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Abstract:Latest research on China's river improvement of nature and ecosystem is purely focusing the feasibilities, conceptions, methodologies, specific cases, and the like. Few have investigated the transition of China's concerned national policies as well as briefly summarized related constructing projects. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed the frequency of the word ecology and outlined key points concerning water conservancy, within each Five-Year Plan for Economic and Socialdoi:10.5632/jilaonline.9.126 fatcat:y2qdfazzujbndp5vyeqemebxwa
more »... nt of the People's Republic of China which are top blueprints containing the country's social, economic, political goals, etc. Then, a retrospection and current mechanism of river riparian improvements in China were given, based on collecting and analyzing various policies as well as vast implementation conditions. Finally, a typical case of river improvement in Xinjiangwancheng, Shanghai was shortly introduced. Our findings showed that conservation and restoration activities regarding riverside ecosystem have been booming in China since 2001.
Class II transfer RNAs (tRNAs), including tRNA Leu and tRNA Ser , have an additional stem and loop structure, the long variable arm (V-arm). Here, we describe Class II tRNAs with a unique anticodon corresponding to neither leucine nor serine. Because these tRNAs are specifically conserved among the nematodes, we have called them 'nematode-specific V-arm-containing tRNAs' (nev-tRNAs). The expression of nev-tRNA genes in Caenorhabditis elegans was confirmed experimentally. A comparative sequencedoi:10.1093/nar/gkr1226 pmid:22187151 pmcid:PMC3333845 fatcat:3ps5k7diyrb5vmap2b2wykynxu
more »... nalysis suggested that the nev-tRNAs derived phylogenetically from tRNA Leu . In vitro aminoacylation assays showed that nev-tRNA Gly and nev-tRNA Ile are only charged with leucine, which is inconsistent with their anticodons. Furthermore, the deletion and mutation of crucial determinants for leucylation in nev-tRNA led to a marked loss of activity. An in vitro translation analysis showed that nev-tRNA Gly decodes GGG as leucine instead of the universal glycine code, indicating that nev-tRNAs can be incorporated into ribosomes and participate in protein biosynthesis. Our findings provide the first example of unexpected tRNAs that do not consistently obey the general translation rules for higher eukaryotes.
Purpose: In this study, we aimed to detect mutations in the SLC7A14 cationic transporter gene, which has recently been reported as a causative gene for retinitis pigmentosa (RP), in Japanese patients with autosomal recessive (AR) or sporadic RP. Materials and Methods: We included 146 unrelated Japanese patients with AR or sporadic RP who lacked mutations in genes known to be associated with RP despite next-generation sequencing-based screening. We sequenced the seven SLC7A14 coding exons alongdoi:10.6084/m9.figshare.3141589.v1 fatcat:ml3zlrrjqvcb7fpf6ormd7uoqa
more »... ith their flanking intronic DNA using the Sanger method. The detected polymorphisms were assessed for their pathogenicity with in silico prediction tools. For those who had heterozygous, nonsynonymous variants, we performed multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to search for additional deletion/duplication. Results: We detected four distinct SLC7A14 polymorphisms excluding synonymous polymorphisms. Two of these polymorphisms were assessed as detrimental by in silico prediction tools. However, all of the mutations were heterozygous. Neither homozygous polymorphisms nor compound heterozygous polymorphisms, which are considered detrimental variants, were detected. Neither deletion nor duplication was found with MLPA in patients with heterozygous variants. Conclusions: The four SLC7A14 mutations detected herein were unlikely to be pathogenic in this Japanese cohort. The frequency and pathogenicity of SLC7A14 mutations may vary depending on ethnicity, and these mutations may be rare in Japanese patients.
doi:10.1159/000437348 pmid:26327910 pmcid:PMC4553918 fatcat:ep4zq6z2qvgbtdjc42plzrcjie
To describe the peripheral autofluorescence images and clinical features of patients with retinal dystrophy who showed radial fundus autofluorescence (FAF) at the posterior pole. The authors retrospectively reviewed pooled wide-field FAF images of 711 patients with retinal dystrophy and 56 family members. Eleven eyes of seven women exhibited radial FAF at the posterior pole. Wide-field FAF showed extension of the radial pattern to the periphery in all eyes except one. One woman showed radialdoi:10.2147/opth.s89371 pmid:26316687 pmcid:PMC4544811 fatcat:smuftrt4nrhcxgtsjl3szk5vom
more »... er-FAF only in the periphery, not at the posterior pole. These eight individuals were X-linked retinitis pigmentosa patients or carriers. The tapetal-like reflex was not observed in their color fundus photographs. The peripheral visual field showed wedge-shaped restriction in some individuals. Wide-field FAF imaging can depict radial FAF not only at the posterior pole but also in the periphery in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa carriers. The authors therefore agree with previous reports that radial FAF may be a hallmark of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa.
To the best of our knowledge, we present here the first report of a case involving granulomatous pododermatitis caused by Fusarium proliferatum in a 10-year-old female cat. A cutaneous mass developed on the foot-pad of the right hind leg. Nodular granulomatous dermatitis with numerous macrophages and multinucleated giant cells containing cytoplasmic fungal structures were revealed on histological examination. Periodic acid-Schiff reaction and Fungi-Fluor staining clearly revealed irregular,doi:10.1292/jvms.13-0449 pmid:24200892 pmcid:PMC4013372 fatcat:2qzec6if5fdo5ptqtezpc7cgaa
more »... ate fungal hyphae englobed by macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. Polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis targeting three domains of the extracted fungal DNA revealed 100% amplicon homology with F. proliferatum.
Understanding the mechanistic basis of the disruption of tRNA genes, as manifested in the intron-containing and split tRNAs found in Archaea, will provide considerable insight into the evolution of the tRNA molecule. However, the evolutionary processes underlying these disruptions have not yet been identified. Previously, a composite genome of the deep-branching archaeon Caldiarchaeum subterraneum was reconstructed from a community genomic library prepared from a C. subterraneum-dominateddoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032504 pmid:22403667 pmcid:PMC3293823 fatcat:2uklx4xqxrf67eh7xdv6gqzam4
more »... ial mat. Here, exploration of tRNA genes from the library reveals that there are at least three types of heterogeneity at the tRNA Thr (GGU) gene locus in the Caldiarchaeum population. All three involve intronic gain and splitting of the tRNA gene. Of two fosmid clones found that encode tRNA Thr (GGU), one (tRNA Thr-I ) contains a single intron, whereas another (tRNA Thr-II ) contains two introns. Notably, in the clone possessing tRNA Thr-II , a 59 fragment of the tRNA Thr-I (tRNA Thr-F ) gene was observed 1.8-kb upstream of tRNA Thr-II . The composite genome contains both tRNA Thr-II and tRNA Thr-F , although the loci are .500 kb apart. Given that the 1.8-kb sequence flanked by tRNA Thr-F and tRNA Thr-II is predicted to encode a DNA recombinase and occurs in six regions of the composite genome, it may be a transposable element. Furthermore, its dinucleotide composition is most similar to that of the pNOB8-type plasmid, which is known to integrate into archaeal tRNA genes. Based on these results, we propose that the gain of the tRNA intron and the scattering of the tRNA fragment occurred within a short time frame via the integration and recombination of a mobile genetic element.
Sugahara, None; T. Hasegawa, None; M. Miyata, None; N. Yoshimura, None. ...doi:10.1167/tvst.5.2.4 pmid:26966640 pmcid:PMC4782824 fatcat:cvbczgj3pza3bmaqv4krlxiore
Sugahara et al. ... Posterior probability values are denoted at each branch. 2712 Sugahara et al. ...doi:10.1093/molbev/msn216 pmid:18832079 fatcat:ty2vgfp3b5gnhmjbhdnepxdjs4
The limited locations of tRNA introns are crucial for eukaryal tRNA-splicing endonuclease recognition. However, our analysis of the nuclear genome of an early-diverged red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae, demonstrated the first evidence of nuclear-encoded tRNA genes that contain ectopic and/or multiple introns. Some genes exhibited both intronic and permuted structures in which the 39-half of the tRNA coding sequence lies upstream of the 59-half, and an intron is inserted into either half. Thesedoi:10.1038/srep02321 pmid:23900518 pmcid:PMC3728597 fatcat:kjzbkpozczd27or3qmhbjocove
more »... ighly disrupted tRNA genes, which account for 63% of all nuclear tRNA genes, are expressed via the orderly and sequential processing of bulge-helix-bulge (BHB) motifs at intron-exon junctions and termini of permuted tRNA precursors, probably by a C. merolae tRNA-splicing endonuclease with an unidentified subunit architecture. The results revealed a considerable diversity in eukaryal tRNA intron properties and endonuclease architectures, which will help to elucidate the acquisition mechanism of the BHB-mediated disrupted tRNA genes. C yanidioschyzon merolae 10D is an ultrasmall unicellular red alga that inhabits an extreme environment (pH 1-3, 40-50uC), and represents one of the most ancestral forms of eukaryotes 1-3 . A primary search of the complete 16.5 Mbp nuclear genome sequence predicted only 30 tRNA genes, which are insufficient to decode 61 codons 2 . This paucity of tRNA genes was partly solved by our discovery of a distinctive type of disrupted tRNA gene; we identified 11 circularly permuted tRNA genes, in which the 39-half of the tRNA coding sequence lies upstream of the 59-half in the genome 4 . Biochemical analyses defined a processing pathway in which the termini of the tRNA precursor (pre-tRNAs) are ligated to form a characteristic circular RNA intermediate, which is then processed at the acceptor stem to generate the functional termini 4 . Notably, the sequences adjacent to the termini in these pre-tRNAs potentially form a bulge-helix-bulge (BHB) motif, which was originally found around the intron-exon junctions of nuclear and archaeal tRNAs 5 . To date, permuted tRNAs have only been found in some unicellular algae and archaea 6,7 . These observations suggest that BHB motifs, and the tRNA intron splicing system by which they are processed, must have been a prerequisite for the development of such disrupted tRNA genes in early-rooted eukaryotes and archaea. Here, we report the identification of an alternative type of BHB-mediated disrupted tRNA gene that harbors atypical introns. Introns found in nuclear and archaeal tRNAs are cleaved by the proteinaceous tRNA-splicing endonuclease 8-11 . Nuclear tRNA introns are generally short, comprise a relaxed BHB motif, and are located exclusively between positions 37 and 38 (37/38), which is 39 adjacent to the anticodon (the canonical position) 5,12 . This limited location of the intron is considered crucial for the precise recognition of pre-tRNA by the eukaryal tRNA-splicing endonucleases           . However, we found that a number of C. merolae nuclear-encoded tRNA genes contain single or multiple ectopic introns, which has not been reported in eukaryotes. Some genes contained both intronic and permuted gene structures. Further analysis revealed that the BHB motifs in pre-tRNAs are processed in an order that correlates with the theoretical free energy and the position of each motif in the cloverleaf structure. It also indicated that the C. merolae tRNA-splicing endonuclease may show a non-canonical subunit composition. Our findings provide a new insight into the tRNA processing system in eukaryotes and a OPEN SUBJECT AREAS: RNA SPLICING SMALL RNAS GENE EXPRESSION TRNAS
All predicted archaeal tRNA sequences are registered in a new tRNA database (Sugahara and Kikuta et al., to be published separately). ...doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001622 pmid:18286179 pmcid:PMC2237900 fatcat:xlpjx4um4rcxvowqk24advltpa
Japanese Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition
Determination of Nitrate Nitrogen in Soil Extracts Using a Nitrate Electrode
Determination of Nitrate Nitrogen in Soil Extracts Using a Nitrate Electrode
Abstract:River environment improvement activities have commonly been unfolded in Japan during its nature-oriented river management for decades. To evaluate their prospects in mainland China, grasping the current situation of flood control should always be the first place. We achieved by a comprehensive overview survey based on past detailed data and research findings of related domains, within the framework of Political, Economic, Social and Technological dimensions (PEST Analysis). Our resultsdoi:10.11492/ceispapersen.44.5.0_39 fatcat:wdqlxuhbc5eullodz4zxfqvtce
more »... showed that evolutionary progression had continued obviously in every dimension during the period of 2004 to 2013. However, flood control expenditure's proportion to the whole water conservancy investment showed a downward trend despite both amounts kept increasing, since a focus shifting to water resource projects. It suggests that not until accomplishing those water resources projects in next dozen years will the river environment improvement activities be virtually promoted under the conception of human water harmony. Key Words: flood control, China, PEST analysis, river environmental improvement
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