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Algorithmic Monoculture and Social Welfare [article]

Jon Kleinberg, Manish Raghavan
2021 arXiv   pre-print
As algorithms are increasingly applied to screen applicants for high-stakes decisions in employment, lending, and other domains, concerns have been raised about the effects of algorithmic monoculture,  ...  Here we show that the dangers of algorithmic monoculture run much deeper, in that monocultural convergence on a single algorithm by a group of decision-making agents, even when the algorithm is more accurate  ...  This work has been supported in part by a Simons Investigator Award, a Vannevar Bush Faculty Fellowship, a MURI grant, an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship, and grants from the ARO, AFOSR, and the MacArthur  ... 
arXiv:2101.05853v2 fatcat:aed4cyo3wnfuxlselccuzx5aeq

Algorithmic monoculture and social welfare

Jon Kleinberg, Manish Raghavan
2021 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America  
As algorithms are increasingly applied to screen applicants for high-stakes decisions in employment, lending, and other domains, concerns have been raised about the effects of algorithmic monoculture,  ...  Here, we show that the dangers of algorithmic monoculture run much deeper, in that monocultural convergence on a single algorithm by a group of decision-making agents, even when the algorithm is more accurate  ...  Kleinberg and RaghavanAlgorithmic monoculture and social welfare PNAS | 3 of 7 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2018340118 Fig. 2 . 2 Fig. 2.  ... 
doi:10.1073/pnas.2018340118 pmid:34035166 pmcid:PMC8179131 fatcat:ydz263fcpbhtrdbf6m4bwkyane

Dichotomy between urban and rural areas: statistical data may not reveal the synergy between these two existing spaces

Washington Pereira Campos, Marina Aparecida Da Silveira, Márcio Caliari, Alcido Elenor Wander
2017 Revista Ibero-Americana de Ciências Ambientais  
or monoculture.  ...  Thus, it is relevant to point out and discuss ways to provide consistent statistical data and be, in fact, able to demonstrate the local reality of a region within the welfare actors.  ...  and hence welfare.  ... 
doi:10.6008/spc2179-6858.2017.002.0015 fatcat:ntjwlqf32zdpldxp55lyg24lie

A learning agent that acquires social norms from public sanctions in decentralized multi-agent settings [article]

Eugene Vinitsky, Raphael Köster, John P. Agapiou, Edgar Duéñez-Guzmán, Alexander Sasha Vezhnevets, Joel Z. Leibo
2021 arXiv   pre-print
We show that social norms emerge in multi-agent systems containing this agent and investigate the conditions under which this helps them achieve socially beneficial outcomes.  ...  Society is characterized by the presence of a variety of social norms: collective patterns of sanctioning that can prevent miscoordination and free-riding.  ...  Architecture and Algorithmic Details A.1.  ... 
arXiv:2106.09012v4 fatcat:q2rtyqkaf5egvnrbi6gkexetum

Ecological and socio-economic functions across tropical land use systems after rainforest conversion

Jochen Drescher, Katja Rembold, Kara Allen, Philip Beckschäfer, Damayanti Buchori, Yann Clough, Heiko Faust, Anas M. Fauzi, Dodo Gunawan, Dietrich Hertel, Bambang Irawan, I. Nengah S. Jaya (+21 others)
2016 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences  
We also thank our colleagues from the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) and the smallholders and families participating in the village/household surveys and core plot design.  ...  We thank the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education (RISTEKDIKTI) for research permission in Indonesia.  ...  Agricultural expansion for the production of food, feed, fibre and fuel has generated fundamental benefits for human welfare (e.g. [6] ) but comes with a variety of costs [7, 8] .  ... 
doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0275 pmid:27114577 pmcid:PMC4843696 fatcat:4wgmpplomreipnbogy4exbh3mu

Biodiversity in rubber agroforests, carbon emissions, and rural livelihoods: An agent-based model of land-use dynamics in lowland Sumatra

Grace B. Villamor, Quang Bao Le, Utkur Djanibekov, Meine van Noordwijk, Paul L.G. Vlek
2014 Environmental Modelling & Software  
Payments for ecosystem services (PES) PES conditionality Land-use/cover change a b s t r a c t Rubber agroforests in the mostly deforested lowlands of Sumatra, Indonesia are threatened by conversion into monoculture  ...  We compared a PES policy scenario to 'business-as-usual' and 'subsidized land use change' scenarios to explore potential trade-offs between ecosystem services delivery and rural income.  ...  Acknowledgments We are grateful for the financial assistance from the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2014.07.013 fatcat:dly4v3lr4zg6doze4elzjn664a

Trade-offs between multifunctionality and profit in tropical smallholder landscapes

Ingo Grass, Christoph Kubitza, Vijesh V. Krishna, Marife D. Corre, Oliver Mußhoff, Peter Pütz, Jochen Drescher, Katja Rembold, Eka Sulpin Ariyanti, Andrew D. Barnes, Nicole Brinkmann, Ulrich Brose (+29 others)
2020 Nature Communications  
We find widespread biodiversity-profit trade-offs resulting from land-use transitions from forest and agroforestry systems to rubber and oil palm monocultures, for 26,894 aboveground and belowground species  ...  Here, we present an interdisciplinary study of the environmental, social and economic consequences of land-use transitions in a tropical smallholder landscape on Sumatra, Indonesia.  ...  Acknowledgements We thank the village leaders, respondents, farmers, PT REKI and Bukit Duabelas National Park for granting us access to sites and information, and Ristekdikti for the research permits.  ... 
doi:10.1038/s41467-020-15013-5 pmid:32132531 pmcid:PMC7055322 fatcat:nvjopr4povednna4ifl7g735n4

IMPAQT handbook [article]

IMPAQT Project
2021 Zenodo  
The publication presents the results of the project, developed between May 2018 and August 2021.  ...  IMPAQT has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 774109. Edited by Fundación Empresa Universidad Gallega (FEUGA)  ...  algorithms.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.5783598 fatcat:ux3ooum7s5egzfbacwpekmcaie

Is Urban Gaming Simulation Useful?

Arnaldo Cecchini, Paola Rizzi
2001 Simulation & Gaming  
This applies specially to urban sciences, which must take into account the social and the spatial (physical) dimensions.  ...  that had proved so successful at the so-called court of the queen of science might also be successful in the drawing rooms of the social and behavioral sciences.  ...  to control and limit the pressure of the city on its environment, and on the other side, the loss of social functions and diversity and the full and uncontrolled domination of tourism as a type of monoculture  ... 
doi:10.1177/104687810103200407 fatcat:z47xph4ggbf2jk5qnuvrjplrpe

Modeling the Economics of Biodiversity and Environmental Heterogeneity

William Brock, Ann Kinzig, Charles Perrings
2009 Environmental and Resource Economics  
In some cases, monoculture production for example, land conversion reduces the number niches and hence the level of biodiversity. In other cases, it has the opposite effect.  ...  It has long been recognized that major drivers of biodiversity loss include both the harvest of wild species and the conversion of habitat for productive purposes.  ...  If e(L) = e(0) is a constant function, the social welfare optimum L * = arg max U (h(L; 0), 1 − L) (18) is the same as L * in (17).  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10640-009-9333-1 fatcat:hu3meyb5yfgdxnmaaqlbsgts5m

GEO BIG DATA AND DIGITAL AUGMENTATION FOR ACCELERATING AGROECOLOGICAL INTENSIFICATION IN DRYLANDS

C. M. Biradar, S. Ghosh, F. Löw, R. Singh, P. Chandna, A. Sarker, R. N. Sahoo, N. Swain, G. Choudhury, S. Agrawal, N. Rizvi, K. El-shamaa (+4 others)
2019 The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences  
CCP) along with smartphone-enabled Citizen Science (CS) increasingly make Big-Data analytics much smarter, interoperable and much useful than ever before, and create valuable baseline information for decision  ...  Ongoing efforts in big-data driven digital augmentation aim at quantifying functional production dynamics and drivers to target site-specific sustainable developmental interventions and scaling the ecological  ...  We also thank the IFAD and Governments of the West Bengal and Odisha for supporting field trips and also thank field team and partners.  ... 
doi:10.5194/isprs-archives-xlii-3-w6-545-2019 fatcat:vnjnvegxnnatlnw2oqnnzkwz4q

The concept of perfect competition as the law of economics: addressing the homonymy problem

Oles Andriychuk
2020 Northern Ireland Legal Quarterly  
In other words, the fact that welfare economics reduces the social interests to cost–benefit calculus does not automatically characterise it as being irresponsive to the social embeddedness problem.  ...  This feature of economics is embedded in its epistemology and should not be perceived as its normative claim.  ...  it as a mere means to welfare.  ... 
doi:10.53386/nilq.v62i4.434 fatcat:6u2a4ysn45azrfyx7rmqx7dhcq

Combining remote sensing and economic analysis to support decisions that affect water productivity

P. J. G. J. Hellegers, R. Soppe, C. J. Perry, W. G. M. Bastiaanssen
2008 Irrigation science  
In the technical part, the variability in crop water productivity (CWP) is analyzed on the basis of actual water consumption and associated biomass production using the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm  ...  This generates input for the socio-economic analysis, which aims to quantify the foregone economic water productivity (EWP) of policy decisions to allocate water in a social optimal way.  ...  So, from a social welfare point of view, water is allocated in an optimal way, but not from a technical and economic point of view.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00271-008-0139-7 fatcat:ph7essk4cbebhh255d5j5hekee

Ecological Evaluation of Economic Evaluation of Environmental Quality

Alexander Chervinski
2014 Procedia Economics and Finance  
the problem of optimization of social and natural cannot be reduced to optimize the quality of natural objects only by improving their economic performance.  ...  valuable natural resources , and their system (bio-and geo-technological) status in the Biosphere complex.  ...  The social use rationalization, with the optimization of the human impact on the natural environment, has significant reserves for improving welfare and sustainable development.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s2212-5671(14)00075-6 fatcat:6dgnrqbjfvckjgsamuj24tzuva

Feeding people is easy: but we have to re-think the world from first principles

Colin Tudge
2005 Public Health Nutrition  
Thus it would solve the world's food problems, and its principal social problem, at a stroke.  ...  Objective: Agriculture designed to make best use of landscape and to be maximally sustainable would also provide food of the highest nutritional and gastronomic standards, and would inevitably employ a  ...  But the 1% of Britain and the USA is obviously too low, responsible for many social and environmental horrors.  ... 
doi:10.1079/phn2005770 pmid:16236206 fatcat:24ellwehrncwpl3bhyfr67cd2e
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