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Medical Diagnostic Tests: A Review of Test Anatomy, Phases, and Statistical Treatment of Data

Sorana D. Bolboacă
2019 Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine  
This article briefly reviews the steps in the evaluation of a diagnostic test from the anatomy, to the role in clinical practice, and to the statistical methods used to show their performances.  ...  Despite the existence of recommendation and standards regarding the content or format of statistical aspects, the quality of what and how the statistic is reported when a diagnostic test is assessed varied  ...  positive; FP � false positive; FN � false negative; and TN � true negative.  ... 
doi:10.1155/2019/1891569 pmid:31275427 pmcid:PMC6558629 fatcat:2cigavx3hrhsjjrzlkw6ydanee

Assessment of Mandibular Movement Monitoring With Machine Learning Analysis for the Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Jean-Louis Pépin, Clément Letesson, Nhat Nam Le-Dong, Antoine Dedave, Stéphane Denison, Valérie Cuthbert, Jean-Benoît Martinot, David Gozal
2020 JAMA Network Open  
Reliable agreement was found between PSG-RDI and Sr-RDI in patients without OSA (n = 46; mean difference, 1.31; 95% CI, -1.05 to 3.66 events/h) and in patients with OSA with a PSG-RDI of at least 5 events  ...  curves, allowing for evaluation of the device sensitivity and specificity in detecting OSA at 5 events/h and 15 events/h.  ...  0.75 0.50 0.25 0 0 1.00 True-Positive Rate False-Positive Rate 0.75 0.50 0.25 PSG_RDI ≥15 events/h B and 0.88 [95% CI, 0.86-0.90], respectively) and good balance between precision  ... 
doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.19657 pmid:31968116 pmcid:PMC6991283 fatcat:c5kcrojsqvaahnnmtr6d4lnf74

Outcome-driven Evaluation Metrics for Treatment Recommendation Systems

Jing Mei, Haifeng Liu, Xiang Li, Yiqin Yu, Guotong Xie
2015 Studies in Health Technology and Informatics  
In computer science, such evaluations are typically performed by applying appropriate metrics that provides a comparison of different systems.  ...  and based on patient similarity analysis), using our proposed evaluation metrics.  ...  outcome are false negative (FN), and the control group instances with bad outcome are true negative (TN).  ... 
pmid:25991128 fatcat:ovqbmcp5pjc7rbirpvwuddykvu

Crowdsourcing Ground Truth for Medical Relation Extraction

Anca Dumitrache, Lora Aroyo, Chris Welty
2018 ACM transactions on interactive intelligent systems (TiiS)  
Cognitive computing systems require human labeled data for evaluation, and often for training.  ...  The standard practice used in gathering this data minimizes disagreement between annotators, and we have found this results in data that fails to account for the ambiguity inherent in language.  ...  Chang Wang for support with using the medical relation extraction classifier, and Anthony Levas for help with collecting the expert annotations. The authors, Dr. Wang and Mr.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3152889 fatcat:l3jtx2nur5ek3jtwqgbhxa67ky

Metrics for evaluating 3D medical image segmentation: analysis, selection, and tool

Abdel Aziz Taha, Allan Hanbury
2015 BMC Medical Imaging  
Some of the challenges in evaluating medical segmentation are: metric selection, the use in the literature of multiple definitions for certain metrics, inefficiency of the metric calculation implementations  ...  Conclusion: We propose an efficient evaluation tool for 3D medical image segmentation using 20 evaluation metrics and provide guidelines for selecting a subset of these metrics that is suitable for the  ...  Note that the count of tuples in Groups I and IV represents the agreement (a + d) whereas the count of tuples in Groups II and III (b + c) represents the disagreement between the two partitions.  ... 
doi:10.1186/s12880-015-0068-x pmid:26263899 pmcid:PMC4533825 fatcat:e2nptwnqxfeh3e5nusoslpcsoa

On the automatic identification of difficult examples for beat tracking: Towards building new evaluation datasets

A. Holzapfel, M. E. P. Davies, J. R. Zapata, J. L. Oliveira, F. Gouyon
2012 2012 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP)  
This method assigns a degree of difficulty to a sample based on the mutual disagreement between the output of various beat tracking systems.  ...  On a large beat annotated dataset we show that this mutual agreement is correlated with the mean performance of the beat trackers evaluated against the ground truth, and hence can be used to identify difficult  ...  grants SFRH/BD/43704/2008 and SFRH/BPD/51348/2011, and by Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana (Colombia) and Colciencias, and by the EU-funded project MIReS.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icassp.2012.6287824 dblp:conf/icassp/HolzapfelDZOG12 fatcat:z2hdhczra5ek5kyzzgtewmivye

Facing Imbalanced Data--Recommendations for the Use of Performance Metrics

Laszlo A. Jeni, Jeffrey F. Cohn, Fernando De La Torre
2013 2013 Humaine Association Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction  
Our findings suggest that skew is a critical factor in evaluating performance metrics.  ...  We evaluated influence of skew on both threshold metrics (Accuracy, F-score, Cohen's kappa, and Krippendorf's alpha) and rank metrics (area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and precision-recall  ...  The matrix has four categories: True positives (TP) are examples correctly labeled as positives. False positives (FP) refer to negative examples incorrectly labeled as positive.  ... 
doi:10.1109/acii.2013.47 pmid:25574450 pmcid:PMC4285355 dblp:conf/acii/JeniCT13 fatcat:p4xtuokcaraqlhkjdm5vulie6e

Text summarization as a decision support aid

T Elizabeth Workman, Marcelo Fiszman, John F Hurdle
2012 BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making  
We evaluated the results using clinician-vetted reference standards built from recommendations in a commercial decision support product, DynaMed.  ...  Conclusion: Semantic MEDLINE with dynamic summarization outperformed conventional summarization in terms of recall, and outperformed the baseline method in both recall and precision.  ...  We also thank Stephane Meystre for his counsel in disease topic selection, and Thomas Rindflesch for his essential work in natural language processing.  ... 
doi:10.1186/1472-6947-12-41 pmid:22621674 pmcid:PMC3461485 fatcat:b3znt2tjtvbsroytq5xcykn4iu

Body Mass Index and Agreement Between Bioimpedance and Anthropometry Estimates of Body Compartments in Anorexia Nervosa

Antonio Piccoli, Marta Codognotto, Lorenza Di Pascoli, Gina Boffo, Lorenza Caregaro
2005 JPEN - Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition  
The ROC curve was constructed increasing the tentative BMI cutoff value from 11 to 18, by step of 1 kg/m’, with true positive rate in ordinate and false-positive rate in the abscissa.  ...  May-June 2005 % 2ement of FFM rrue positive rate, P(BMI<X) with disagre 10 r 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 P(BMI<X) with agreement of FFM False positive rate, % ANTHROPOMETRY AND BIOIMPEDANCE IN ANOREXIA  ... 
doi:10.1177/0148607105029003148 pmid:15837773 fatcat:n5nuge7lofgg5lhf67y6vt5wha

Assessing agreement between two measurement systems: An alternative to the limits of agreement approach

Nathaniel T Stevens, Stefan H Steiner, R Jock MacKay
2015 Statistical Methods in Medical Research  
The proposal is based on a simple metric, the probability of agreement, and a corresponding plot which can be used to summarize the agreement between two measurement systems.  ...  The comparison of two measurement systems is important in medical and other contexts.  ...  Acknowledgements This research was supported by an NSERC PGS-D Scholarship and an NSERC Discovery Grant #102415 Figure and Tables  ... 
doi:10.1177/0962280215601133 pmid:26335274 fatcat:c3q2f4kbtrgnhilx45tgx6r3ri

De-identification of clinical notes in French: towards a protocol for reference corpus development

Cyril Grouin, Aurélie Névéol
2014 Journal of Biomedical Informatics  
system and a system using Conditional Random Fields (CRF).  ...  from those in the reference corpus developed herein.  ...  Recall ¼ true positive true positive þ false negative ð3Þ Micro-recall ¼ P n i¼1 true positiveðiÞ P n i¼1 true positiveðiÞ þ P n i¼1 false negativeðiÞ ð4Þ Precision ¼ true positive true positive þ false  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jbi.2013.12.014 pmid:24380818 fatcat:vwlmkokkyjdyljsi2potceuoji

On the Lack of Consensus in Anti-Virus Decisions: Metrics and Insights on Building Ground Truths of Android Malware [chapter]

Médéric Hurier, Kevin Allix, Tegawendé F. Bissyandé, Jacques Klein, Yves Le Traon
2016 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper, we extensively investigate the lack of agreement among AV engines.  ...  number of positive detections before classifying a sample.  ...  The most extreme scenarios could be 50% (True, True) and 50% (False, False) or 50% (True, False) and 50% (False, True).  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-40667-1_8 fatcat:a65osdn3pvc55ku7afdq6vy2ty

Validation metric based on relative error

Cor-Jacques Kat, Pieter Schalk Els
2012 Mathematical and Computer Modelling of Dynamical Systems  
The proposed validation metric is able to quantify the agreement/disagreement between deterministic system response quantities of interest obtained from measurements on a physical system and predictions  ...  This paper presents a reliable and intuitive validation metric for use in the validation process.  ...  of Trade and Industry of South Africa.  ... 
doi:10.1080/13873954.2012.663392 fatcat:npx7j6ed5fbknb5rcptjdt7ry4

Evaluation Challenges for Bridging Semantic Gap

William H. Horsthemke, Daniela S. Raicu, Jacob D. Furst
2009 International Journal of Healthcare Information Systems and Informatics  
A false positive is the detection of a disease which is not present and the probability of this occurring is reported as the true positive fraction (TPF); while a false negative is the failure to find  ...  Studies evaluating CAD(x) systems typically measure the change in radiologist performance (ROC A z ) between readings performed alone and readings performed with CAD(x).  ...  Using other localization evaluation methodologies (LROC/AFROC or false positives per image (FPI)), studies often use datasets with more specific nodule location (centroids) ( Figure 1C ) or location and  ... 
doi:10.4018/jhisi.2009010102 fatcat:2ixfjgwk4zeyncb42jtnuu7orm

Evaluating Modern Clone Detection Tools

Jeffrey Svajlenko, Chanchal K. Roy
2014 2014 IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance and Evolution  
We investigate the accuracy of the frameworks by (1) checking for anomalies in their results, (2) checking for agreement between the frameworks, and (3) checking for agreement with our expectations of  ...  We find anomalies in the results of Bellon's Framework, and disagreement with both our expectations and the Mutation Framework.  ...  Recall: The ratio of the clones within a software system that a tool is able to detect. Precision: The ratio of the clones detected by a tool that are true clones and not false positives. III.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icsme.2014.54 dblp:conf/icsm/SvajlenkoR14 fatcat:rl62vvdyejejvfkoizqi7zg344
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