjb25ynhuhows56yncoh6wm

Altered intrinsic and extrinsic connectivity in schizophrenia

Yuan Zhou, Peter Zeidman, Shihao Wu, Adeel Razi, Cheng Chen, Liuqing Yang, Jilin Zou, Gaohua Wang, Huiling Wang, Karl J. Friston
2018 NeuroImage: Clinical  
attention network, the salience network and the default mode network) in schizophrenia during a working memory task.  ...  ; (iv) connections within networks and between networks were correlated with the severity of clinical symptoms and impaired cognition beyond working memory.  ...  In this study we investigated the effective connectivity within and between three key large-scale networks during a working memory task in schizophrenia.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.nicl.2017.12.006 pmid:29264112 pmcid:PMC5726753 fatcat:bn4zqj3p75ge3j2owc4gknemqe

fMRI and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia

Rachel L.C. Mitchell, Rebecca Elliott, Peter W.R. Woodruff
2001 Trends in Cognitive Sciences  
Longitudinal fMRI studies, and studies examining the effects of medication, suggest that the technique has further potential to advance our understanding of this complex disorder. fMRI and cognitive dysfunction  ...  Schizophrenia is relatively common, with a lifetime prevalence of approximately 1 in 100.  ...  Acknowledgement Rachel Mitchell gratefully acknowledges a PhD studentship from Neuraxis.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s1364-6613(00)01599-0 pmid:11166637 fatcat:ce3pws5dlvavpc4g7f3cwd7cue

Brain Connectivity Studies in Schizophrenia: Unravelling the Effects of Antipsychotics

Ayna B. Nejad, Bjorn H. Ebdrup, Birte Y. Glenthoj, Hartwig R. Siebner
2012 Current Neuropharmacology  
In this review, we provide an overview of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies examining dysconnectivity in schizophrenia and discuss the few studies which have also attempted to probe connectivity  ...  However, the effect of drug treatment and challenges on the dysconnectivity of functional networks in schizophrenia is an understudied area.  ...  N-back working memory task. Structural equation modelling of cerebello-subcortico- cortical effective connectivity.  ... 
doi:10.2174/157015912803217305 pmid:23449679 pmcid:PMC3468876 fatcat:ruwnbgsezfahrl3qgt63dqbyem

Verbal working memory and functional large-scale networks in schizophrenia

Maria R. Dauvermann, Thomas WJ Moorhead, Andrew R. Watson, Barbara Duff, Liana Romaniuk, Jeremy Hall, Neil Roberts, Graham L. Lee, Zoë A. Hughes, Nicholas J. Brandon, Brandon Whitcher, Douglas HR Blackwood (+2 others)
2017 Psychiatry Research : Neuroimaging  
The aim of this study was to test whether bilinear and nonlinear effective connectivity (EC) measures of working memory fMRI data can differentiate between patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy  ...  The adoption of different functional networks in SZ and HC indicated neurobiological alterations underlying working memory performance, including different connection strengths with nonlinear modulation  ...  We are also grateful to Edwin van Beek for assistance with the overall co-ordination of the study and examining the structural MRI scans of all participants to exclude gross lesions.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2017.10.004 pmid:29111478 fatcat:4dknkwt2zrae7cu7qqtgcuood4

Thalamocortical Dysconnectivity in Schizophrenia

Neil D. Woodward, Haleh Karbasforoushan, Stephan Heckers
2012 American Journal of Psychiatry  
Method: Seventy-seven healthy subjects and 62 patients with schizophrenia underwent resting-state fMRI.  ...  The etiology of schizophrenia may disrupt the development of prefrontal-thalamic connectivity and refinement of somatomotor connectivity with the thalamus that occurs during brain maturation.  ...  The authors thank Kristan Armstrong, Julia Sheffield, and Austin Woolard for assistance in recruiting and screening participants.  ... 
doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12010056 pmid:23032387 pmcid:PMC3810300 fatcat:adgayckk7vffxnsvzp2tp6uzyu

Altered resting-state functional connectivity and anatomical connectivity of hippocampus in schizophrenia

Yuan Zhou, Ni Shu, Yong Liu, Ming Song, Yihui Hao, Haihong Liu, Chunshui Yu, Zhening Liu, Tianzi Jiang
2008 Schizophrenia Research  
In the present study, both functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during rest and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed on 17 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 14 healthy subjects.  ...  In patients with schizophrenia, the bilateral hippocampi showed reduced functional connectivities to some regions which have been reported to be involved in episodic memory, such as posterior cingulate  ...  This work was partially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China, Grant Nos. 30570509, 30425004, 30530290, and 30670752, and the National Key Basic Research and Development Program (973),  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.schres.2007.11.039 pmid:18234476 fatcat:gbt6gldr2ndmna4bvjcrpd75te

Synaptic Plasticity and Dysconnection in Schizophrenia

Klaas E. Stephan, Torsten Baldeweg, Karl J. Friston
2006 Biological Psychiatry  
We describe how theoretical and causal models of brain responses might contribute to a mechanistic understanding of synaptic plasticity in schizophrenia.  ...  Current pathophysiological theories of schizophrenia highlight the role of altered brain connectivity.  ...  Dynamic causal models may be very useful in studying changes in connectivity during learning, particularly in combination with pharmacological paradigms that target different neurotransmitters.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.10.005 pmid:16427028 fatcat:wdyyckhlgnfglda42kuo453244

Re-evaluating dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation during working memory in schizophrenia

Katherine H. Karlsgodt, Jacqueline Sanz, Theo G.M. van Erp, Carrie E. Bearden, Keith H. Nuechterlein, Tyrone D. Cannon
2009 Schizophrenia Research  
This study proposes and tests a new model of the performanceactivation relationship in schizophrenia by combining changes by load with overall individual differences in performance.  ...  Previous neuroimaging studies of working memory (WM) in schizophrenia have generated conflicting findings of hypo-and hyper-frontality, discrepancies potentially driven by differences in task difficulty  ...  Acknowledgements We would like to acknowledge the input of Drs Russell Poldrack, Robert Bilder, and Joaquin Fuster.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.schres.2008.12.025 pmid:19196494 pmcid:PMC2671001 fatcat:cnnenkpiizbvhmlqs2vy22usn4

Functional neuroimaging and schizophrenia: a view towards effective connectivity modeling and polygenic risk

Rebecca Birnbaum, Daniel R Weinberger
2013 Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience  
From these basic studies, functional neuroimaging analysis of intermediate phenotypes has progressed to more complex and realistic models of brain dysfunction, incorporating models of functional and effective  ...  We review critical trends in imaging genetics as applied to schizophrenia research, and then discuss some future directions of the field.  ...  Models employed in analyzing imaging data to uncover effective connectivity are based on regression models, or structural equation models, and these models may be linear or nonlinear.  ... 
pmid:24174900 pmcid:PMC3811100 fatcat:hfacbcma3fap7jrjg6utcevtgq

Executive Function, Neural Circuitry and Genetic Mechanisms in Schizophrenia

Daniel Paul Eisenberg, Karen Faith Berman
2009 Neuropsychopharmacology  
With this expansive network of interactions in mind, the present chapter takes a systems-level approach to executive dysfunction in schizophrenia, by identifying key regions both within and outside of  ...  Further, just as implicated brain structures (eg, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) through postmortem and neuroimaging techniques continue to show alterations in multiple, interacting signaling pathways  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program. DISCLOSURE The authors declared no conflict of interest.  ... 
doi:10.1038/npp.2009.111 pmid:19693005 pmcid:PMC2794926 fatcat:5pz6hmdfofhxpas3tdkq6bk67i

Identification of brain regions associated with working memory deficit in schizophrenia

Indranath Chatterjee, Virendra Kumar, Sahil Sharma, Divyanshi Dhingra, Bharti Rana, Manoj Agarwal, Naveen Kumar
2019 F1000Research  
In addition, patients with schizophrenia often exhibit a deficit in working memory which adversely impacts the attentiveness and the behavioral characteristics of a person.  ...  Although several clinical efforts have already been made to study working memory deficit in schizophrenia, in this paper, we investigate the applicability of a machine learning approach for identification  ...  Acknowledgements Data used in this work are taken from the Functional Biomedical Informatics Research Networks (FBIRN) data repository, under the following support: for function data, U24-RR021992, Function  ... 
doi:10.12688/f1000research.17731.1 pmid:31069066 pmcid:PMC6480944 fatcat:2fcmxszmnnfx3f7zxnls2tvndi

Functional brain connectivity phenotypes for schizophrenia drug discovery

Neil Dawson, Brian J Morris, Judith A Pratt, Judith Pratt
2015 Journal of Psychopharmacology  
Here we highlight recent findings of altered functional brain connectivity in preclinical rodent models and consider their relevance to those alterations seen in the brains of schizophrenia patients.  ...  Human brain imaging and electrophysiological studies have provided dramatic new insight into the mechanisms of brain dysfunction in the disease, with a swathe of recent studies highlighting the differences  ...  This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.  ... 
doi:10.1177/0269881114563635 pmid:25567554 fatcat:aqwjryekd5ffjbotahdwxjer3a

Evidence for cerebello-thalamo-cortical hyperconnectivity as a heritable trait for schizophrenia

Hengyi Cao, Martin Ingvar, Christina M. Hultman, Tyrone Cannon
2019 Translational Psychiatry  
The structural equation modeling analysis revealed a heritability estimate of 0.52 for the CTC connectivity, suggesting a moderately strong genetic effect.  ...  to schizophrenia and the connectivity strength in the CTC circuitry (i.e., schizophrenia MZ cotwins > schizophrenia DZ cotwins > control twins, P = 0.045).  ...  males), each assessed with a battery of two fMRI paradigms (working memory, emotional processing).  ... 
doi:10.1038/s41398-019-0531-5 pmid:31431615 pmcid:PMC6702223 fatcat:fvnv7kefybfhvopjspesatpai4

Model-based dynamical analysis of functional disconnection in schizophrenia

Mihály Bányai, Vaibhav A. Diwadkar, Péter Érdi
2011 NeuroImage  
To investigate this question, we collected fMRI data from a group of stable schizophrenia patients and controls performing an object-location associative learning task in which the learning performance  ...  Hypotheses on differences in effective connectivity between groups were tested by comparing estimates of neural coupling parameters in winning model structures.  ...  Murphy and P. Pruitt for assistance with data collection, M. S. Keshavan and R. Marciano for assistance in subject recruitment and characterization and S. B.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.06.046 pmid:21726653 pmcid:PMC3221737 fatcat:2bwyq2zw25bdfpepv36lgdjweq
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