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The increased importance of open science in the European Commission research policy makes it important to understand and analyse the development of the field. The Open Science Monitor of the European Commission is being developed to meet this need (European Commission 2017). In 2016, the authors conducted the first large-scale explorative survey of the European citizen science landscape to help establish a baseline for the monitor. The survey focused on five major areas of interest, includingdoi:10.2307/j.ctv550cf2.20 fatcat:zztftvyqpjg55hyf7hiehxjuvm
more »... e types of citizen science projects being undertaken, their perceived impact and added value, challenges, current funding schemes for citizen science, and project outcomes. Data was collected through an online survey in October and November 2016, predominantly with closed question formats to facilitate participant response and to cover as many projects as possible. This provided reliable and quantifiable basic information about different citizen science projects across Europe. The data is available upon request. This snapshot covers the main findings. Geographical scale of projects The survey attracted responses from 174 co-ordinators of citizen science projects. Most of the respondents are either from Central (40 per cent) or Western Europe (32 per cent), with only a few respondents from Southern
Citizen science can increase social licence for conservation. With decreasing trust in government, active and meaningful public engagement in science and data collection is needed to foster informed and publically-accepted natural resource management. Citizen science presents a valuable avenue to achieve such engagement, in addition to other benefits. Citizen science is a partnership between scientists and the public to address scientific questions of common interest or often, concern, and todoi:10.1101/266692 fatcat:nwvxa6pxjjbojjggjkgu2654ce
more »... llect, analyse, publish and communicate data for science. This study explores whether citizen science can also play a role in generating social licence, using European marine citizen science as a case study. To date, social licence in the marine space has largely focused on industry and extractive uses of the marine environment. However, much could be gained in exploring social licence for non-extractive uses including marine conservation and the best means to engage the public to support these efforts. Here, we use in-depth semi-quantitative interviews and online surveys to demonstrate how citizen science may play a role in enhancing social licence and the mechanisms through which this can occur. Our research suggests that citizen science can engage and inform the public about science and the marine environment and can enhance the flow and exchange of information between society, science and marine management. Citizen science may have considerable potential to generate and develop social licence for marine conservation in Europe and elsewhere.
org/10.1126/science.1251554 Hecker, S, Garbe, L and Bonn, A. 2018. The European citizen science landscape -a snapshot. In: Hecker, S et al (eds.) ... CS to enhan- ce individual learning Bela, G, J, Kelemen, E, Kopperoinen, L, Van Herzele, A, Keune, H, Hecker, S, Suskevics, M, Roy, HE, Itkonen, P, Kulvik, M, Laszlo, M, Basnou, C, Pino, J and Bonn ...doi:10.5281/zenodo.4439688 fatcat:p46lip5vsjctxaixybt46jinni
Next steps ideally include translation into action plans by the different interest groups (Bonn et al. 2016). ... The development of the Citizen Science Strategy 2020 for Germany was the central strategic policy instrument of the GEWISS programme (Bonn et al. 2016) . ...doi:10.2307/j.ctv550cf2.26 fatcat:lm5mkhaoojgvlof35hpw2r6dpm
Declarations Conflict of Interest Melissa Marselle, Sarah Lindley, Penny Cook, and Aletta Bonn declare that they have no conflict of interest. ...doi:10.1007/s40572-021-00313-9 pmid:33982150 fatcat:cdm7ak6q4zhhdfmxubc2kdl7ya
Equally cross-cutting, Susanne Hecker, Nina Wicke, Mordechai Haklay, and Aletta Bonn analyze the use of the term "citizen science" in international policy documents in their article How Does Policy Conceptualise ...doi:10.5334/cstp.293 doaj:efd7cba6d9254c07be713e4e786b03bf fatcat:u6ymamks6zfqpdvq2tkvxxpvdq
Based on plant occurrence data covering all parts of Germany, we investigated changes in the distribution of 2136 plant species between 1960 and 2017. We analyzed 29 million occurrence records over an area of approx. 350.000 km^2 on a 5 x 5 km grid using temporal and spatio-temporal models and accounting for sampling bias. Since the 1960s, more than 70% of investigated plant species showed significant declines in nation-wide occurrence. Archaeophytes (species introduced before 1492) mostdoi:10.1101/2020.08.31.275461 fatcat:ejuptx43ivhoroavam6mmttiaa
more »... y declined but also native plant species experienced severe declines. In contrast, neophytes (species introduced after 1492) increased in their nation-wide occurrence but not homogeneously throughout the country. Our analysis suggests that the strongest declines in native species already happened in the 1960s-80s, a time frame in which usually few data exist. Increases in neophytic species were strongest in the 1990s and 2010s. Overall, the increase in neophytes did not compensate for the loss of other species, resulting in a decrease in mean grid-cell species-richness of -1.9% per decade. The decline in plant biodiversity is a widespread phenomenon occurring in different habitats and geographic regions. It is likely that this decline has major repercussions on ecosystem functioning and overall biodiversity, potentially with cascading effects across trophic levels. The approach used in this study is transferable to large-scale trend analyses using heterogeneous occurrence data.
1998; Cabeza and Moilanen 2001) , or, recently, on finding appropriate areas that maximise probabilities of species persistence (Rodrigues et al. 2000; Williams and Araujo 2000; Araujo et al. 2002; Bonn ...doi:10.1007/s10531-004-8410-6 fatcat:ofd3vqdaefd4jbitqo5lpc3uru
Large amounts of species occurrence data are compiled by platforms such as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) but these data are collected by a diversity of methods and people. Statistical tools, such as occupancy-detection models, have been developed and tested as a way to analyze these heterogeneous data and extract information on species' population trends. However, these models make many assumptions that might not always be met. More detailed metadata associated withdoi:10.3897/biss.5.75623 fatcat:rln73e6ivjh47aj7zalrh5v5gu
more »... nce records would help better describe the observation/detection submodel within occupancy models and improve the accuracy/precision of species' trend estimates. Here, we present examples of occupancy-detection models applied to citizen science datasets, including dragonfly data in Germany, and typical approaches to account for variation in sampling effort and species detectability, including visit covariates, such as list length. Using results from a recent questionnaire in Germany asking citizen scientists about why and how they collect species occurrence data, we also characterize the different approaches that citizen scientists take to sample and report species observations. We use our findings to highlight examples of key metadata that are often missing (e.g., length of time spent searching, complete checklist or not) in data sharing platforms but would greatly aid modelling attempts of heterogeneous species occurrence data.
People and Nature
Rhodes https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6746-7412 Aletta Bonn https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8345-4600 S U PP O RTI N G I N FO R M ATI O N Additional supporting information may be found online in the Supporting ... CO N FLI C T O F I NTE R E S T Aletta Bonn and DATA AVA I L A B I L I T Y S TAT E M E N T The survey data used for this study are available at UQ eSpace https://doi.org/10.14264/ b1a04ed (Uebel, 2021 ...doi:10.1002/pan3.10215 fatcat:u2erwyhen5eyrjxju7utbmgyse
Ecology and Society
Active and meaningful public engagement is necessary to foster informed and publicly accepted natural resource management. Citizen science presents an important avenue by which to achieve such engagement. Citizen science is the active involvement of the public in science to address scientific questions, often of common interest or concern, by collecting and analyzing data, and publishing and communicating science via diverse outlets. Here, we explore whether and how citizen science can alsodoi:10.5751/es-10704-240116 fatcat:u6di2vugtff75ctfhzs56jsdpy
more »... a role in generating social license for marine conservation, using European marine citizen science as a case study. Social license is a concept that reflects community views and expectations on the use and management of natural resources. To date, social license in the marine space has largely focused on public perceptions of industrial and extractive uses of the marine environment, and limited research has explored social license for conservation. We highlight important linkages between social license and citizen science that can work synergistically to support conservation. We use in-depth qualitative interviews and a semiquantitative online survey of marine citizen science coordinators to investigate how citizen science can play a role in enhancing social license and the mechanisms through which it can occur. Our findings indicate that citizen science can enhance social license by improving ocean literacy and marine citizenship. We demonstrate that marine citizen science has considerable potential to generate and develop social license for marine conservation in Europe and elsewhere.
concept of ecosystem services allows an extended, systematic, and comprehensive assessment of the environmental impacts of policy instruments on the range of benefits society derives from ecosystems (Bonn ...doi:10.1111/cobi.12531 pmid:25998969 fatcat:fctmfhd3ejd2jajrmiejbwdaja
An ecosystem assessment is a social process (Wilson et al. 2014 ) and can provide a bridge to connect different sectors (Bonn et al. 2009 ). ...doi:10.1093/biosci/biw101 pmid:28533561 pmcid:PMC5421311 fatcat:2pnbv66dive53i7jqdsposakky
Citizen science approaches provide opportunities to support ecosystem service assessments. To evaluate the recent trends, challenges and opportunities of utilizing citizen science in ecosystem service studies we conducted a systematic literature and project review. We reviewed the range of ecosystem services and formats of participation in citizen science in 17 peer-reviewed scientific publications and 102 ongoing or finished citizen science projects, out of over 500 screened publications anddoi:10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.09.017 fatcat:ibytg5rjhzexphspbkpawimqru
more »... er 1400 screened projects. We found that citizen science is predominantly applied in assessing regulating and cultural services. The assessments were often performed by using proxy indicators that only implicitly provide information on ecosystem services. Direct assessments of ecosystem services are still rare. Participation formats mostly comprise contributory citizen science projects that focus on volunteered data collection. However, there is potential to increase citizen involvement in comprehensive ecosystem service assessments, including the development of research questions, design, data analysis and dissemination of findings. Levels of involvement could be enhanced to strengthen strategic knowledge on the environment, scientific literacy and the empowerment of citizens in helping to inform and monitor policies and management efforts related to ecosystem services. We provide an outlook how to better operationalise citizen science approaches to assess ecosystem services.
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