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Bilingualism is a sustained experience associated with structural changes in cortical grey matter (GM) morphology. Apart from a few studies, a dominant method used to assess bilingualism-induced GM changes has been the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis. While VBM is sensitive to GM volume/density differences in general, it cannot be used to identify whether the observed difference is due to relative changes in, e.g., cortical thickness, area or folding, as it uses a single combined measuredoi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2018.04.038 pmid:29727625 fatcat:2udpqh3dvnccfeowqz6hbu6sk4
more »... of them all. Here, we used surface-based analysis (SBA) approach to investigate whether early acquisition of a second language (L2) affects the cortical GM morphology relative to late L2 acquisition. More specifically, our aim was to test a hypothesis that early acquisition of two languages induces GM changes that are predominantly surface area-driven, while late acquisition is supposedly characterised with primarily thickness-driven changes. To this end, several surface-based measures were concurrently compared between the groups. In line with the hypothesis, the results revealed that early bilingual experience is associated with significantly extended cortical surface area over the left pars opercularis and the right superior temporal gyrus. Contrary to our expectations, however, we found no evidence supporting the postulated association between late L2 acquisition and increased cortical thickness. Nevertheless, our study highlights the importance of including cortical surface measures when investigating bilingualismrelated GM modulations.
This rationale is supported by the recent results (Sihvonen et al., 2017a (Sihvonen et al., , 2017b . ... structural (Sihvonen et al., 2016; Sihvonen, Ripollés et al., 2017a, b) and functional (Sihvonen et al., 2017d) changes that either impair or facilitate recovery from AA (Fig. 4) . ...doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.08.023 pmid:31479663 fatcat:tlcol7rusfabxcpbjlukdzwvt4
Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder, which is devastating for individuals in modern societies in which fluent reading skill is mandatory for leading a normal life. Research on the neural origins of DD has continued for half a century, yielding, however, inconsistent results. It has also lacked a thorough characterization of the association between abnormal neuroanatomy and skills vital for reading. The current study was set out to determinedoi:10.1101/2020.03.27.011577 fatcat:bl7i6xy4qbhrfmmxjnrt33pooe
more »... of grey and white matter volumes in adults with DD and associations between brain structures and reading and related skills. To this end, we conducted a whole-brain voxel based morphometry following current guidelines on state-of-the-art analysis approaches and rigorous neuropsychological testing. We found decreased volumes of grey matter in DD, comprising a left-hemispheric network including superior temporal and inferior frontal gyri, insula, the limbic system, and basal ganglia, and white matter, including the right middle temporal gyrus and hippocampus. These results are both consistent with the most robust previous findings on structural abnormalities in the left frontotemporal network in DD and yield novel insight to the role of subcortical structures in DD, scarcely studied so far. Moreover, areas with decreased grey matter volumes in DD were positively associated with technical reading scores (both groups included). This provides particularly strong support for the conclusion that the grey matter regions that we identified to have a low volume in DD comprise the core areas vital for reading.
Listening to vocal music has been recently shown to improve language recovery in stroke survivors. The neuroplasticity mechanisms supporting this effect are, however, still unknown. Using data from a three-arm single-blind randomized controlled trial including acute stroke patients (N=38) and a 3-month follow-up, we set out to compare the neuroplasticity effects of daily listening to self-selected vocal music, instrumental music, and audiobooks on both brain activity and structural connectivitydoi:10.1523/eneuro.0158-21.2021 pmid:34140351 fatcat:m4vtij4qmveb5co2rjoxdhp4oy
more »... of the language network. Using deterministic tractography we show that the 3-month intervention induced an enhancement of the microstructural properties of the left frontal aslant tract (FAT) for the vocal music group as compared to the audiobook group. Importantly, this increase in the strength of the structural connectivity of the left FAT correlated with improved language skills. Analyses of stimulus-specific activation changes showed that the vocal music group exhibited increased activations in the frontal termination points of the left FAT during vocal music listening as compared to the audiobook group from acute to 3-month post-stroke stage. The increased activity correlated with the structural neuroplasticity changes in the left FAT. These results suggest that the beneficial effects of vocal music listening on post-stroke language recovery are underpinned by structural neuroplasticity changes within the language network and extend our understanding of music-based interventions in stroke rehabilitation.Significance statementPost-stroke language deficits have a devastating effect on patients and their families. Current treatments yield highly variable outcomes and the evidence for their long-term effects is limited. Patients often receive insufficient treatment that are predominantly given outside the optimal time window for brain plasticity. Post-stroke vocal music listening improves language outcome which is underpinned by neuroplasticity changes within the language network. Vocal music listening provides a complementary rehabilitation strategy which could be safely implemented in the early stages of stroke rehabilitation and seems to specifically target language symptoms and recovering language network.
For exact methodological description including detailed information on preprocessing, see our recently published articles (Sihvonen et al., 2016; Sihvonen et al., 2017b) . ... For complete methodological information including description on the included WM tracts, see our recently published article (Sihvonen et al., 2017c) . ...doi:10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101948 pmid:31419766 pmcid:PMC6706631 fatcat:34d7rhvg65b7labznjdrkn4zhu
., 2009; Sihvonen et al., 2016) . ... Preprocessing steps equivalent to the primary study (Sihvonen et al., 2016) were carried out. ... Copyright © 2017 Sihvonen, Ripollés, Rodríguez-Fornells, Soinila and Särkämö. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). ...doi:10.3389/fnins.2017.00426 pmid:28790885 pmcid:PMC5524924 fatcat:p4mjjlm24neglj3kpe5evx3xte
Coupling novel verbal material with a musical melody can potentially aid its learning and recall in healthy subjects, but this has never been systematically studied in stroke patients with cognitive deficits. In a counter-balanced design, we presented novel verbal material (short narrative stories) in both spoken and sung formats to stroke patients (N = 31) at the acute post-stroke stage and 6 months post-stroke. The task comprised three learning trials and a delayed recall trial. Memorydoi:10.1111/nyas.13624 pmid:29542823 fatcat:bnq7vg2rijhnzjxntuuwzpthf4
more »... ance on the spoken and sung tasks did not differ at the acute stage, whereas sung stories were learned and recalled significantly better compared to spoken stories at the 6-month post-stroke stage. Interestingly, this pattern of results was evident especially in patients with mild aphasia, in whom the learning of sung vs. spoken stories improved more from acute to 6-month stage compared to nonaphasic patients. Overall, these findings suggest that singing could be used as a mnemonic aid in the learning of novel verbal material in later stages of recovery after stroke.
Brain damage causing acquired amusia disrupts the functional music processing system, creating a unique opportunity to investigate the critical neural architectures of musical processing in the brain. In this longitudinal fMRI study of stroke patients (N = 41) with a 6-month follow-up, we used natural vocal music (sung with lyrics) and instrumental music stimuli to uncover brain activation and functional network connectivity changes associated with acquired amusia and its recovery. In the acutedoi:10.1038/s41598-017-11841-6 pmid:28900231 pmcid:PMC5595783 fatcat:a3zemzkwpzflpabmshnf5qb25q
more »... stage, amusic patients exhibited decreased activation in right superior temporal areas compared to nonamusic patients during instrumental music listening. During the follow-up, the activation deficits expanded to comprise a wide-spread bilateral frontal, temporal, and parietal network. The amusics showed less activation deficits to vocal music, suggesting preserved processing of singing in the amusic brain. Compared to non-recovered amusics, recovered amusics showed increased activation to instrumental music in bilateral frontoparietal areas at 3 months and in right middle and inferior frontal areas at 6 months. Amusia recovery was also associated with increased functional connectivity in right and left frontoparietal attention networks to instrumental music. Overall, our findings reveal the dynamic nature of deficient activation and connectivity patterns in acquired amusia and highlight the role of dorsal networks in amusia recovery. During the past decades, the pursuit to unravel the neural structures underlying music processing in the brain has been very active. Modern neuroimaging methods evaluating both structure and function have provided evidence of a wide-spread music network in the healthy brain which comprises bilateral temporal, frontal, parietal, and subcortical regions 1-6 . While the ability to perceive and enjoy music is fundamental to humans across all cultures, the previously intact capability to perceive music can be impaired by brain damage (acquired amusia). In amusia, the deficit in processing pitch is considered as the signature symptom, but other domains of music, such as rhythm, timbre, memory, and emotions, can also be affected 7 . Although one to two thirds of stroke patients have been reported to suffer from acquired amusia 8-10 , its neural basis has been previously poorly understood as previous studies have been limited to symptom-led and lesion-led studies of individual cases or small patient groups. Moreover, the results regarding the spatial location of the lesion, lesion lateralization (left, right), and the type of musical deficit (e.g. spectral, temporal) have been mixed. While acquired musical deficits have been associated with right hemisphere damage 11-17 , acquired amusia after both left and right hemisphere damage has been reported 8, 10, 18-20 . We recently showed, using voxel-based
AbstractDevelopmental dyslexia (DD) is the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder with a substantial negative influence on the individual's academic achievement and career. Research on its neuroanatomical origins has continued for half a century, yielding, however, inconsistent results, lowered total brain volume being the most consistent finding. We set out to evaluate the grey matter (GM) volume and cortical abnormalities in adult dyslexic individuals, employing a combination ofdoi:10.1038/s41598-021-89317-x pmid:34035329 fatcat:7jv34tjz6bdmjea7fuakogyodq
more »... n voxel- and surface-based morphometry following current recommendations on analysis approaches, coupled with rigorous neuropsychological testing. Whilst controlling for age, sex, total intracranial volume, and performance IQ, we found both decreased GM volume and cortical thickness in the left insula in participants with DD. Moreover, they had decreased GM volume in left superior temporal gyrus, putamen, globus pallidus, and parahippocampal gyrus. Higher GM volumes and cortical thickness in these areas correlated with better reading and phonological skills, deficits of which are pivotal to DD. Crucially, total brain volume did not influence our results, since it did not differ between the groups. Our findings demonstrating abnormalities in brain areas in individuals with DD, which previously were associated with phonological processing, are compatible with the leading hypotheses on the neurocognitive origins of DD.
J. Sihvonen et al. ...doi:10.1002/acn3.51217 pmid:33022148 fatcat:qhr2sshoxjdxflsqy6nfgwpj4e
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11, 2184 ... AB BA Difference between Groups (p) J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11, 2184. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082184 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/jcm ...doi:10.3390/jcm11082184 pmid:35456277 pmcid:PMC9032739 fatcat:bgg6m3h7lrh7hiiy6svjgz5foa
r o s i v d a s i s e h T d n a l n i F , s s e n i s u B f o l o o h c S y t i s r e v i n U o t l a A , a l i t a K a j i a S r e r ... Kirsti Iivonen, Anne Kankaanranta, Ella Lillqvist, Nando Malmelin, Marketta Majapuro, Johanna Moisander, Visa Penttilä, Merja Porttikivi, Pekka Pälli, Ana Paula Lafaire, Anna Leinonen, Allu Pyhälammi, Aleksi ...doi:10.1177/0018726719867753 fatcat:p46keoi53zgzffyvf4w7eei24m
ALEKSI MAINIO Vakoilijoita ja pomminheittäjiä. ... J. ... J. Ståhlbergin johtamien nuorsuomalaisten ja jopa vanhan vihollisen RKP:n kanssa ei käynyt ainoastaan mahdolliseksi, vaan lopulta lähes harmoniseksi. ...doi:10.47564/vskst.94673 fatcat:ejx2ie4m7vfddo4sje2bvloulq
o m r a J i r o t h o t n a i f o s o l i f , a j a t h o j n o t s a j r n u u l e t t i n n u u s n e e s i e k s e k ä j ä t t y ä ... a o v r a a t s i k l u j i l l a m e t i i v -T S I A B n u l e v l a p n e s i l a a t i g i d n a a v a t t o u t a j a t s a k r ...doi:10.18352/lq.10231 fatcat:oz23shh66rcydnpayptearigqi
J. D. "Hei, rillumarei" (film review of Hei, rillumarei). VS 27.4.1954. "Niskavuoren Aarne kansainväliseen kilpailuun" (news coverage). VS 31.10.1954. ... Both Oswald Spengler in his influential er ntergang des Abendlandes (1923) and Finnish theologians Yrjö J. E. ... The Niskavuori films also feature in the English-language overviews of Finnish cinema (Cowie 1990; Sihvonen 1993; Soila 1998; von Bagh 1999) . ...doi:10.25595/430 fatcat:medwb5viznhrheynf7kd4f7tpq