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Gage MPC: Bypassing Residual Function Leakage for Non-Interactive MPC

Ghada Almashaqbeh, Fabrice Benhamouda, Seungwook Han, Daniel Jaroslawicz, Tal Malkin, Alex Nicita, Tal Rabin, Abhishek Shah, Eran Tromer
2021 Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies  
Existing models for non-interactive MPC cannot provide full privacy for inputs, because they inherently leak the residual function (i.e., the output of the function on the honest parties' input together with all possible values of the adversarial inputs). For example, in any non-interactive sealed-bid auction, the last bidder can figure out what was the highest previous bid. We present a new MPC model which avoids this privacy leak. To achieve this, we utilize a blockchain in a novel way,
more » ... orating smart contracts and arbitrary parties that can be incentivized to perform computation ("bounty hunters," akin to miners). Security is maintained under a monetary assumption about the parties: an honest party can temporarily supply a recoverable collateral of value higher than the computational cost an adversary can expend. We thus construct non-interactive MPC protocols with strong security guarantees (full security, no residual leakage) in the short term. Over time, as the adversary can invest more and more computational resources, the security guarantee decays. Thus, our model, which we call Gage MPC, is suitable for secure computation with limited-time secrecy, such as auctions. A key ingredient in our protocols is a primitive we call "Gage Time Capsules" (GaTC): a time capsule that allows a party to commit to a value that others are able to reveal but only at a designated computational cost. A GaTC allows a party to commit to a value together with a monetary collateral. If the original party properly opens the GaTC, it can recover the collateral. Otherwise, the collateral is used to incentivize bounty hunters to open the GaTC. This primitive is used to ensure completion of Gage MPC protocols on the desired inputs. As a requisite tool (of independent interest), we present a generalization of garbled circuit that are more robust: they can tolerate exposure of extra input labels. This is in contrast to Yao's garbled circuits, whose secrecy breaks down if even a single extra label is exposed. Finally, we present a proof-of-concept implementation of a special case of our construction, yielding an auction functionality over an Ethereum-like blockchain.
doi:10.2478/popets-2021-0083 fatcat:254qdv2535aihjyr66m6qsyqom

Representation and Power in International Organization: The Operational Constitution and Its Critics

Jacob Katz Cogan
2009 American Journal of International Law  
Winkler, Nicita Climate Change and the WTO: EU Emission Trading and the WTO Disciplines on Trade in Goods, Services and Investment Protection Vranes Corruption and the WTO Legal System Nadakavukaren Schefer  ...  Luan Xinjie and Julien Chaisse Resource Nationalism and the Changing Business Model for Global Oil Foreign Investment in a Post-Conflict Environment Rahim Moloo and Alex Khachaturian What Should Be China's  ... 
doi:10.2307/20535148 fatcat:ul67ldfoxvdkdkd7m3uoimkgym

Appropriating signs and meaning: the elusive economics of trademark

Giovanni B. Ramello, Francesco Silva
2006 Industrial and Corporate Change  
Trademarks, as Judge Alex Kozinsky observes (in Beebe, 2004, p. 657) have "begun to leap out of their role as source-identifiers and, in certain instances, have effectively become goods in their own  ...  situations of this type have led to the concentration of markets in various industry sectors (OECD, 1998) , ultimately resulting in monopolies, as in the pay-Tv sector of several European countries (Nicita  ... 
doi:10.1093/icc/dtl027 fatcat:zjy7qboplvgbzofa7jszz52ynm

Appropriating Signs and Meaning: The Elusive Economics of Trademark

Giovanni Battista Ramello, Francesco Silva
2006 Social Science Research Network  
Trademarks, as Judge Alex Kozinsky observes (in Beebe, 2004, p. 657) have "begun to leap out of their role as source-identifiers and, in certain instances, have effectively become goods in their own  ...  situations of this type have led to the concentration of markets in various industry sectors (OECD, 1998) , ultimately resulting in monopolies, as in the pay-Tv sector of several European countries (Nicita  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.936653 fatcat:yd6uaqsxjneaxfifpc7goejuxi

How Bright are the Prospects for UK Trade and Prosperity Post-Brexit?

David P. Blake
2018 Social Science Research Network  
Within nine minutes of Selmayr's appointment, the incumbent secretary-general, Alexander Italianer, resigned and Selmayr was promoted to secretary-general, while 35 Alex Barker, Michael Peel and James  ...  There are also non-tariff barriers: Kee and Nicita (2017) non-tariff barriers at 6.8% just over half the 12% fall in the sterling exchange rate against the euro that followed the Referendum.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.3183019 fatcat:k6n5drkrdra67lsrhapyp7wfuy

Trade Estimates [chapter]

Alex Cobham, Petr Janský
2020 Estimating Illicit Financial Flows  
Kee & Nicita (2016) find that exporters or products that have higher ad valorem equivalents of non-tariff measures tend to have larger trade discrepancies, suggesting firms mis-declare product codes or  ...  trade restrictions (a misclassification of products or a misdeclaration of the final destination of a shipment) or to avoid product taxes-Fisman & Wei (2009), Kellenberg & Levinson (2016), Kee & Nicita  ... 
doi:10.1093/oso/9780198854418.003.0003 fatcat:em6cmdibqbgelf4mn6suwbyl2y

Language Segmentation [article]

David Alfter
2015 arXiv   pre-print
Inclusion detection Beatrice Alex (cf. Alex (2005 Alex ( , 2006 ; ; Alex and Onysko (2010) ) addresses the problem of English inclusions in mainly non-English texts.  ...  Alex is mainly concerned with the improvement of parsing results by inclusion detection.  ... 
arXiv:1510.01717v1 fatcat:kzx6c3evfvg67jdbqhboaqfag4

Oil and Unbalanced Globalization

Erik Voeten, Michael L. Ross
2013 Social Science Research Network  
To compare import barriers to export barriers, we use cross-national data developed by Kee, Nicita, and Olarreaga (2009) on "overall trade restrictiveness," based on a weighted measure of the tariff  ...  willing to guarantee the property rights of foreign investors (one of our outcomes), it could hurt the economy and hence the reduce the amount of oil that is consumed domestically. 21 We are grateful to Alex  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.1900226 fatcat:mssn4koagvdl5ieggqd5hibese

Jefferson Meets Coase: Land-Use Torts, Law and Economics, and Natural Property Rights

Eric R. Claeys
2008 Social Science Research Network  
See, e.g., Antonio Nicita et al., Towards an Incomplete Theory of Property Rights 16 (May 2007) (unpublished manuscript), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1067466.  ...  (alteration in original) (internal quotation marks omitted). 54 On this last possibility, see Gideon Parchomovsky & Alex Stein, Reconceptualiz- ing Trespass, 103 NW. U. L.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.1117999 fatcat:5zb55pdcezh2lp7vps5xoud2fu

Shaping policy for development Regional infrastructure for trade facilitation-impact on growth and poverty reduction A literature survey The overall project has also benefited from discussions with

Marie-Agnès Jouanjean, Marie Gachassin, Dirk Willem Te Velde, Judith Tyson, Yurendra Basnett, Alberto Lemma, Andrew Scott, Catherine Simonet, Tom Wagstaff, Phil Outram, Gael Raballand, Charles Kunaka (+13 others)
unpublished
Nicita (2009) finds that this same effect explained why the impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on households' welfare in Mexico was more pronounced in regions bordering the US.  ...  the importance of the 'logistics markets' to complement hard infrastructure projects in alleviating constraints and increasing incentives to trade, in particular for developing countries (Hoekman and Nicita  ... 
fatcat:mtjwau5tfbb3npi7nzerwkbn5m

Environmental Protection in the Information Age

Daniel C. Esty
2003 Social Science Research Network  
Maxwell, "Voluntary" Approaches to Environmental Regulation: A Survey, in ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY (Maurizio Franzini & Antonio Nicita eds., 2002) (describing 33/50 program); see  ...  F., May/June 2000, at 45, 46 (noting that remote satellite sensing will enable "identification with pinpoint accuracy of all emission discharges"); Alex de Sherbinin et al., Remote Sensing Data: Valuable  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.429580 fatcat:3dbemjen5ffkpcjct6e24rwxua

Le grand malentendu L'idée de libre-échange en France

Antoine Bouët
unpublished
Nicita et M. Olarreaga, "Estimating Trade Restrictiveness Indices", World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3840, février 2006.  ...  Figure 3 3 donne un classement de 91 pays, riches et pauvres, d'après un travail original de Hiau Looi Kee, Alessandro Nicita et Marcelo Olarreaga 73 .  ... 
fatcat:oeozjnmvyfhhldepir5a6iisa4

Il marcio del calcio italiano

Eva Stecher
2009 unpublished
Il Milan di Berlusconi sembra essere l'esempio paradigmatico per l'illustrazione di questo fenomeno.26 Nicita.  ...  (Di Corrado 2008: 41) Comunque, è interessante che in Inghilterra il fatto che un allenatore (infatti Sir Alex Ferguson) sia socio del suo figlio che ha un'agenzia che si occupa dell'intermediazione di  ... 
doi:10.25365/thesis.8131 fatcat:2donpsye3bhwfbrsxjetyyffwq

No experiments: federal privatisation politics in West Germany 1949-1989

Katja Fuder, Albrecht Ritschl, Oliver Volckart
2017
Belloc, Nicita, and Sepe (2014) disentangle the two policies.  ...  The Ministry of the Treasury was abolished in the aftermath of the elections and the Ministry of Finance under Alex Möller (SPD) regained the leading role for industrial shareholdings.  ... 
doi:10.21953/lse.mtje1qb7msm0 fatcat:4koe4hs5y5an5b2w6n5szhkjxq

NUOVI SCENARI DI RISCHIO E MISURE USER-CENTRIC PER LA PROTEZIONE DEI DATI PERSONALI

Presentata, Dott Ssa, Daniela Prestipino, Coordinatore Dottorato, Relatore Prof, Sartor, Rebecca Ssa, Montanari
unpublished
(2014) Fonte: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/aug/03/internet-death-privacy-google-facebook-alex-preston HOANCA B., If Privacy Is Dead, What Can We Do Instead?  ...  addio-legge-di-moore-i-chip-dei-computer-non-corrono-pi-comeuna-volta-TSPv1TZAjuq7iy4t13bM5K/pagina.html (13 Febbraio 2017)In argomento la fonte è consultabile su: Capitalismo digitale, ecco le nuove sfide di Anotonio Nicita  ... 
fatcat:v427hd76vra4pg4adlvjd5bave
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