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Open Challenges for Probabilistic Measurement-Based Worst-Case Execution Time

Samuel Jimenez Gil, Iain Bate, George Lima, Luca Santinelli, Adriana Gogonel, Liliana Cucu-Grosjean
2017 IEEE Embedded Systems Letters  
The Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) is a critical parameter describing the largest value for the execution time of programs. Even though such a parameter is very hard to attain, it is essential as part of guaranteeing a real-time system meets its timing requirements. The complexity of modern hardware has increased the challenges of statically analysing the WCET and reduced the reliability of purely measured the WCET. This has led to the emergence of probabilistic WCETs (pWCETs) analysis as a
more » ... able technique. The low probability of appearance of large execution times of a program has motivated the utilization of rare events theory like Extreme Value Theory (EVT). As pWCET estimation based on EVT has matured as a discipline, a number of open challenges have become apparent when applying the existing approaches. Our paper enumerates key challenges while establishing a state of the art of EVT-based pWCET estimation methods.
doi:10.1109/les.2017.2712858 fatcat:koe2m7p5rrexdfzikliumx63ce

Measurement-based probabilistic timing analysis: Lessons from an integrated-modular avionics case study

Franck Wartel, Leonidas Kosmidis, Code Lo, Benoit Triquet, Eduardo Quinones, Jaume Abella, Adriana Gogonel, Andrea Baldovin, Enrico Mezzetti, Liliana Cucu, Tullio Vardanega, Francisco J. Cazorla
2013 2013 8th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems (SIES)  
Probabilistic Timing Analysis (PTA) in general and its measurement-based variant called MBPTA in particular can mitigate the problems that impair current worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis techniques. MBPTA can compute tight WCET bounds expressed as probabilistic exceedance functions, without needing much information on the hardware and software internals of the system. Classic WCET analysis needs detail information instead, which may be costly and difficult to provide, and turns its
more » ... nce into pessimism. Previous work has shown that MBPTA does well with benchmark programs. Real-world applications however place more demanding requirements on timing analysis than simple benchmarks. It is therefore interesting to see how PTA responds to them. This paper discusses the application of MBPTA to a real avionics system and presents the lessons learned in that process.
doi:10.1109/sies.2013.6601497 dblp:conf/sies/WartelKLTQAGBMCVC13 fatcat:gradwqhqungipeguymvmvbluuy

PROXIMA: Improving Measurement-Based Timing Analysis through Randomisation and Probabilistic Analysis

Francisco J. Cazorla, Jaume Abella, Jan Andersson, Tullio Vardanega, Francis Vatrinet, Iain Bate, Ian Broster, Mikel Azkarate-Askasua, Franck Wartel, Liliana Cucu, Fabrice Cros, Glenn Farrall (+15 others)
2016 2016 Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD)  
The use of increasingly complex hardware and software platforms in response to the ever rising performance demands of modern real-time systems complicates the verification and validation of their timing behaviour, which form a time-and-effort-intensive step of system qualification or certification. In this paper we relate the current state of practice in measurement-based timing analysis, the predominant choice for industrial developers, to the proceedings of the PROXIMA 1 project in that very
more » ... ield. We recall the difficulties that the shift towards more complex computing platforms causes in that regard. Then we discuss the probabilistic approach proposed by PROXIMA to overcome some of those limitations. We present the main principles behind the PROXIMA approach as well as the changes it requires at hardware or software level underneath the application. We also present the current status of the project against its overall goals, and highlight some of the principal confidence-building results achieved so far.
doi:10.1109/dsd.2016.22 dblp:conf/dsd/CazorlaAAVVBBAW16 fatcat:qidopagxeffazixbhtmmfaypxa

Aircraft Numerical "Twin": A Time Series Regression Competition

Adrien Pavao, Isabelle Guyon, Nachar Stephane, Fabrice Lebeau, Martin Ghienne, Ludovic Platon, Tristan Barbagelata, Pierre Escamilla, Sana Mzali, Meng Liao, Sylvain Lassonde, Antonin Braun (+19 others)
2021 2021 20th IEEE International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications (ICMLA)  
This paper presents the design and analysis of a data science competition on a problem of time series regression from aeronautics data. For the purpose of performing predictive maintenance, aviation companies seek to create aircraft "numerical twins", which are programs capable of accurately predicting strains at strategic positions in various body parts of the aircraft. Given a number of input parameters (sensor data) recorded in sequence during the flight, the competition participants had to
more » ... redict output values (gauges), also recorded sequentially during test flights, but not recorded during regular flights. The competition data included hundreds of complete flights. It was a code submission competition with complete blind testing of algorithms. The results indicate that such a problem can be effectively solved with gradient boosted trees, after preprocessing and feature engineering. Deep learning methods did not prove as efficient.
doi:10.1109/icmla52953.2021.00075 fatcat:ums54eyqqbajla266s7qlfp34a

Author Index

2021 2021 20th IEEE International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications (ICMLA)  
, Adriana Gokhale, Swapna Gomes, Bruno D.  ...  Gerych, Walter 345, Ghar, Shantanu Ghareh Mohammadi, Farid Ghienne, Martin Ghose, Kanad Ghosh, Sourav Gikunda, Patrick Kinyua Gillet, Denis Giovanni, Bacci Gloudemans, Derek Goebel, Randy Goel, Abhinav Gogonel  ... 
doi:10.1109/icmla52953.2021.00282 fatcat:2osrycztnfb2fcblenvb6bdqdq

Timing Analysis of an Avionics Case Study on Complex Hardware/Software Platforms

Franck Wartel, Leonidas Kosmidis, Adriana Gogonel, Andrea Baldovin, Zoe Stephenson, Benoit Triquet, Eduardo Quiñones, Code Lo, Enrico Mezzetti, Ian Broster, Jaume Abella, Liliana Cucu-Grosjean (+2 others)
2015 Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition (DATE), 2015   unpublished
Probabilistic Timing Analysis (PTA) in general and its measurement-based variant called MBPTA in particular have been shown to facilitate the estimation of the worst-case execution time (WCET). MBPTA relies on specific hardware and software support to randomise and/or upper bound a number of sources of execution time variation to drastically reduce the need for userprovided information, thus replacing uncertainty by probabilities. MBPTA has been proven effective for specific single-core
more » ... r designs. However, particular hardware features and multicores in general challenge MBPTA application in industrialquality developments. While solutions to those challenges have been proven on benchmarks, they have not been proven yet on real-world applications, whose timing analysis is far more challenging than that of simple benchmarks. This paper discusses the application of MBPTA to a real avionics system in the context of (1) software-only single-core solutions and (2) hardware-only multicore solutions with an ARINC 653 operating system.
doi:10.7873/date.2015.0189 fatcat:ntjszsa37ndfneeitq7kg6rbj4

Mixed Criticality on Multicore / Manycore Platforms (Dagstuhl Seminar 17131)

Liliana Cucu-Grosjean, Robert Davis, Sanjoy K. Baruah, Zoë Stephenson, Marc Herbstritt
2017 Dagstuhl Reports  
The ideas in this short paper were presented and discussed in an ad-hoc working group comprising Liliana Cucu-Grosjean, Adriana Gogonel, Cristian Maxim, Iain Bate, Philipa Conway, Zoe Stephenson, Alan  ... 
doi:10.4230/dagrep.7.3.70 dblp:journals/dagstuhl-reports/Cucu-GrosjeanDB17 fatcat:yfevcj3azre6rdce5dcdsacnz4

A framework for the evaluation of measurement-based timing analyses

Benjamin Lesage, David Griffin, Frank Soboczenski, Iain Bate, Robert I. Davis
2015 Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Real Time and Networks Systems - RTNS '15  
Acknowledgement The authors would like to thank Liliana Cucu-Grosjean and Adriana Gogonel from Inria Paris-Rocquencourt for their help in the implementation of the MBPTA analysis.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2834848.2834858 dblp:conf/rtns/LesageGSBD15 fatcat:3c7jcrt43nbttpun44jj2r57rm

Report from Dagstuhl Seminar 15121 Mixed Criticality on Multicore/Manycore Platforms 86 15121-Mixed Criticality on Multicore/Manycore Platforms

Sanjoy Baruah, Liliana Cucu-Grosjean, Robert Davis, Claire Maiza, Liliana Cucu-Grosjean, Robert Davis, Claire Maiza, Sanjoy Baruah, Sanjoy Baruah, Liliana Cucu-Grosjean, Robert Davis, Claire Maiza (+5 others)
Dagstuhl Reports   unpublished
Present: Arvind Easwaran, Zhishan Guo , Adriana Gogonel, Dorin Maxim, Sebastian Altmeyer, Yasmina Abdeddaim, Rob I. Davis, Liliana Cucu-Grosjean.  ...  How do we map criticalities to certification levels -a probabilistic attempt 4.10 Mapping cricalities to certification levels -a probabilistic attempt Liliana Cucu-Grosjean and Adriana Gogonel (INRIA,  ... 
fatcat:vcq3pksyfrh53ncx6r5rsxabyu

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Cristina Redaat, Laura Canranescu, Mara Gnuneerc -Redactor Gef, Mihaela Mrrttrt, Mlnotu
unpublished
Dacd ele preferd sd stea cu rniinile in gogonele 9i in detergenti, e treaba lor, nu le obligd nimeni gi se pling degeaba. Acum aud astfel de enunluri la multe femei.  ...  AUTOPORTRET 'Adriana Bdban: "Via{a sexualS a femeilor, o experienld traumatizantd in Romdnia socialistd", in volumul Cine suntem noi?, ed Maddlina Nicolaescu, Editura Anima, 1996.  ... 
fatcat:4yrxijttxbemxiqycreh5fkdfi

Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 5, Issue 3, March 2015, Complete Issue [article]

2015
Mapping cricalities to certification levels -a probabilistic attempt Liliana Cucu-Grosjean and Adriana Gogonel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ...  Report on Probabilistic Approaches Liliana Cucu-Grosjean Present: Arvind Easwaran, Zhishan Guo , Adriana Gogonel, Dorin Maxim, Sebastian Altmeyer, Yasmina Abdeddaim, Rob I.  ... 
doi:10.4230/dagrep.5.3 fatcat:frrv4bul5rhfhh3jo4hv5l5uoi

Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 7, Issue 3, March 2017, Complete Issue [article]

2017
Worst Case Execution Time measurement-based approach Liliana Cucu-Grosjean, Adriana Gogonel, and Cristian Maxim . . . . . . . . . . .  ... 
doi:10.4230/dagrep.7.3 fatcat:6vepxdlxhbh2bfcjq45gkxqboe