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Purpose: We aimed to investigate the utility of sympathetic skin response (SSR) test for evaluating vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (ED) which is the most common type of impotence. Materials and Methods: Men in the age group of 28 to 60 years and suffering from vasculogenic ED, as confirmed by a papaverin test and color Doppler sonography, at least for 6 months referred from our university urology department were included. We used the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) fordoi:10.5534/wjmh.2014.32.1.36 pmid:24872950 pmcid:PMC4026232 fatcat:7g5z2qp4l5cednqevzas7ehg4u
more »... ng severity of dysfunction and recorded the SSR of every patient from the median, tibial, and dorsal nerves of the penis. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), independent t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used for comparing quantitative variables, and Fisher's Exact test was used for comparing qualitative variables. The Mann-Whitney U Test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were performed for analysis of data that were not normally distributed. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Forty-two patients were recruited for the study. We found a strong statistical relationship between the IIEF score and the pathologic SSR registered from every mentioned nerve. Patients with abnormal SSR had more severe ED according to IIEF score (p<0.001). In addition, the IIEF score had a significantcorrelation with diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (t-test; p <0.05). Conclusions: Our results confirmed the presence of autonomic dysfunction in patients with vasculogenic impotence via an SSR test. We suggest evaluating the efficacy of the SSR test in patients with vascular impotence for treatment response monitoring in future studies.
Author Contributions Conceptualization: Eli Pollock, Mehrdad Jazayeri. ...doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008128 pmid:32785228 fatcat:de7agzoebbea5pjks5skfqhiea
Neural Network Model Predictive Control (NN-MPC) combines reliable prediction of neural network with excellent performance of model predictive control using nonlinear Levenberg-Marquardt optimization. It is shown that this structure is prone to steady-state error when external disturbances enter or actual system varies from its model. In this paper, these model uncertainties are taken into account using a disturbance model with iterative learning which adaptively change the learning rate todoi:10.3182/20080706-5-kr-1001.00596 fatcat:gzaizzl63ncwthpdpdljmfadoa
more »... t gradual effect of the model mismatch differently from the drastic changes of external disturbance. Then, a high-pass filter on error signal is designed to distinguish disturbances from model mismatches. Practical implementation results as well as simulation results demonstrate good performance of the proposed control method.
Physical Review D
In this work we study the imprints of a primordial cosmic string on inflationary power spectrum. Cosmic string induces two distinct contributions on curvature perturbations power spectrum. The first type of correction respects the translation invariance while violating isotropy. This generates quadrupolar statistical anisotropy in CMB maps which is constrained by the Planck data. The second contribution breaks both homogeneity and isotropy, generating a dipolar power asymmetry in variance ofdoi:10.1103/physrevd.96.023512 fatcat:wr25zt26bfbyln3fch36sdqtr4
more »... perature fluctuations with its amplitude falling on small scales. We show that the strongest constraint on the tension of string is obtained from the quadrupolar anisotropy and argue that the mass scale of underlying theory responsible for the formation of string can not be much higher than the GUT scale. The predictions of string for the diagonal and off-diagonal components of CMB angular power spectrum are presented.
Personality traits play a vital role in the quality of interpersonal relationships and family life. This study investigated the development of avoidant personality from childhood to adulthood and the marital interaction pathology of the men with avoidant personality disorder from their wives' perspectives.The development of this personality style was studied through studying related resources. To study the personality traits of these men in marital interactions semi-structured interviews weredoi:10.22054/jpe.2016.7373 doaj:d84780c9abb541808113eed7a3f5cc05 fatcat:vf6tvlo2yrhxdcxgbzkjghk2oe
more »... nducted with 9 women whose husbands had avoidant personality traits and who were selected by purposeful sampling. In analyzing data using thematic analysis, 14 characteristics were obtained which showed these men's characteristics in marital interactions. They included "withdrawal, insight without pondering, self-centeredness, poor self-concept, social phobia, talking inactivity, emotionally cold homes, behavioral passivity, sexual passivity, change aversion, marital burnout, compulsive perfectionism, passive-aggressive, sociable appearance". Since avoidant personality characteristics are both harmful to self and others, identifying and preventing the development of the disorder in children will promote the quality of interpersonal relationships and family life.
The research is looking into the study and comparison between personality traits and coping strategies and their relationship with one another among opium addicts within the age of 30-36. For this purpose, a research group comprising 50 opium addicts was selected with respect to control variables. In order to compare the results, 50 other individuals were selected as a observation group and with regard to control variables both groups were matched together. The five-factor personality traitdoaj:5620ac3fe0824f6495f5df5f91bdc9f7 fatcat:4vj5djmk5vg5fhaksn5qhuwu3u
more »... ntory (NEO-FFI) and the coping strategy inventory of Carver and Shearer were used. Moreover, in order to control the effects of depression and anxiety on personality traits, Beck's test for anxiety and depression was used. The results indicated that without taking the effects of depression and anxiety into account, the addicts showed higher neuroticism trait but lower extraversion, agreeableness and conscientious traits. But when the effects of depression and anxiety were taken into account, the two groups showed a meaningful difference in the conscientious trait. Furthermore, addicts rarely use concentrated coping strategies and usually use non-effective strategies. Non-effective strategies had direct relationship with neuroticism and opposite relationship with conscientiousness.
NASA's Earth Science Data System (ESDS) Program serves as a central cog in order to facilitate the implementation of NASA's Earth Science strategic plan. Since 1994, the ESDS Program has committed to the full and open sharing of Earth science data obtained from NASA instruments to all users. One of the key responsibilities of the ESDS Program is to continuously evolve the entire data and information system to maximize returns on the collected NASA data. An independent review was conducted indoi:10.1109/igarss.2017.8126972 dblp:conf/igarss/RamachandranBMJ17 fatcat:eceshbvwzffvdmpjd5rw26lusy
more »... 5 to holistically review the EOSDIS in order to identify gaps. The review recommendations were to investigate two areas: one, whether commercial cloud providers offer potential for storage, processing, and operational efficiencies, and two, the potential development of new data access and analysis paradigms. In response, ESDS has initiated several prototypes investigating the advantages and risks of leveraging cloud computing. This paper describes one such prototyping activity named Cumulus. Cumulus is being designed and developed as a "native" cloud-based data ingest, archive and management system that can be used for all future NASA Earth science data streams. Cumulus will foster design of new analysis/visualization tools that can leverage collocated data from all of the distributed DAACs as well as elastic cloud computing resources.
Marital interactions are known as one of the most important predictors of marital quality. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of Schema Therapy on interactional pathology of married men with avoidant personality traits. For this purpose, the single case method with multiple baselines design was used. Participants of the study were four married men with avoidant personality traits who were selected by purposeful sampling. Two men received 19 sessions and two others receiveddoi:10.22054/jcps.2018.8318 doaj:8b84bc3caa2349ada2e5a30daadd531e fatcat:jq5c3pht5ffrfm4dvuqxncbndm
more »... 20 sessions of Schema Therapy, and follow-up was performed in a two-month period. To determine the participants' scores in interactional pathology, the researcher-made questionnaire was used. Visual analysis of the data based on the parameters of descriptive statistics and visual analysis showed that Schema Therapy reduced the interactional pathology among married men with avoidant personality traits. Schema Therapy can be used to reduce the interactional pathology and increase marital quality of married men with avoidant personality traits.
Objective: Rehabilitation services employees are exposed to stressors at everyday work because they are in touch with people who disability and problems have associated with. Inappropriate policies and processes in work place aggravate stress and would adversely affect mental and physical health of this population which in turn would affect their quality of work. Materials & Methods: In order to determine the status of inappropriate organizational policies and processes as organizationaldoaj:271ed197676648a597e03a9dfa67d0d5 fatcat:q7pbb3s67fc5laqsni6ngxatwm
more »... rs and related stress intensities in Tehran's comprehensive rehabilitation centers, in a descriptive study all of the personnel were asked to fill a questionnaire which consisted of 32 questions. Content validity was approved by expertise people and reliability was 0.83. Results: Revealed that misevaluation of employees (%98) and using unclear and inappropriate criteria for evaluating personal (%95) were the most prevalent inappropriate organizational policy and process that personnel confronted with. Also we found that exposure to "inequality of payment for similar jobs" and "invalidity of criteria which were used for personnel evaluation", induced highest degree of stress on employees (2.64 from 4 & 1.71from 4 respectively). Conclusion: We conclude that as the most prevalent factor which induced stress in personnel is misevaluation, correction of personnel evaluation system should be over emphasized.
Objective: Some studies have found that schizo – obsessive patients have more deficits in cognitive functions. "Pathophysiological double jeopardy" theory suppose that in schizo – obsessive patients, cognitive impairments of obsessive – compulsive (OC) disorder are added to cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was determining that is there inter – relationship between OC symptoms and executive functions (EF)? If so improvement of EF may result to improvement of OCdoaj:d15182d4a33947f98056fe95918fbf12 fatcat:iijf7uxirzhmjapod4wmr5cuya
more »... mptoms. Materials & Methods: Thus in a exploratory study and by a multi case design with multiple baseline, 4 inpatient with schizo – obsessive diagnosis were treated by cognitive rehabilitation to improve EF. Their clinical and cognitive changes were measured weekly. Results: The results demonstrated that cognitive rehabilitation reduced OC symptoms in at least two patient and improved their performance on EF tests. Furthermore a significant association was observed between the rate of improvement in EF and reduction OC symptoms. Conclusion: The results provide evidence for supporting of inter – relationship of OC symptoms and EF.
↑What is "already known" in this topic: Depression, represent a major concern in obese subjects, however not all obese persons have depressive symptoms. Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype, subjects with favorable lipid profile, and normal insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, may be considered as a possible explanation for these inconsistencies. →What this article adds: In obese subjects, metabolic profile status rather than obesity is associated with risk of depression. Abstractdoi:10.14196/mjiri.32.95 fatcat:qinx2673njenjc6zovbgjan32e
more »... und: Although a growing body of evidence suggests an association between obesity and depressive disorder, the association remains inconclusive. Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype, defined by favorable lipid profile, and normal insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, may be considered as a possible explanation for these inconsistencies. Accordingly, this study aimed to compare depression score among metabolic unhealthy obese (MUO) and age-and sex-matched healthy controls. Methods: In this comparative study including 157 Iranian adults, we assigned participants into three groups (non-obese metabolic healthy group, MHO and MUO) according to the BMI cutoff and MetS criteria. Depressive symptoms were assessed by Beck Depression Inventory. Analysis was done using SPSS version 14.0. All variables are expressed as means± SD. One-way ANOVA and multiple linear regression were used for data analysis. Results: After adjustment for sex, marital status and educational level, MUO participants had significantly higher Beck depression score (p= 0.036) compared to MHO and non-obese metabolic healthy groups. After adjustment for demographic variables, there was a significant association between waist circumference (β = 0.142, p=0.023), BMI (β= 0.347, p= 0.037), FBS (β= 0.096, p< 0.001), and the number of MetS components (β= 1.71, p= 0.002) with depression score. Conclusion: MHO was a benign phenotype in relation to depression.
There is a growing trend in ultrasound use in interventional pain management. Recently, the ease of use and clinical benefits of lumbar medial branch nerve block under ultrasound guidance have been identified. Objectives: In this study, we assessed the relevant anatomy and sonoanatomy of these specific interventional techniques. We also evaluated the feasibility and success rates of ultrasound guided lumbar medial branch nerve block. Patients and Methods: Thirty patients with facet joint paindoi:10.5812/iranjradiol.28297 fatcat:5z4xnjannnhuxcix253eymzsny
more »... o were referred to the Akhtar hospital pain clinics between 2011 and 2012 were evaluated. Eighty-nine ultrasound-guided lumbar medial branch nerve blocks were performed. The target point for the lumbar nerve block was the cephalad margin of the transverse process groove in the vicinity of the superior articular process. Carm fluoroscopy was performed to confirm the needle location. Pain levels were measured by a visual analog scale (0 -10 scale), the Oswestry disability index (0 -5 scale), and patient satisfaction scores (0 -3 scale). The patients were followed for 6 weeks. Results: The success rate was 98% (87/89 blocks), which was due to our use of ultrasound guided needle placement for the correct positioning of the needles. The mean procedural time was 5.9 ± 1 minutes. The average time of needle insertion was 4 ± 1 minutes. The pain intensity significantly improved from an initial value of 5 to 2.8 in the final follow-up (P = 0.0001). The oswestry disability index score significantly improved from 33.9 to 18.3 in the final follow-up (P = 0.0001). Patient satisfaction significantly improved from poor satisfaction immediately after the medial branch nerve block to excellent satisfaction in the final follow-up (P = 0. 0001). Analgesic requirements were also significantly reduced after 6 weeks of follow-up (P = 0.046). Conclusion: Lumbar medial branch nerve block under ultrasound guidance was associated with high rates of treatment success and excellent treatment outcomes for facet joint pain. It is also feasible and administers no radiation. Thus, ultrasound-guided procedures can be used instead of conventional methods.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genetic and protein variations have been observed in chronic patients frequently. However, their role in the pathogenesis of chronicity has not been explored yet. Objectives: The aims of this study were to determine the genotypes as well as the patterns of variations distribution in chronically infected patients from the north western part of Iran. Materials and Methods: The surface genes from 17 chronic carriers were amplified, sequenced and subsequently aligned usingdoi:10.5812/jjm.6570 fatcat:zmeaajopejg6dlu4hq7agyjjbq
more »... ternational and national Iranian database. Results: All strains belonged to genotype D, subgenotype D1 and subtype ayw2. Of all 56 "mutations" that occurred at 37 nucleotide positions, 25 (44.6%) were missense (amino acid altering) and 31 (55.4%) were silent (no amino acid changing) (S/M ratio: 1.2). At the amino acid level, 21 (91.3%) out of 23 amino acid mutations occurred in different immune epitopes within the surface proteins, of which 3 (14.3%) occurred in B cell, 8 (38%) in T helper and 10 (47.7%) inside CTL epitopes. In general, the association between amino acid mutations and especially, immune epitope substitutions was more significant in terms of HBeAg status than ALT levels in patients. Conclusions: The distribution of amino acid mutations as well as the ratio between missense and silent nucleotide mutations (dN/dS) showed that a narrowly focused immune pressure had already been on the surface protein (especially CTL epitopes) which led to the emergence of escape mutants in these patients who were in tolerance phase of chronicity. Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education: HBV mutational studies have confirmed their implications on the route of transmission, potential pathogenesis and treatment decision.
The SARS-CoV-2 virus has been rapidly spreading globally since December 2019, triggering a pandemic, soon after its emergence, with now more than one million deaths around the world. While Iran was among the first countries confronted with rapid spread of virus in February, no real-time SARS-CoV-2 whole-genome tracking is performed in the country. To address this issue, we provided 50 whole-genome sequences of viral isolates ascertained from different geographical locations in Iran duringdoi:10.1101/2020.11.16.20229047 fatcat:iak63rdmcjaz3ishxm262gks5e
more »... July 2020. The corresponding analysis on origins, transmission dynamics and genetic diversity, represented at least two introductions of the virus into the country, constructing two major clusters defined as B.4 and B.1*. The first entry of the virus occurred around 26 December 2019, as suggested by the time to the most recent common ancestor, followed by a rapid community transmission, led to dominancy of B.4 lineage in early epidemic till the end of June. Gradually, reduction in dominancy of B.4 occurred possibly as a result of other entries of the virus, followed by surge of B.1.* lineages, as of mid-May. Remarkably, variation tracking of the virus indicated the increase in frequency of D614G mutation, along with B.1* lineages, which showed continuity till October 2020. According to possible role of D614G in increased infectivity and transmission of the virus, and considering the current high prevalence of the disease, dominancy of this lineage may push the country into a critical health situation. Therefore, current data warns for considering stronger prohibition strategies preventing the incidence of larger crisis in future.
Purpose: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) appear important in tumor growth. In this study, we have investigated the effect of copper reduction along with gamma knife radiosurgery on IL-8 and VEGF in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Materials and Methods: In a 3-month randomized clinical trial, patients with recurrent GBM were allocated randomly between intervention and placebo groups. Radiosurgery was performed for both groups (Referencedoi:10.22034/apjcp.2017.18.7.1999 pmid:28749642 pmcid:PMC5648411 fatcat:f46rfgqmkngy7lzm23ee3ci7bq
more »... se: 16-18 Gray, in one fraction). The intervention group received low copper diet and penicillamine while the patients in the placebo group continued with their usual diet. VEGF and IL-8 were measured at baseline and the end of intervention. Results: VEGF in intervention group significantly reduced compared to placebo group (Mean ± SD, 4.5±1.91 vs. 7.8±3.21; P<0.001). IL-8 in intervention group decreased compared to placebo group but not significant (2.7±1.91 vs. 3.2±3.20; P=0.49). We also detected a significant positive correlation between serum copper and VEGF (r=0.57; P<0.05) and a negative correlation between KPS and serum copper. Discussion: Our results could reflect that low copper diet and penicillamine may decrease serum VEGF in patients who underwent gamma knife radiosurgery for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme.
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