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Coming challenges in microarchitecture and architecture

R. Ronen, A. Mendelson, K. Lai, Shih-Lien Lu, F. Pollack, J.P. Shen
2001 Proceedings of the IEEE  
In the past several decades, the world of computers and especially that of microprocessors has witnessed phenomenal advances.  ...  While the pace of this progress has been quite impressive over the last two decades, it has become harder and harder to keep up this pace.  ...  MICROPROCESSORS-CURRENT TRENDS AND CHALLENGES In the past 25 years, chip density and the associated computer industry has grown at an exponential rate.  ... 
doi:10.1109/5.915377 fatcat:iywintmu5jeltngkqn6h3ryh7u

The microprocessor today

M. Slater
1996 IEEE Micro  
Figure 1 shows the changes in market share for 32-and 64-bit microprocessors over the past five years. Driven by the success of the PC, the x86 architecture has dominated.  ...  F rom their humble beginnings 25 years ago, microprocessors have proliferated into an astounding range of chips, powering devices ranging from telephones to supercomputers.  ...  After 25 years of development, advancements in microprocessor technology show no signs of slowing down.  ... 
doi:10.1109/mm.1996.546563 fatcat:2crlavzi3fhh3otclfte3nprpu

Computer technology and architecture: an evolving interaction

J.L. Hennessy, N.P. Jouppi
1991 Computer  
Developments in computer architecture also impact the viability of different technologies.  ...  To understand the interaction between computer architecture and IC technology and the attractiveness of a technology for use in computers, we need a metric to evaluate different computer designs.  ...  Acknowledgments The referees provided many helpful comments that improved this article.  ... 
doi:10.1109/2.84896 fatcat:bspgywxfq5at3hf6g4h76q76tq

The history of the microprocessor

Michael R. Betker, John S. Fernando, Shaun P. Whalen
2002 Bell Labs technical journal  
With an 8-KB cache, the 80486 exceeded one million transistors in one-micron CMOS technology and was clocked at 25 MHz. At 20 MIPS, it produced over twice the performance of the 80386 at 25 MHz.  ...  Variants of the 6800 have been introduced over the years, including the 6809 in 1977, the 6801, the 68HC11, and the 68HC16.  ... 
doi:10.1002/bltj.2082 fatcat:w2ilifumlzeotdhnncopefkxkm

A sub 2W low power IA Processor for Mobile Internet Devices in 45nm Hi-K metal gate CMOS

Gianfranco Gerosa, Steve Curtis, Mike D'Addeo, Bo Jiang, Belliappa Kuttanna, Feroze Merchant, Binta Patel, Mohammed Taufique, Haytham Samarchi
2008 2008 IEEE Asian Solid-State Circuits Conference  
The design contains 47 million transistors in a die size under 25 mm manufactured in a 9-metal 45 nm CMOS process with optimized transistors for low leakage.  ...  The design consists of an in-order pipeline capable of issuing 2 instructions per cycle supporting 2 threads, 32 KB instruction and 24 KB data L1 caches, independent integer and floating point execution  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of Intel's Ultra-Mobility-Group Vice-President Elenora Yoeli and the work of the talented and dedicated Intel design and product teams in Austin  ... 
doi:10.1109/asscc.2008.4708718 fatcat:s75igiqee5elva2crdciwgk2zi

Electromigration-Aware Architecture for Modern Microprocessors [article]

Freddy Gabbay, Avi Mendelson
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Reliability is a fundamental requirement in any microprocessor to guarantee correct execution over its lifetime.  ...  Our results show that the proposed solution can relax EM design efforts in microprocessors and more than double microprocessor lifetime.  ...  In our study we presented RMS EM-aware micro-architectural solution that can significantly relax the over-design of traditional methods and significantly extend microprocessor lifetime.  ... 
arXiv:2005.01593v3 fatcat:q4dsgb42nzdnxexxwza3urply4

Workload generation for microprocessor performance evaluation

Luk Van Ertvelde, Lieven Eeckhout
2012 Proceedings of the third joint WOSP/SIPEW international conference on Performance Engineering - ICPE '12  
The benchmarks are generated in a high-level programming language, which enables both compiler and hardware exploration.  ...  order of magnitude over state-of-the-art. (3) It presents a benchmark synthesis framework for generating synthetic benchmarks from a set of desired program statistics.  ...  INTRODUCTION Microprocessors have drastically advanced over the years, from scalar in-order execution processors to complex superscalar outof-order and multi-core processors.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2188286.2188313 dblp:conf/wosp/ErtveldeE12 fatcat:divo5bku7vbkddnnsqyumklziy

Future processors

Charlie Johnson, Jeff Welser
2005 Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE/ACM/IFIP international conference on Hardware/software codesign and system synthesis - CODES+ISSS '05  
The ability to continue increasing processor frequency and single thread performance is being severely limited by exponential increases in leakage and active power.  ...  In this paper, we describe how these trends are leading to more modular, SoC-like designs for future processor chips, which can still achieve very high throughput performance while using simplified components  ...  However, the frequency and single thread performance "war" between the microprocessor developers over the last 10-15 years has already implemented most of these.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1084834.1084840 dblp:conf/codes/JohnsonW05 fatcat:mvpy2yvbgfazzbqwq4one2nfgq

Basic issues in microprocessor architecture

M.J. Flynn
1999 Journal of systems architecture  
The evolution of microprocessor architecture depends upon the changing aspects of technology.  ...  Architectures and implementations that span these limits are vital to the continued evolution of the microprocessor.  ...  Acknowledgements Some of the ideas expressed in this paper have been previously presented in conferences 5, 6 . This research w as supported in part under NSF Grant MIP93-13701.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s1383-7621(98)00045-9 fatcat:r5ewvlztafhwrnlmowblcw6vem

The case for a single-chip multiprocessor

Kunle Olukotun, Basem A. Nayfeh, Lance Hammond, Ken Wilson, Kunyung Chang
1996 Proceedings of the seventh international conference on Architectural support for programming languages and operating systems - ASPLOS-VII  
Advances in IC processing allow for more microprocessor design options.  ...  This paper shows that in advanced technologies it is possible to implement a single-chip multiprocessor in the same area as a wide issue superscalar processor.  ...  Computer Architecture, pp. 66-77, Philadelphia, PA, 1996. 1 Introduction Advances in integrated circuit technology have fueled microproces- sor performance growth for the last fifteen years.  ... 
doi:10.1145/237090.237140 dblp:conf/asplos/OlukotunNHWC96 fatcat:elff5i3fubd2thsx66mc56tfsu

The case for a single-chip multiprocessor

Kunle Olukotun, Basem A. Nayfeh, Lance Hammond, Ken Wilson, Kunyung Chang
1996 SIGPLAN notices  
Advances in IC processing allow for more microprocessor design options.  ...  This paper shows that in advanced technologies it is possible to implement a single-chip multiprocessor in the same area as a wide issue superscalar processor.  ...  Computer Architecture, pp. 66-77, Philadelphia, PA, 1996. 1 Introduction Advances in integrated circuit technology have fueled microproces- sor performance growth for the last fifteen years.  ... 
doi:10.1145/248209.237140 fatcat:g2plt23b3vgtzii32m255gzt5i

The case for a single-chip multiprocessor

Kunle Olukotun, Basem A. Nayfeh, Lance Hammond, Ken Wilson, Kunyung Chang
1996 ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review  
Advances in IC processing allow for more microprocessor design options.  ...  This paper shows that in advanced technologies it is possible to implement a single-chip multiprocessor in the same area as a wide issue superscalar processor.  ...  Computer Architecture, pp. 66-77, Philadelphia, PA, 1996. 1 Introduction Advances in integrated circuit technology have fueled microproces- sor performance growth for the last fifteen years.  ... 
doi:10.1145/248208.237140 fatcat:haj7x4knvfeftdhte35vryl7ry

Advancements in Microprocessor Architecture for Ubiquitous AI—An Overview on History, Evolution, and Upcoming Challenges in AI Implementation

Fatima Hameed Khan, Muhammad Adeel Pasha, Shahid Masud
2021 Micromachines  
Since the 1990s, advancements in computer architecture and memory organization have enabled microprocessors to deliver much higher performance.  ...  The paper also discusses the upcoming trends in microprocessor architectures and how they will further propel the assimilation of AI in our daily lives.  ...  Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.  ... 
doi:10.3390/mi12060665 fatcat:edbpii37wfgnxamx76k42qldsq

A participant's perspective

R.G. Daniels
1996 IEEE Micro  
The "father" of the 6805 MCU relates his role in the history of the microprocessor.  ...  There are other existing works for true historians; for example, The Microprocessor: A Biography and Microprocessor Report's special issue, "Celebrating the 25th Anniversary of the Microprocessor."  ...  Special thanks go to Federico Faggin for beginning the beginning of the microprocessor age-and for inviting me to write this article.  ... 
doi:10.1109/40.546562 fatcat:sbbjxyuplbbvhmyenfgox6wd2q

Does Form Follow Function? An Empirical Exploration of the Impact of Deep Neural Network Architecture Design on Hardware-Specific Acceleration [article]

Saad Abbasi, Mohammad Javad Shafiee, Ellick Chan, Alexander Wong
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Furthermore, we conduct an in-depth exploration of the correlation between FLOPs requirement, level 3 cache efficacy, and network latency with increasing architectural depth and width.  ...  More specifically, we empirically study the impact of a variety of commonly used macro-architecture design patterns across different architectural depths through the lens of OpenVINO microprocessor-specific  ...  The PyTorch [25] microprocessor-specific accelerated models were executed with 32-bit floating point precision.  ... 
arXiv:2107.04144v1 fatcat:pqluydcz5rhpxm6pbu527nvaji
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